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Full text of "The general biographical dictionary : containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation ; particularly the British and Irish ; from the earliest accounts to the present time .."

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aioi.  e.  16.2- 





PHntcd  by  NfCHOLS,  50N»  and  B^iTLEYt 
IM  Uom  Pumgr^  Fkf  t  Stnttf  London. 















voL  XXVII. 







O  AA,  or  DE  SA  (Emanuel),  a  learned  Portuguese  Jesuit, 
was  born  in  ISSO^^at  Coode,  in  the  province  of  Douro,  and 
entered  tbe  society  ii^  1545,  After  the  usual  course  of 
studies,  he  taught  at  Coimbra,  Rome,  and  other  places^ 
and  was  considered  as  an  excellent  preacher  and  iQtt»rpra» 
ter  of  the  acriptures,  on  which  last  Recount  he  wts  em- 
ployed, by  pope  Pius  Y.  on  a  new  eclitiion  ^f  the  Bible.  He 
died  at  Arona,  in  the  MilanesOi  ;Bieci  ^^  in  the 

sixty'-sixth  year  of  his  age.  His'^nief  Wbflc^^^  :  <*  Scho- 
lia in  qtiatubr  Evang^lia,"  Antw^p  and 'Cdldg^',  1596,  4to; 
and  /*  Notatiooes  in  toum  sacrapgi^fSi^ipttiram^'*  &c.  Ant* 
werp,  1598,  4to;  reprinted,  with  bther  scholia,  or  notes, 
by  Mariana  and  Tinni*  Dupin  says,  that  of  all  the  Com* 
menlaries  upon  the  scriptures  fj^ere  is  nothing  more  con*, 
cise.and  useful  than  tbe  notes  of  our  author,  whose  sole 
object,  he  adds,  is  to  give  the  literal  sens&  in  a  few  words 
and  in  i^  intelligible  manner.  De  Sa  was  the  author  of 
another  work,; wfaich^  although  a. very  small  volume,  is 
said  to  have  employed  him  for  forty  years :  it  is  entitled 
*^  Aphorismi  Confessaribrum,"  printed  first  at  Venice,  1595, 
12mo,  avd  afterwards,  frequently  reprinted  in  various 
places.  Dupin  calls  it  a  moral  work ;  it  seems  rather  a  set 
of  rules  for  confessors  in  cases  of  conscience ;  and  Lavocat 
tells  us  it  contains  some  dangerous  positions  respecting 
bbth.ihQraU  aiid  the  authority  of  kings.  It  underwent  sa 
many  corrections  and  emendations  before  the  pope  would 
license  it^.that  it.  did  not  appear,  until  the  year  before  the. 
author  di^.  .The  French  trtnslatioos  of  it  have  many 
castrations.  >  , 

>  Antonio  Bibl.  HifjM^Aiegambe.-i*]>uptn.— 'Sforeri.— Saxii  OaomuU 

Vou  XXVII.  B 


SAADI.     See  SADI. 

SAADIAS-GAON,  or  Saadiad  the  Excellent,  a  learned 
rabbi,  the  chief  of  the  academy  of  the  Jews,  was  born  ac 
Pitbom  in  Egypt,  about  the  year  892.  In«the  year  927, 
he  was  iavited  by  David  Ben- Chair,  the  prince  of  the  cap- 
tivity^ to  preside  over  the  academy  at  Sora,  near  Babylon, 
where  one  of  his  first  objects  was  to  explode  the  doctrine 
of  the  transmigration  of  souls,  which  was  very  prevalent, 
ev^tt  among  the  Jews.  But  having  refused  to  dobscribe 
to  a  new  regulation,  which  appeared  to  him  to  be  repug* 
hant  to  the  Jewish  laws,  a  breach  arose  ^etween  David 
and  Saadias,  which-  after  some  years  was  made  up,  and 
Saadias  was  restored  to  his  professorship,  in  which  he  con- 
tinued with  great  reputation  tiU  his  death,  in  the  year  9M. 
H'lB  pviftcipal  works  wrtf  *'  Sepber  HaemUnah,"  or  a  trea- 
tise iConoerciing  the  Jewish  articles  of  faith,  in  ten  chap- 
ters ;  but  we  haw.  only  a  translation  of  it  from  the  or^kiftl 
Arabic  into  Hebrew,  which  was  printed  at  Coustautinople 
te  1647)  aird  uften  repritued.  *' A  Commentary  on  tbe 
Book' fezint,'^  print^d^  with  other  Commentaries  on  .tint 
book,  at  Mantua,  in  1502}  ^^ An  Arabic  tranalatioo  of  the 
iNrbole  Old  Te&tlUnetit^''  of  wJuch  the  Peolatsuch  is  inserted 
in  Jdiy'^  and  Walton's  Polyglottsi  accompaiMed  witii  the 
Laiin  veriion  of  Gabriel;  Siooitft;  *^  A^  Comtoentaryf  on  tbo 
Sodg  of  Songs/'  in  Hebrexi,  printed ,  at  Pragiie  in  I6i^^ 
4to ;  **  A  Commentary  on  Daniel/*  likewise  in  Hebrofr^ 
ioserfed  ki  the  great  robbinical  bibles  of  Venice  and  Basil ; 
'<  A  Commcnilaty  on  Jobi^'  in  Arabic^  the  MS*  of  irltteh 
is  in  tfa^  Bodleian  library  at  Oxford ;  and  a  contnieolary 
on  illicit  iiUiaaceS)  mentioiied  by  Aben  Efrau' 

SAAV^H^DRA.     See.CERVANT£S.  ^     « 

SAAVEDRA-FAXARDO  (Di«goj>b)«  afifnnisb  pdi- 
iieal  and  moral  writer,  was  born  May  6,  1584,  at  Algezares, 
in  the  kingdom  of  Murcia,  aud  studied  at  Sdamanca*  In 
I6M|  fad  went  to 'Rome  as  secretaFy  to^  the  caoNiinal  Gas- 
par  do  BorgtOy  who  was  appointed  Spanish  ambassador  to 
fbe  pdipe^  and  assistodin' the  coadavesof  1621  aiid  id'/S^ 
held  ftor  the  election  of  the  popes  Gregory  XVi  and  Ur«- 
bsa  VIIL  For  these  services  Saavodra  was  rewarded  witk 
a  cai»oiiry  in  the  church  of  St.  James,  although  ho  imd 
never  taken  pties^i  orders.  Spme^  time  after  he  was  m:p^ 
pointed  agent  from<  tbo  ootiru  of  8paia  «t  Aome^  and  his 

i  Moreri.<--StiaQS  Cri/t.  Hist. , 


•eondoctin  this  office  acquired  bin  general  esteeili.     In 
1636,  he  assisted   ai  the  electoral  congress   held   there, 
-i«  which  Ferdinand  III.  was  chosen  king  of  the  Romans. 
He  afterwards  was  present  at  eight  diets  held  in  Swisser- 
huid,  and  lastly  at  the  general  diet  of  the  empire  at  Ratis- 
booue,  where  he  appeared  in  quality  of  plenipotentiary  of 
the  circle  and  of  the  house  of  BurgUfidy.     After  being 
employed  in  some  other  diplomatic  aff.iirs,  he  returned 
to  Madrid  in  1646,  and  was  appointed  master  of  ceremo- 
nies in  the  introduction  of  ainhas^adors;  but  be  did  not  en- 
joy this  honour  longi^  as  he  died  Aug.  24,    1649.     In  his 
public  cliaracter  he  rendened  the  state  very  important  ser- 
Tices,  and,  as  a  writer,  is  ranked  among  those  who  have 
comributed  to  polish  and    enrich  the  Spanish  language. 
The  Spanish  critics,  who  place  him  among  theif  classics, 
say  be  wrote  Spanish  as  Tacitus  wrote  Latin.     He  has  lon^ 
b«Bn  known,  even  in  this  country,  by  his  ^<  Emblems,*' 
which  were  publislied  in  Q  vols    8vo,  in  the  early  part  of 
*tbe  last  ceatu|*y«     These  politico*moral  instructions  for  a 
Christian  prince,  were  first  printed  in  1640,  4to,  under  the 
title  of  '^  Idea  de  un  Principe  Politico  Christiano  repre- 
iBeotada  en  ciei»  empreiias,*' and  reprinted  at  Milan  in  1642 ; 
tbey  were  afterwards  translated  into  Latin,  and  published 
under  the  title   of  '*  Symbola  Christiano-*Palitica,*'    and 
liave  often  been  reprinted  inr  various  sizes  in  France,  Italy, 
and  Holland*    He  wrote  also  '*  Corona  Gotica,  Castellana, 
y  Anstriaca  politicamente  illustrada/^    1646,  4to,    which 
was  to  have  consisted  of  tliree  parts,  but  be  lived  to  com* 
plete  one  only  ;  the   rest  was  by  Nunez  de  Castro;  and 
**  Respdblica  Literaria,^'  published  in  1670,  8vo.     Of  this 
work  ao  English  translation  was  published  by  I.  E.  in  1727. 
It  IS  akiivAof  visipn,  giving  a  satirical  account  of  the  re« 
poblio  of  letters,  not  unlike  the  manner  of  Swift.     Tm 
French  bave  a  translation  of  it,  so  late  as  1770.  ^ 

SABATIER  (PETEif},  a.  learned  French  Benedictine, 
waa'born  at  Poictiers  in  1680,  aiid  died  at  Rbeims  March 
2^  1942.  He  spent  twenty  years  of  hi»  life  in  preparing  for 
the  preas  a  valuable  edition  df  all  the  Latin  vefsiot>s  of  the 
Soriptuyes,  collected  together,  and  united  in  one  point  of 
WW.  It  consists  of  three  volumes,  folio;  bat  he  lived 
only  to  pvint  one  volume ;  the  others  were  completed  by 
Ij9l  fUae,  ako  a  Benedictine  of  St.  Maur.    The  titl^  isr 

>  AfitMna  BiM.  Hof  • 
B  2 

4  SABA  f.I  E  R. 

*  V  Bibliorum  Sacrorum  Latins  Versiones  antiqucb  seii  Ve- 
tills  Italica,  et  cetera^  quscuinqMe  in  codicibiis  MSS.  et 
antiquoruoi  libris  reperiri  potuerudt,'*  Rheimls,  1743-— 
1749. »  * 

SABATIER  (Raphael  -  Bienvenu)^  a  very  en^ineftt 
French  surgeon,  was  born  at  Paris  in  October  .17329  and 
after  studying  tl^e,  acquired  the  first  rank  in  his  pro- 
fession,  and  jn  every  situation  which  he  filled,  his  know- 
ledge, skilly  an^  success,  were  equally  coilspicuous.  He 
.became  censor-royal  of  the  academy  of  sciences,  profes- 
sor and  dempn^rator  of  the  surgical  schools^  secretary  of 
correspondence,  surgeon*  major  of  the  hospital  of  invalids, 
and  a  member  of  the  institute.  His  education  had  been 
more  liberal  and  comprehensive  than  usual.  He  not  only 
was  an  excellent  Greek  and  Latin  scholar,  but  was  well 
acquainted  with  the  English,  Italiat),  and  German,  laor 
guages.  Besides  his  public  courses  of  lectures  on  ana- 
tomy, and  surgery,  he  instructed  many  private  pupils,  not 
only  of  his  own  country,  but  those  of  foreign  nations  who 
were  attracted  to  Paris  by  his  fame  as  a  teacher,  and  were 
delighted  with  his  unaffected  politeness  and  candour.  la 
bis  latter  days  Bonaparte  appointed  him  one^of  his  con- 
sulting surgeons,  and  be  was  one  of  the  first  on  whom  he 
bestowed  the  cross  of  the  legion  of  honour.  Sabatier  died 
at  Paris  July  21,  1811.  He  retained  his  faculties  to  the 
last,  but  we  are  told  became  ashamed  of  his  bodily  weak* 
ness.  ^/  Hide  me,^'  he  said  to  his  wife  knd  son,  '^  from 
the  world,  that  you  may  be  the  only  witnesses  of  this  de- 
cay to  which  I  must  submit/^  A  little  before  his  death  he 
said  to  his  son,  '*  Contentplate  the  state  into  which  I  am 
fallen,  and  learn  to  die.*'  His  humane  attention  to  his 
patients  was  a  distinguished  feature  in  his  character.  During 
any  painful  operation  be  used  to  say,  '^  Weep  ]  weep ! 
the  more  you  express  a  sense  of  your  sufferings,  the  more 
anxious  I  shall  be  to  shorten  them.*' 

His  works  are,  1.  ^^  Theses  anatomico-cbirurgicso,"  1748, 
4to.  2.  *^  De  variis  cataractam  extrahendi  modis,"  1759,' 
4to.  S.  An  edition  of  Verdier's  ^^  Abreg6  d'Anatomie,'* 
with  additions,  1768^  2  vols.  12mo.  4.  An  edition  of  La 
Motte's  "  Trait6  complet  de  Cbirurgie,"  which  .was.  fol« 
lowed  by  his  own,  5.  '*  Trait^  copaplet  d'Anatomie,"  1775. 
Of  this  a  thijrd  edition,  with  many  improvements,  appeared 

>  Diet.  Hi9t*'*'*3ttii  Ooonutt,  vol,  VIIL 


:    S  A  B  A  T  I  E  R.  ^ 

in,  1791,  3  vols.  8vb.  6.  "  De  la  Medieine.expdctativejV 
1796^  3  vols.  8vo.  7.  **  De  la  Medicine  operatoire,  ou 
Pes  Operations  de  Cbirurgie  qui  se  pratiquent  le  plus  fre- 
qaemment,"  .17^6,  3  vols/  8yo.  Besides  these  he  contri* 
buted  many  ^9say9  tp  the  medical  joornals.^ 

SABBA,'fBlIcfR  (Francis),  a  learned  French  writer,  was 
born  at  Condf>m^  Qc^  BB,  1735^  and  after  making  great 
proBciency  ^n  hi$  StM^es  atn'ong  the  fathers  of  the  oratory 
in  that  ci||^,  wieixt*  to*  Orleans,.  H^here  he  was  employed  ad 
^  private  tutor.  In  17i&2,  hewas.  i#viwl  to  the  college  of 
Chalons-sur-Marne;  wbeVe.  he*^auglit  the  third  and  fourth 
classea  for  sixteen  years,  which  gave  him  a  title  to  the  pen« 
sion  of  an  emeritus.  His  literary  re|)utation  took  its  rise 
principally  from  bis  esssay  on'  the  temporal  power  of  the 
popes,  which  gained  the  prize  of  the  academy  of  Prussia.^ 
He  was  then  about  twenty-.eigbt  years  old ;  but  had  before 
,this  ad()ressed  a  curious  paper  on  th.e  limits  of  the  empire 
of  Cbarlemagna  to  the  academy  of  Belles  Lettre3  at  Paris. 
He  was  the  principal  means  of  founding  the  academy  of 
Chalons,  procured  a  charter  for  it,  and  acted  as  secFe« 
tary  for  thirty  years.  Such  was  his  reputation  that  he  had 
the  honpur  to  correspond  with  some  of  the  royal  perso* 
nages  of  lurope,  and  was  in  particular  much  esteemed  by 
the  kingrs  of  Prussia  and  Sweden  ;  nor  was  he  less  in  fa- 
your  with  Choiseul,  the  French  minister,  who  encouraged 
bis  taste  for  study.  It  does  not  appear,  however,  that  his 
riches  increased  with  his  reputation,  Bg^  this  occasioned 
his  projecting  a  paper-manufactory  inirHolIani),  which  ended 
like  some  of  the  schemes  of  ingenious  men  ;  Sabbathier 
iii*as  ruined,  and  his  successors  mad^  a.fortune  He  died 
]^  a  village  near  Chalon,  March  11,  .1807,  in  his  seventy* 
second  year. 

..  He' publijshed,  1.  ^'Essai  historique-critique  sur  Pori- 
gine  de  la  puissance  temporelle  des  Papes,^^  Chalons,  1764^ 
}j2mOf  reprinted  the  following  year.  2.  "  Le  Manuel  des 
$nfans,V  ibid.  1769,'  ]2mo,  a  collection  of  maxims  frooi 
PiQtarcb*,s  li^i^es.  3.  '*  Recu^il  de  Dissertations  sur  divers 
sujets  de  Thistoircj  de  France,!'  ibid.  1778,  12mo.  4.  "Let 
Mcsurs,  cputumes  et  usages  d^s  anciens  peuples,  pouir 
sjsrvir  a  Peducation  de  la  jeunesse,'*  ibid.  1770,  3  toIs. 
12mo.  Of  this  entertaining  work,  a  trs^nslation  was  pub<* 
lished  in   1775,  2  vols.  8vo,    by  the  4ate  Rev.  Percival 

1  Dtct.  Hist.— Eby  Diet.  Hist,  cl«  U  Medieioe.        .  t 


Stockdale.  5.  ^' Dictionnaire  pour  IMntellig^ncedef  au« 
teurs  classiques  Grecs  et  Latins,  tant  sacr^s  (}ue  profanes, 
contenant  la  geographie,  i'histoire,  la  fable,  et  les  anti- 
^aitis,"  ibid.  1766 — li90,  36  vols.  8vo,  and  2  volumes  oF 
plates.  Voluminous  as  this  work  is,  the  troubles  which 
followed  the  reroluiion  obliged  the  author  to'leave  it'  in- 
complete ;  but  thfe  manuscript  of  the  concluding  volumes 
18  said  to  be  in  a  state  for  publicatidn.  It  is  lin  elaborate 
collection,  very  useful  for  consultsltion,  bqt  lK>t  always 
correct,  and  contftin^^  many  articles  which  increase  the 
bulk  rather  than  the  value.  A  jitdicious  selection,  it  is 
thought,  would  supersede  any  publication  of  the  kind  in 
France.'  % 

SABBATINI  (Andrea),  known  likewise  by  the  name 
of  Andrea  da  Salerno,  is  the  first  artist  that  deserves  no- 
tice, of  the  Neapolitan  school.  He  is  supposed  to  have 
been  born  about  1480.  Enamoured  of  the  style  of  Pietro 
Perugino,  who  had  painted  an  Assumption  of  the  Virgin 
in  the  dome  of  Naples,  he  set  out  for  Perugia  to  become 
bi«  pupil ;  but  hearifig  at  an  inn  on  the  road  some  painters 
txtol  the  works  of  Raphael  in  the  Vatican,  he  altered  his 
mind^  went  to  Rome,  and  ente^red  that  master^s  school. 
His  stay  there  was  short,  for  the  death  of  his  father  obliged 
him  to  return  borne  against  his  will  in  1513  ;  he  returned, 
However,  a  new  man.  It  is  said  that  he  painted  with  Ra- 
phael at  the  Pace,  and  in  the  Vatican,  and  that  he  copied 
Ills  pictures  well :' be  certainly  emulated  his  manner  with 
success.  Compared  with  his  fellow-scholars,  if  he  falls 
^ahortof  Julio,  he  soars  above  Raphael  del  Colle  and  idie 
sestoftbat  sphere.  He  had  correctness  and  selection  of 
attitUide  and  features,  <leptb  of  shade,  perhaps  too  mucb 
sharpness  in  the  marking  of  the  muscles,  a  broad  'st3^le  of 
folding  in  his  draperies,  and  a  colour  which  even  now 
mailitains  its  freshness.  ,  Of  his  numerous  works  at  Naples 
mentioned  in  the  catalogue  of  his  pictures,  the  altar- 
pieces  at  S.  Maria  delle  Grazie  deserve  perhaps  prefe- 
rence ;  for  his  fr^^^  scoes  there  and  elsewhere,  extolled  by 
the  writers  as  miracles  of  art,  are  now,  the  greater  part^ 
destroyed.  He  painted  likewise  at  Salerno,  Gaeta,  and 
other  places  of  the  kingdom,  for  churches  and  privitte  col- 
lections, where  his  Madcximas  often  rival  those  of  Raphael* 
This  disting4iisbed  artist  died  in  1545.  * 

1  Diet  Hist.  Sopfdemeiit.  *  Ptt^iDston  by  Faseti. 

«  A  B  B  A  T  I  N  I.  7 

SABBATINI  (LORBKZO),  called  Lorenzin  di  Bologna, 
was  one  of  the  most  genteel  and  most  delicate  painters  of 
bis  age.  He  has  been  often  mistaken  for  a  scholar  of  Ra^ 
pbael,  from  tfae  resemblance  of  his  Holy  Families  in  stjle 
of  design  and  colour  to  those  of  that  master,  though  the 
colour  be  always  weaker.  He  likewise  painted  Madonnas 
and  angels  in  cabinet-pictures,  which  seem  of  Parmigi- 
ano;  nor  are  bis  altar-pieces  different:  the  most  cele- 
brated is  that  of  S.  Michele  at  8.  Giacomo,  en^aved  by 
Agostino  Caracci^  and  recommended  to  his  school  as  a  mo- 
del of  griacefal  elegance.  He  excelled  in  fresco ;  correct 
in  design,  copious  in  invention,  equal  to  every  iubject^ 
and  yet,  what  surprises,  rapid.  Such  were  the  talents  (hat 
procured  him  employ,  not  only  in  many  patrician  fkmilies 
of  his  own  province,  but  a  call  to  Rome  under  the  pontifi- 
cate of  Gregorio  XIII.  where,  according  to  Baglion],,he 
pleased  much,  especially  in  his  naked  figures,  a  branch  he 
bad  not  much  cultivated  at  Bologna.  The  stories  of  St. 
Paul  in  the  Capella  Paolina,  Faith  triumphant  over  Infide* 
iity  in  the  Sala  regia,  and  various  other  subjects  in  the 
galleries  and  loggie  of  the  Vatican,  are  the  works  of  Sab- 
bad ni,  always  done  in  competition  with  tfae  best  masters, 
and  always -with  applause:  hence  among  the  great  con« 
dourse  of  masters  wbo  at  that  time  thronged  for  pnsce- 
dence  in  Rome,  he  was  selc^cted  to  superintend  the  dif- 
ferent departn^ents  of  the  Vatican  ;  in  which  o£Bce  he  died 
in  the  vigour  of  life,  1577.* 

SABELLICUS,  whose  proper  name  was  Marcus  Anto- 
Kius  Coccius,  or  vernacularly  Makcantonio  Coccio,  an 
Italian  historian  andxcritic,  was  born  in  1436,  in  the  cam-, 
pagna  of  Rome,  on  the  conSnes  of  the  ancient  country  of 
tbe  Sabines,  from  which  circumstance  he  took^the  name  of 
Sabellicus.  He  was  a  scholar  of  Pomponius  Lotus's,  and 
in  1475,  was  appointed  professor  of  eloquence  at  Udino,  to 
vrhii^h  office  he  was  likewise  appointed  at  Venice,  in  1484. 
8ome  time  after,  when  the  plague  obfiged  him  to  retire  to 
Verona,  he  composed,  within  the  space  of  fifteen  months^ 
his  Latin  history  of  Venice,  in  thirty- three  books,  which 
were  published  in  1467,  entitled  '<  Rerum  Venetiarum  ab 
urbe  cQudita,*'  folio,  a  most  beautiful  specimen  of  early 
printings  of  which  there  was  a  copy  on  vellum,  in  the  Pi- 
iielli  library.    Tfae  republic  of  Venice  was  so  pleased  with 

)  PilkiDgton  by  PoieK. 


-S  .        S:A  BELL  I  C  U  S.       • 

this  work' as  to  decree  the  author  a  pension  of  200sequip8 ; 
and  Sabellicus,  out  of  gratitude^  added  four  books  to  his 
history,  which,  however,  remain  in  manuscript.  He  pubr 
li^hed  also  "  A  Description  of  Venice,''  in  three  books ;  a 
.*^  Dialogi^e  on  the  Venetian  Magistrates;"  and  two  poems 
in  honour  of  the  republic.  The  most  considerable  of  his 
other  works  is  his  rhapsody  of  histories  :  **  Rhapsodiae  His* 
.tori^rum  Enneades,''  in  ten  Enneads,  each  containing  nine 
.books,  and  comprizing  a  general  history  from  the  crea- 
tion to  t^e  year  1503.  The  first  edition  published  at  Ve- 
.nice  in  1498,  folio,  contained  only  seven  Enneads ;  but  the 
second,  in  1504,;  had  the  addition  of  three  more,  bringing 
the  history  down  to  the  above  date.  Although  there  is 
little,  either  in  matter  or  manner,  to  recommend  this  work, 
or  many  others  of  its  kind,  to  a  modern  reader,^  it  brought 
.the  author  both  reward  and  reputation.  His  other  .worKs 
.are  discourses,  moral,  philosophical,  and.  historical,  with 
many  Latin  poems;  the  whole  printed /in  four  volumes, 
/olio,  at  Basil  in  15«0.  There  is  a  scarce  edition  of  his 
.**  EpistolsB  familiares,  necnon  Orationes  et  Poemata,*'  Ve-^ 
nice,  1502,  folio.  Sabellicus  likewise  wrote  commenta<f 
lies  on  Pliny  the  naturalist,  Valerius  -Maximus,  Livy,  Ho^ 
.jace,  Justin,  Florus,  and  some  other  classics, , which  are 
to  b^  found  in  Gruter's  **  Thesaurus.'*  He  died  at  Venice 
in  1506.  Whatever  reputatioQ  he  might  gain  by  his  history 
of  Venice,  he  .allows  himself  that  he  tOQ  often  made  use  of 
authors  on  whom,  not  much  reliance  was  to  be- placed  ;  and 
jt  is  certain  that  he  ciidnot  ixt  all  c^onsult,  or  seem  to  know 
the  existence^  of,  the  annals  of  the  doge  Andrew  Dan dolo, 
which,  furnish  the tmost  authentic,  as  well  as.  ancient,  ac* 
cpunt  of  the  early  tinges  .of  the  republic,/  ^ 

.  SABELLIUS,  a  Lybian,  known  in  Qi^^Iesiastical  history 
as  the  head  of  the  sect  called  Sabellians,i  lived  in  the  third 
century,  and  was  born  at  Ptolemais,  and  was  a  disciple  of 
Noetus.  He  reduced  the  three  persons  in  the  Trinity  to 
three  states,  or  relations,  or  rather  reduced  the  whole 
Trinity  to  the  one  person  of  the  Father;  making  the 
Word  and  Holy  Spirit  to  be  the  only  emanations  or 
functions  thereof.  Epiph^nius  tells  us,  that  the  God  of 
the  Sab^liians,  whom  they  called  the  Father,  resembled 
the  Son,,  and  was  ^l  fi)ere  subtraction,  whereof  the  Son  was 
the  illuminative  virtue  or  quality,  and  th^  Holy  Ghost  the 

1  Tirabotcbi.— GingueDc  Hist.  latt  d'lislie.^— Gen.  Diet. 

S  A  B  E  L  LI  US.  » 

Arming  virtue*  Thistect  had  many  folloi^eiii  iii  M«s6po« 
Ummin4  Rome;  but  th«ir  doctrines  are  so  obscurely  ex* 
pressed,  as-jtocrei^e- doubts  as  to  what  they  really  were;. 
JUSicertain;  boweveff  .tbat;t);iey'Mrere  cobdemned  by  the 
Tfioitiirians^  andtbereforeLiMrdner,  and  Fiis  followers,  seem 
pleased  to  add  Sabelliuii  to  the  scanty  list  of  Unitarians  of 
the  el^rly^ges. ' 

SABINUS  (Georqe),  whpse  family  name  was  Schalter, 
ones  of  the  best  Latin  poets  of  bis  time,  was.  bom*  in  the 
electorate  of  Brandenburg  in  150S;  and,  at  fifteen,*  sent 
to  Wittemberg^  where  be  was  privately  instructed  by 
JMelanctbon,  in  whose /honse  he  liyed.  He  had:  a  great 
ambition  to  excel ;  and  aa  enthusiastic  regard  for  what  was 
excellent,  especially  in  Latin  poetry ;  and  although  the 
specimens  he  studied  made  him  somewhat  diAdeot  of  his 
powers,  he  ventured  to  submit  to  rthe  puUso,  .in  his  twen- 
ty-second year,  a  poem;  emitted.  "  Res  GcstsD  Csetrarum 
Gemianorum,""  which  spread*  l)is  reputation  ail  over  Ger« 
many,  and  made  all  the  princes,  wko  had  any  regard  for 
polite  literature,  his  friends  apd ,  patrons*  Afterwards  he 
ti>avel}ed  into  Italy,  where  he  .contracted  an  acquaintance 
with -Bembiis  and.  other  leart)ed  men ;  and,  on  his  return 
vifited  Eraaoius  at  Fribucg,  when  that  great  man  was  in 
ihe  tast.s^ge  of  life.  In  l£|36>  he  married  Melancthon's 
eldest  daughter,  at.Wittembergv  to  whom  he^  was  engaged 
before  bjs  journey  into  Italy.  She  was  only  fourteen,  but 
very  handsome,  and  understood  Latin  well ;  and  Sabiiiua 
always  lived  happily  vvit'h  her:  but  he  had  several  alterca- 
tions with  Melancthon,  because  be  wanted  to  raise  himself 
to  civil  employments ;  and  did  not  relish  the  humility  of 
Afelanctbon,  who  confinlsd  himself  to  literary  pursuits,  and 
would  be  at  no  trouble  to  advance  bis  children.  This  mis- 
uodei^standing  occasioned  Sabinus  to  remove  into  Prussia 
in  1543,  with  his  wife,  who  afterwards  died  at  Konigsberg 
in  1.547.  }Ie  settled,  for  some,  little  time,.at  Francfort 
upon  the  Oder,  and  was  made  professor  of  the  belles  lettres 
)bythe  appointment  of  the  elector  of  Brandenburg;  and 
was  afterwards  promoted  to  be  rector  of  the  new  univer- 
sity of  Konigsberg,  which  was  opened  in  1544.:  .His  elo- 
quence and  learning  brought. him  to  the . knowledge  of 
Charges  Y,  who  ennobled,  him,  and  he  was  also  employed 
pti  sqme  embassies^  paiitipiilarly  by  the  elector  of  Bran- 

<  Lardaer*!  WoTlu.->Mo9bciin. 

10  S  A  B  I  N  U  S. 

denburg  into  Italy,  where  be  »eems  -to  have  contracfeid 
an  illness,  of  wbich  he  died  in  1560,  the  same  jreaV  in 
which  Meiancthon  died.  His  Latin  poeois  were  published 
at  Leipsic  in  1558  and  1597,  the  latter  with  additions  and 
letters.  He  published  some  other  works,  less  known, 
which  are  enumerated  by  Nicoron.* 

SACCHETTI  (Francis),  an  Italian  poet,  but  better 
kAown  as  a  writer  of  Oovels,  was  bom  at  Florer^ce  about 
1335,  of  an  ancient  family,  some  branches  of  which  had 
held  employments  of  great  trust  and  dignity  in  the  repub* 
lie.  While  «young  he  composed  some  amatory  verses,  in 
imitation  of  Petrarch,  but  with  a  turn  of  thought  anrd 
style  peculiar  to  bimself,  and  he  was  frequently  employed 
in  drawing  up  poetical  inscriptions  for  public  monuments^ 
&c.  in  which  sentiments  of  morality  and  a  love  of  liberty 
were  expected  to  be  introduced.  Some  of  these  are  stiU 
extant,  but  are  perhaps  more  to  be  praised  for  the  subject 
than  the  style.  Sacchetti,  when  more  advanced  in  life, 
filled  several  offices  of  the  magistracy  both  at  Florence  and 
different  parts  of  Tuscany,  and  formed  an  acquaintance 
with  the  most  eminent  men  of  his  time,  by  whom  he  was 
highly  respected.  He  suffered  much,  however,  during 
the  civil  contests  of  his  country.  He  is  supposed  to  have 
died  about  the  beginning  of  the  fifteenth  century.  Verf 
litrie  of  his  poetry  has  been  published.  He  is  principally 
ktiown  by  his  "  Navels,*'  an  excellent  edition  of  which 
was  published  at  Florence  in  1724,  2  vols.  8vo,  by  Bottari^ 
wj^  has  prefixed  an  account  of  his  life.  These  tales  are 
in  the  manner  of  Boccaccio^  but  shorter,  more  lively,  and 
in  general  more  decent.  * 

8ACCHI  (Anbrea),  an  illustrious  Italian  painter,  tbe 
son  of  a  paioter,  was  h6ri\  at  Rome  in  1601,  or  as  some 
writers  say,  in  1594.  He  learned  tbe  principles  of  his  art 
under  bis  father,  but  became  afterwards  the  disciple  of 
Francesco  Albaoo,  and  made  such  advances,  4hat,  under 
twelve  years  of  age,  he  carried  the  prize,  in  the  academy 
of  St  Luke,  from  all  his  mucb  older  competitors.  With 
this  badge  of  hofiour,  tbey  gave  him  the  nickname  of  An- 
drenccio,  to  denote  the  diminutive  figure  he  then  made> 
being  a  boy ;  and  which  he  long  retained.  His  appUcatioa 
to  the  works  of  Polidoro  da  Caravaggio  and  Raphael,  and 
tbe  antique  marbles^  together  with  his  studies  under  Albanpj 


1  Kiceron,  Tof.  XXVI.-— Metdiior  Adam.-«Saxii  Onomast. 
'  Ginguene  Hist  Lit  d'ltalie.— Moreri. 

S  A  C  C  H  L  U 

naihh  copying  zfter  Caneggioj  and  ocbers,  the  best 
Lombard  masters,  wt^e  the  several  steps  ^by  vrhieb  he 
ratsed  himseif  tp  extraordinary  perfection  in  historical  cona*- 
position:  The  tht^e  first  gave  him  his  correctness  and 
elegance  ^f  design ;  and  the  last  made  him  the  best 
colonrist  of  ail  the  Roman  school.  His  works  are  not  very 
DQinerous,  owing  to  the  infirmities  which  attended  his  latter 
years^  and  especially  the  gout,  which  occasioned  frequent 
and  long  inlerniptions  to  his  labours.  He  was  likewise 
slow  and  fasttdioas,  and  wished  to  rest  his  feme  more  npon 
the  quality  than  qiiAntity  of  his  performances.  His  first 
patrons  were  the  eardtnals  Antonio  Barberini  and  del 
Mone,  tht'  protector  of  ike  academy  of  painting.  He  be-* 
came  afterwards  a  great  favourite  of  lirban  VHi.  asid  drew 
an  admirable  portrait  of  him.  Several  of  the  public  edi- 
fices at  Rome  are  emfoeliisbed  with  his  works,  some  of 
which  have  been  ranked  among  the  most  admired  produc- 
tions of  art  in  that  capital.  Such  are  his  eelefofated  picture 
of  tbe  Death  of  St.  Anne,  in  the  chtirch  of  S.  Carlo  a  Ca- 
tinari ;  the  Angei  appearing  to  St.  Joseph,  the  priaetpal 
aitar«piece  in  S.  Giuseppe  k  Capo  le  Case ;  and  his  St. 
Andrea^  in  the  Quirinai.  Btit  his  most  dtstitrguished  per-* 
formance  is  his  famous  picture  of  S.;Rodiualdo,  foimefrly  in 
the  church  dedicated  to  that  saint,  no^  in  the  galtery  of 
the  Louvre.  This  adniirable  production  was  considered 
one  of  the  four  finest  pictures  at  Rome,  where  Saechi  died 
in  1^68.  ^ 

SACCHINl  (Anthony-Maria-Oaspar),  a  very  distin^ 
gnished  musician  in  the  last  century,  wals  born  at  Naples 
May  11,  1735,  according  to  one  account,  but  E)r.  Burney 
says  1727.  He  was  educated  in  the  conservatorio  of  St. 
Onofrio,  under  Durante,  and  ikiade  rapid  progress  in  the 
sciencoi  attaching  himseif  principally  to  the  vioHh,  on 
which  he  became  a  most  accomplished  performer.  He 
afterwards  resided  at  Rome  eight  years ;  and  at  Veoice, 
where  he  remained  four  years,  he  was  appointed. master 
of  the  conservatorio  of  the  Ospidaletto.  It  was  here  where 
be  first  composted  for  tftie  church,  but  always  kept  his  sa« 
cred  and  secular  style  of  composition  separate  and  distinct. 
His  ecdestastical  compositions  are  not  only  learned,  solemn, 
and  abounding  with  fine  effects,  but  clothed  in  the  richest 
and  most  pure  harmony. 

*  ArgcBviUe,  vsl.  {^— Pilkii^stcNi. 

if  SA:€CHINL 

r  His  reputatioD  ihcneasirig,  he  visited,  by  invitatioii,  sdme 
of  the  couru(  of  Germany,  «nci  among  others  those  of 
Brunswick  and  Wittemberg,  where  he  succeeded  the  ce^ 
l^hrate^d  Jomelli ;  >nd  after  having  composed  for  all  the 
{[reat  theatres  in  Italy  and  Germany  ,with  increasing 'SUC* 
cess,  he  came  to  England  in  1772,  and  here  supported  the 
high  reputation  he  had  acquired { on -the  continent.  His 
operas  of  the  "  Cid'*  and  *.' Tamerlano"  were' equal,  says 
•Dr.  Bumey,  if  not  superior,  to  any  musical  dramas  we 
jhaye^  heard  in  any  part  of  .Europe..  ^Ue  remained,  however^ 
top; long  in  England  for  his.  fame  au#  fortune.  The  first 
>vas  injured  by  cabals,  and  by  what  ought  to  have  increased 
it,  the  number  of  his  works  ;  and  the  second  by  inactivity 
and  want  of  economNpt^ 

.  He  refused  several  engagements  which  were  offered  him 
from  Russia,  Poriugal,  and  even  France,  but  this  last  he 
9t  length  accept«d,trini  hopes  t>f  an  establishment  for  life* 
Accordingly  he  went  thither  in  IJS  h,  but  it  is  manifest  in 
the  operas  that  he  composed  for  Paris,  .that  he  wprjked  for, 
singers  of  me^u  abilities;  which,  besides  the  airs  being' 
set  to  French:  words,  prevented  their  circulation  in  the  rest 
pf  Europe,  which  his  other  vocal. productions  in  i^is  own 
language  had  coustantly  done.  At  Paris,  however,  he  was 
al/nost  adored,  but  returned  the  following  year  to  London, 
where  he  only  augmented  his  debts  and  embarrassments ; 
^o  tb^t,  in  1794,  h^  took,  a  final  leave  of  this  country^  and 
settled  at  Paris,  where  he  not  only  obtained  a  pension 
from  the  queen  of  France^  but  the,  theatrical  pension,  in 
^risequeoce  of  three  successful  pieces,  r  This  graceful, 
eiegaut,  and  judicious  composer  died,  at  Paris,  October  8^ 

A786»  *       .  •,  .  .  .  .    .      ;     - 

■  All  Sacchini'fl  pperas^re  jreplete  with  elegant  air^,  beau-* 
t^ful  accompanied  recitatives, .  and  orchestriil  effects,  with^ 
out  the  lea&t  ap|p<^^rance  of  labour  or  study.  It  was  seem-^ 
ipgly  hy  ^m^^  iiieans  tha^  he  produced  the  greatest 
efi'ects.  He  intei:e$ted  the  audience  more  by  a  happy, 
graceful,  and  toujching  melodj^  than  by  a  laboured  and 
extraneous*  ododulationi  His  accoqipaniments  always  briU 
Ijant  and.  ingenif):us,  without  being  loaded  and  confpsed, 
assist  the.  expression  of  the  vocal  part,  and  are  often  pic* 
turesque.  Each  of  the  dniipas  he  composed  in  this  country 
was  so  entire,  so  masterly,  yet  so. new  and  natural,  that< 
there  was  nothing  left  for  criticism  to  censure,  though  in- 
numerablp  beauties*  to  point  but  and  admire.     He  had  a 

S  A  C  C  H  I  N  I.  13 

taste  so  exquisite,  and  so,  totally  iree  from  pedantry,  that 
hi»  Wiis .  frequently  new  without  effort ;  never  thinking  of 
himself  or. bis  fame  for-aiiy.  pai!tic(iiiir  excellence,  but 
totally  occupied  with  tbe^  ideas  of  the  poet,  and  the  pro- 
priety, -oonsistency,  and  effect  of  the-  whole  drama.  His 
accompaniments,  though  always  rich  and  ingenious,  nevet* 
call  off  attention  from  the  voice,  but  by  a  constant  ^mw^'- 
;Miri?7i(y,  the  principal  melody  is  rendered  distinguishable 
through  all. the  contrivance  of  imitative  and  picturesque 
design  in  the  instruments. 

Sacchini's  private  character  was  that  of  a  generous  and 
benevolent  roan,  somewhat  too  imprudent  in  the  indul- 
gence o/  charitable  feelings,  but  a  steady  friend,  an  af- 
fectionate relation,  and  a  kind  master.* 

SACCHINl  (Francis),  a  celebrated  Jesuit,  was  born  in 
1570,  in  the.  diocese  of  Perugia.  He  was  professor  of 
rhetonc  at  Rome  during  several  years,  and  secretary  to 
his  general,  Vitelleschi,  seven  years.  He  died  December 
26,  1625/ aged  55.  His  princijpal  works  are;  "A  Conti- 
nuation of  the  History  of  the  Jesuits*  Society,''  begun  by 
Orlandino.  Of  this  Saodhini  wrote  the  2d,  3d,  4th,  and 
^th  partner  volumes,  fol.  1620 — 1661.  An  addition  to 
the  fifth  part  was  made  by  Jouvency,  and  the  whole  com- 
pleted by  JuUiis  Cordara.  Perfect  copies  are  very  rarely 
to  be  met  with.  Sacchini  was  also  the  author  of  a-  small 
hook  judiciously  written  and  much  esteemed,  entitled  <<  D^ 
ratione.  Libros  cum  profectu  legendi,''  l2mo,  at  the  end 
of  which/ is  a  discourse,  ^*  De  vitandft  Librorum  moribus 
noxiorum>  lectione,''  which  ^fadier  Sacchini  delivered  at 
Rome  in  his  rhetorical  school  in  1603.*  • 

SACHEVERELL  (Henay),  D.  D.  a  man  whose  his- 
tory  affo^d^  a  very  striking  example  of  the  folly  of  party 
spirit,  was  the  son  of  Joshua  Sacheverell  of  Marlborough, 
clerk,  who  died  rector  of  St.  Peter's  church  in  Marlbd- 
rougby  leaving  a  numerous  family  iu  very  low  circumstan- 
ces* By  a  letter  to  him  his  uncle^  in  1711,  it  ap-' 
pears  thaa;  ha  bad  a  birother- oarmed  Thomas,  and  a  sister 
Susannah.  Henry  was  pat  to  school  at  M^rlborouo-b,  at 
the. charge  of  Mr.  .Edward  Hetfrst,  ;an  apothecary,  who, 
being  his  godfattier,.  adopted  him  as  bis  son.  Hearst's 
widow  put;  him  afterwards  to  Magdalen-cc^Uege,  Oxford,' 

'  Buriiey's  His».  of  Music. — and  inRees*]i  Cyclppeidia.— -IJlcU  Hi»U 
•  Mown,- Pici.  Hist.'  ^ 

14  S  A  C  H  E  V  E  R  E  L  L. 

where  be  became  demy  in  1687,  at;  tbe  age  of  15.  Hei^ 
be  soon  distinguifibed  himself  by  a  regular  observation'  of 
the  duties  of  the  booa^,  by  his  compositions,  *  good  mao- 
ners,  and  genteel  behaviour;  qualifications  which  recom- 
mended him  to  that  society,  of  which,  he  became  felh>w, 
and,  as  public  tutor,  had  the  clireof  the  education  of  most 
of  the  young  gentlemen  of  quality  and  fortune  that  were 
admitted  of  the  college.  In  this  station  he  had  the  care  of 
the  education  of  a  great  many  persons  eminent  for  their 
learning  and  abilities ;  and  avas  contemporary  and  ciiamber- 
fellow  with  Addison,  and  one  of  his  chief  intimates  till  the 
time  of  his  famous  trial.  Mr.  Addisou's  ^^  Account  of  the 
greatest  English  Poets,"  dated  April  4,  1694,  in  a  £are* 
welUpoem  to  the  Muses- on  his  intending  to  enter  into 
holy  orders,  was  inscribed  "to  Mr.  Henry  Sacheyerell,'* 
his  then  dearest  friend  and  colleague.  Much  has  been  said 
by  Sacheverell's  enemies  of  his  ingmtixude  to  his.  relations^ 
and  of  his  turbulent  behaviour  at  Oxford ;  but  these  appear 
to  have  been  groundless  calumnies^  circulated  only  by  the 
spirit  of  patty.  In  bis  youiigeryeara  he  wrote  some  excellent 
Latin  poems,  besides  several  in  the  second  and  third  vo* 
lumesof  the  ^^  MufSB  A«glicanas,*'  ascribed  to  bit  pupils^ 
and  there  is  a  good  .one  of  some  length  in  the  second  vo- 
lume, under  bis  own  name  (transcribed  from  the  Oxford 
coUeation,  on  queen  Mary's  deaths  1605).  He  took  the 
degree  of  M.  A.  May  16,  1696;  B.  D.  Feb.  4,  1707;  D.D. 
July  1,  1703«  His  6rst  preferment  was  Cannock,  or  Cank, 
|n  the  county  of  Stafford.  He  was  appoioted  preacher  of 
St.  Saviour's,  Southwark,  in  1705;  and  while  in  this  sta«» 
tion  preached  his^  famous  sermons  (at  Derby,  Aug.  14^ 
170^;  and  at  St.*Pifiirs,  Nov.  9,  in  the  same  year) ;  and 
in  one  of  them  was  supposed  to  point  at  lord  Godolpbin, 
under  the  name  of  Volpone.  It  has  been  stiggeated,.  that 
to  this  circumstance,  as  much- as  to  the  doctrines  contained 
ip  his  sermons,  ,he  was^  indebted  for  his  prosecution,  and 
eventually  for  his  preferment.  Being  impeached  by  the 
House  of  Commons,  bis  trial  beg^n  Feb.  27,  1709.- 10^ 
and  continued  until  the  23d  of  March :  when  he  was  sen* 
tenced  to  a  suspension  from  preaching  for  three  years,  aud 
his  two  sermons  ordered  to  be  burnt.  This  prosecution^ 
however^  overthrew  the  ministry,  and  laid  the  fcmndation 
of  his  fortune.  To  sir  Simon  Harcourt,  who  was  counsel 
for  him,  he  presented  a  silver  bason  gilt,  with  an  elegant 
inscriptiooy    written  probably  by  his    friend  Dr.  Atter- 

,  S  A  C  H  E  V  E  R  E  L  L.  15 


bury*.  Dr.  SacbeYerell»  diiring  h»  Mispeasion,  mftde  a  iunili 
of  triumphal  progress  through  various  paru  yf  the  king^loia; 
during  which   period  he   was  collated   to  a  living  near 
Shrewsbury ;  and,  in  the  same  month  that  hi^  suspension 
^^ded,  bad  the  valuable  rectory  of  St.  And#sw.^s»  Uolborn^ 
fxma  him  bjPthe  queenf  April  13^  17 13.     At  that  time  his 
reputation  was  so  higb^  that  he  was  enabled  to  sell  the  (irsit 
■sermon  preached  after  his  sentence  expired  (on  Palm  Suo- 
day)  for  the  sum  of  lOQ/.;  and  upwards  of  40^000  copies, 
it  is  laid,  were  soon  sold«     We  find  by  Swift's  Journal  to 
Stella,  Jan.  22,  1711-12,  that  he  bad  also  interest  enough 
with  the  ministry  te  provide  very  amply  for  one  of  his 
brothers;  yet,  as  the  deaa  had  said  beffre^  Aug«  24,  i7ii« 
^Vthey  hated  and  affected  to  despise  bim«*'     A  consider- 
able estate  at  Callow  in  Derbyshire  was  soon  after  left  to 
lam  1>y  bis  kinsman  George  Sacheverelli  esq»     In  17  f 6, 
be  prefixed  a  dedication  to  **  Fifteen  Discourses,  ocoasioa- 
ally  delivered   before  the  university  o^  Oxford,  by   W. 
Adams,  M.  A.  late  student  of  Christ-church,  and  r^^or  of 
Staunton  upon  Wye,  in  Oxfordshire.'*     After  this  publi- 
cation, we  bear  jitUiiiof  bioiy  exoept  hy  quarrels  with  bk  * 
parishioners.     Hm  died  June  S^  1724 ;  and,  by  his  w31, 
bequeathed  to  Bp.  Atterbury,  then  iu  ei^iie,  who  was  sup- 
PQsed  to  have  penned  for  him  the  defence  be  made  beforfe 
the  House  of  Peers  f,  the  sum  of  500.    The  duchess  of 

'          ♦  «« Xiro  honoratissimo,  «f  Tbi94»peech,  whea  originally  pub- 

^      Vmterii  Juris  oracufo,  lished,  was  tho^  acMressed,  *<  To  the 

£celesia  &  Regni  presidio  fc  Lords  Sptrittt&l  and  TemfKM-al  io  M^. 

oroamento,  liaoient  assembled : 

SiMO!fi  HAKCotftf,  Eqaiti  AUrafo,  Maj^  it  please  your  Lordships, 

'  «M0gtMB  Biitamiiis  Sisiii  Migbi  It  Satli  bien  my  ftani-  forttine  to  ht 

.  $,                  fipstodi,  misHunderstood*  at  a  ttme  wben  I  en- 

^i  Serenissimse  Keginas  h  Secretioribus     deavoured  to  express  myself  wiih  the 

'      '        cdnsiliis;  utmost  ptaidoess ;  even  th&  defence  I 

ob  oavMim  oie^in,  ebiaai  S^Ilremo  made  at  your  Lotdsbips*  d*r,  hi  Htstp^ 

Senatu,  of  cieat  iog  the  innocence  of  my  hear^ 

in  Aula  Westmonasteriensi,       |  tiaih  been  grievously  misrepresented. 

.    ii^riosa  cam  faoandia  ?<!#  which  reasbn  I  have  hombly  ptt" 

tf,  sabacta  legim  scientia,  sumed  to  offer  it  in  this  manner  to  your 

benign^  &  coustanter  defensam  ;  Lordships*  perusal.     My  (x>rds,  these 

«b  pri>cam  EcdesTie  doctrinam,      "Cftre  the  >f6ry  t^ortTs  f  spake  to  your 

JHviu)andaiii  Legum  vim,  .  Lordships,     t  hope  tifey  are  fo  plain 

piam  Subditorum  tidem,  sn^  express,,  as  not  to  be  capable  of 

et  sacTOsancta  Le^nnf  jifra,\   ^  any  miscons'triiction :    and  may  l  so 

'  eontn  wfarios  PerdMiitim  iit^us  find  tkercy  dt  the  lHfea<l«  «f  God  as  they' 

,               feliciter  ▼inoicata  |^  yre  in  e-^ery  refpeet  ep^irely  agreeabU 

Votiviim  hoc  Mi^nusculipm  to  my  thoughts  and  principles  !     lam, 

Ciratitudinis  ergo  my  Lords,  your  Lordships'  most  obe- 

Jp.  D.^0.  '    dient  aud  most  dutiful  servant, 

Aimo  Saluiis  mdccx.'* 

16  S  A  C  H  E  V  E  ft  £  L  L. 

Marlborough  describes  Sacheverell  as  ^*  an  ignorant  iaipit<>^ 
dent  incendiary ;  a  man  who  Hias  the  scorn  even  of  those 
who  made  use  of  him  as  a  too];"  And  Bp.  Burnet  says^ 
^*  He  was  a  bold  insolent  man,  with  a  very  stn#ll  measure 
of  religion,  mtue,  learning,  or  good  sens^;  but  he  re- 
solved to  force  himself  into  popularity  and  preferment,^  by 
the  most  petulant  railings  at  dissenters'  and  low-church, 
men,  in  several  sermons  and  libels,  written  without  either 
cha^teness  of  style  or  liv^eliness  of  expression."  Whs^ever 
bis  character,  it  is  evident  that  he  owed  every  thing  to  an 
injudicious  prosecution, 'which' defeated  the  purposes  of 
those  who  instituted  it,  and  for  mttny  years '  continued 
those  prejudices  in  the  public*  mind,  which  a  wiser  ad- 
ministration would  have  beeif  ^ivxious  to  dispel. '   ' 

SACKVILLE  (Thomas),  lord  Buckhurst  and  egrl  of 
Dbrset,  an  eminent  statesman  and  p6et,  was  born  at  Withy • 
am  in  Sussex,  in  1527.  He  'was 'the  son  of  sir  Richard 
Sackville,  who  d^ed  in  1566,  by  Wihifred  Brydges  (after- 
wardi  harchioness  of  Winchester),  and  grandson  of  John 
Sackville^  esq.  who  died  in  1557,  by  Anne  Boleyne,  sister 
df  sir  Thomas  Boleyne,  earl  (^  Wiltshire ;  and  great  grand- 
son of  Richard  Sadcville,  esq.  who  died  iH  1524,  by  Isabel|^ 
daughter  of  John  Digges,  of  Digges^s  place  In  Barbam, 
Kent,  ofafatmily  which  for  many  succeeding  geneimtions 
prodiyed  men  of  learning  and  genius.  He  was  first  of  th6 
university  of  Oxford,  and^  as  it  is  supposed^  of  Hart-hall, 
now  Hertford-college  ;  but  taking  no  degree  there,  he#e-  - 
moved  lo  Cambridge,  where  he  commenced  master  of  art9, 
and  afterwards  was  a  student  of  the  Inner.  Temple.  At 
both  universities  he  became  celebrated  both  as  a  Latin  and 
English  poet,  and  carried  the  same  taste  and  Clients  to  tfc^ 
Temple,  where  he  wrote  his  tragedy  of  "  Gorboduc,"  ^icb 
was  exhibited  in  the  great  hall  by  the  students  of  that  so- 
ciety, as  part  of  a  Christmas  entertainment,  and  afterwards 
before  queen  Elizabeth  n  Whitehall,  Jatu  J  8,  1561.  It 
was  surreptitiously  printed  in  1563,  utider  the  title  of 
'^  The  Tragedy  of  Gorbodui^'  4to;  but  a  correct  edition 
under  the  inspection  of  the  authors  (for  he  was  assisted  by- 
Thomas  Norton),  appeared  in  1571,  entitled  "TheTra- 
gedie  of  Ferrex  and  Porrex.''  Another  i^ition  appeared 
in  1569,  notwithstanding  wfaicb,  for  many  years  it  had  so  • 

*  OeDt.   Mag.    s«6  Index.— ^Swift's  Works.— Ra pin's  Hist — Burnetii  Owa 
Timst.— TatkKy  Sp<(ctalorj  and  Guardiao,  wilhaotes,  «dit.  1806.— &c.  &c.    * 

SACJtVtLtfi*  iff 

!lS4#){>letely  di^ppeare^  that  Dry<ten  «kfid  OldbMtf  in  the 
jteign  of  Cjb^rleft  II.  do  not  !»ppear  U>  have  seen  it,  though 
tb#y  pr^eii4ed  to  criticise  it ;  and  even  Wood  knew  juat 
as  little  of  it,  as  is  plain  from  bis  telling  us  that  it  was 
/^Hten  ia  W  Snglisb  rhyme.  Pope  took  a  fancy  to  re^^ 
iri^kve  thi»  pJay  from  oblivioB,  and  Spence  being  employed 
p9  ffit  it  p|P  with  aili  poasibte  advantage,  ii  was  prjuted 
f^mp/Ofifily  in  1736^  ^vo^with  a  preface  by  the  editor. 
Sp«fioe^  9pea|(i;ii^g  of  hisllordabip  as  apoet,  declares,  that 
**  the dawQ'Of  our  English  poetry  was  in  Chancer^s  time, 
(but  that  it  aboiue  out  la  him  too  bright  all  titonee  to  liaat 
iwg..  The  succeeding  age  was  dark  and  OTercaat.  There 
'W9i»  indeed  some  igUmmeriAgs  of  genius  again  in  tienrjr 
Ylirs  timi^ ;  but  Dur  poetry  had  never  what  <ioald  be  cailed 
ik  fairtaettl€)d  day-light  till  towards  the  end  of  queen  Mi^A* 
betth^s  ceign.  .  It  wa»  between  these  two  periods^  that  lord 
-Buokhur^t  wrote;  ^fter.  the  earl  of  Surrey,  and  before 
.Spoasen''  ]SMartan*s  opinion  of  this  tragedy  is  not  very 
faiioufdble.  -  He  thinks  it  neirer  was  a  favourite  with  our 
ajioestors*  and  fell  iilto  oblivion  On  account  of  the  naked- 
(Oesrsapd  juninterestmg  nature  of  the  plot,  the  tedioiis 
ieogth  0i  the  speeches,  the  want  of  discrimination  of  char 
Iraciber,  and  almost  a  total,  absence  of  pathetic  or  critidal 
«tualioBs.  ¥iet  he  allows  that  the  language  of  "  Gorbo- 
iliic'^  has  giseat  merit  and  perspicuity,  and  that  it  is  en-^ 
titely  Iree  {cojm  the  tumid  phraseology  of  a  aubseqUent  age 

iSadLviJile  is  said  by  Warton  to  bate  bei^n  the  inventor 
aad  principal,  contributor  to  that  celebrated  collection  of 
hiitorlcal  legends,  entitled  **  The  Mirror  for  Magistrates,** 
fmt  edil»d  in  J  559  by  William  Baldwin  ;  but  sir  Egei^ton 
firydges.  ithinks  there  is  some  reason  to  doubt  this,  as 
SackvalWs  ^*  Induction,'^  ^nd  "  Legend  of  the  duke  of 
fittf^Dgbam,'*  did  not  appear  appended  to  that  work  till 
the  second  edition  in  1563.  The  reader^  howev^,  haa 
now  an  oppoitiwiily  of  examining  the  evidence  on  this 
point  in  the  v^ry  accurate  andsplendid  edition  of  this  wotit 
just  pnbliahed  by  loseph  Haslewood,  esq.  It  is  allowed 
that  Sackville's  share  exceeds  in  dignity  and  genius  all  th€ 
other  contributions  to  the  work.  The  *•  Induction**  con- 
tains some  of  the  finest  strains  of  English  poetry,  and  some 
of  the  most  magnificent  personifications  of  abstract  ideas  in 
Qur  language ;  exceeding  Spenser  in  dignity,  and  not  short 
ef  him  in  brilliance  $  and*  the  <<  Complaint  of  Henry  duke 


18  «  A  C  K  V  I  t  L  E. 

of  Buckinghaim'*  is  written,  says  Warton,  with  a  force  andf 
even  elegance  of  expression,  a  copiousness  of  phraseology, 
and  an  exactness  pf  versification,  not  to  be  foiind  in  any 
other  part  of  the  collection. 

Having  by  these  productions  established  the  reputations 
of  being  the  best  poet  in  bis  time,  he  laid  down  his  pen^ 
and  assumed  the  character  of  the  statesman,  in  which  he 
also  became  very  emin^ent.     He  found  leisure,  however, 
to  make  the  tour  of  France  and  Ilaly ;  a^nd  was  on  somd 
account  or  other  in  prison  at  Rome,  wh^n  the  news  arrived 
of  his  father  sir  Richard  Saekville's  death' iti  1566.     Upon 
this,  he  obtained  his  release,  returned  home,  entered  inta 
the  possession  of  a  vast  inheritance,  and  soon  after  waa^ 
prompted  to  the  peerage  by  the  title  of  lord  Buckhurst. 
He  enjoyed  this  accession  of  honour  and  fortune  too  libe* 
rally  for  a  while,  but  soon  saw  his  error.     Some  attribute 
his  being  reclaimed  to  the  quejti,  but  others  say,  that  the 
indignity   of  being  kept  in  waiting  by  an  alderman,  of 
whom  he  bad  occasion  to  borrow  money,  made  so  deep  an 
impression  on  him,  that  he  resolved  from  that  moment  to 
be  an  oeconomist.     By  the  queen  he  was  received  into 
particular  favour,  and  employed  in  many  very  important 
affairs.     In   1587  he  was  sent  ambassador  to  the  United 
Provinces,  upon  their  complaints  against  the  earl  of  Lei«i» 
eester ;;  and,  though  he  discharged  that  nice  and  hazardous 
trust,  with  great  integrity,  yet  the  favourite  prevailed  with 
his  mistress  to  call  him  home,  and  confine  him  to  his  holise 
for  nine  or  ten  months  ;  which  command  lord  Buckhurst  if 
said  to  have  submitted  to  so  obsequiously,  than  in  all  the 
time  he  never  would  endure,  openly  or  secretly,  by  day 
or  by  night,  to  see  either  wife  or  child.     His  enemy,  how* 
ever,  dying,  her  majesty's  favour  returned  to  him  more 
jstrqngly  than  ever.     He  was  made  knight  of  the  garter  in 
1590;  and  chancellor  of  Oxford  in  1591,  by  the  queen's 
special  interposition.     In  1589  he  was  joined  with  the  trea* 
surer  Burleigh  in  negotiating  a  peace  with  dpain;  and, 
upon  the  death  of  Burleigh  the  same  year,  succeeded  him 
in  his  office;  by  virtue  of  which  he  became  in  a  manner 
prime  mitiister,  and  as  suoh  exerted  himself  vigorously  for 
the  public  good  and  her  majesty's  safety. 

Upon  the  death  of  Elizabeth,  the  administration  of  th« 
ktngdom  devolving  on  him  with  other  counsellors,  they 
linanioioU^ly  proclaimed  king  James;  and  that  king  re*- 
Slewed  bis  patent  of  lord  high-treasurer  for  life,  before  his 

S  A  6  k  V  i  L  L  £.  n 

'MV^9l  in  England,  and  even  before  bis  lordship  waitifdl  oil 
bis  majesty.    In  March  1604  he  was  created  earl  of  Dorset. 
•He  was  one  of  those  whom  his  majesty  consulted  and  con-» 
fided  in  npon  all  occasions ;  and  he  lived  in  the  highest 
esteem  and  repatation,  without  any  extraordinary  deca^ 
of  health,  till  1 607.    Then  he  was  seized  at  bis  house  at 
Horsley,in  Surrey,  with  la  disorder,  which  reduced  him 
96f  that  bis  life  was  despaired  of*     At  this  crisis,  the  kiag 
sent  him  a  gold  ring  enamelled  black,  set  with  twenty  dia- 
moiKld;  and  this  message,  that  ''his  majesty  wishea  him 
a  speiedy  and  perfect  recovery^  with  all  happy  and  good 
success,  &hd  that  he  might  live  as  long  as  the  diamonds  of 
that  ring  did  endure,  and  in  token  thereof  required  him  t# 
wear  it^  and  keep  it  for  his  sake.'^     He  recovered  this  ill- 
ness to  iSiU  appearance ;  but  soon  after,  as  he  was  attend- 
ing at  the  council-tkble,  he  dropped  down,  and  immedi- 
ately expired.    This  sudden  deaths  which  happened  April 
•19,*  1608,  was  dcicasioned  by  a  particular  kind  of  dropsy  on 
the  brain.     He  was  interred  with  great  solemnity  in  West- 
minster-abbey ;  his  funeral  sermon  being  preached  by  his 
chiiplaiii  Dr.  Abbot>  aftef^ards  abp.  of  Canterbury. ,  S(ix 
•Kbbert  Nauoton  writes  of  hini  in  the  following  terms: 
"  They  much  commend  his  elocution,  but  more  the  ex- 
cellency 'of  his^pen.     He  was  a  scholar,  and  a  ^person  of 
quick  dispatch ;  faculties  that  yet  run  in  the  blood :  and 
they  aay  of  him,  that  his  secretaries  did  little  for  him  by 
way  of  inditemept,  wherein  they  could  seldom  please  him^ 
he  was  so  facete  and  choice  in  his  phrase  and  style. — I  find 
not  that  :he  was  any  ways  inured  in  the  factions  of  the 
court,  which  were  all  his  time  strong,  and  in  every  mau^s 
note  I  the  .Howards  and  the  Cecils' on  the  one  part,  my 
lord  of  Essex,  &c.  on  the  other  part :  for  he  held  the  staff 
of  the  treasury  fast  in  his  htod,  which  once  in  a  year  made 
them  all  beholden  to  him.    And  the  truth  is^  as  he  was  a 
wise  man  and  a  stout^  lie  had  no  reason  to  be  a  partaker ; 
for  he  s.tood  sure  in  blood  and  graces  lind  was  wholly  in« 
tentive  to  the  queen's  services :  and  such  were  his  abilities^ 
that  she  received  assiduous  proofs  of  his  sufficiency ;  and  it 
has  been  thought^  that  she  might  have  more  cunning  in*^ 
struments,  but  none  of  a  more  strong  judgment  and  con^ 
fidence  in  bis  ways,  which  are  symptoms  of  magnanimity 
and  fidelity.*'     Lord  Orford  says,  that  <*  few  first  ministert 
kav^toft  uo  fair  a  character,  and  that  his  family  ^^"*        ^ 



ftbe  office  of  an  apology  for  it,  against  some  Kttle  cavils, 
.which ^^spreta  exoleacunt;  si.irascare,  agnita  videntur.'* 
-  Several  of  his  letters  are  printed  in  the  Cabala ;  besides 
which  there  is  a  Latin  letter  of  his  to  Dr.  Bartholomew 
Clarke,  prefixed  to. that  author's  Latin  translation  from  the 
Italian  of  Castiglione's  '<  Courtier/'  entitled,  *^  De  Curiali 
aive  Aulico,''  first  printed  at  London  about  1571.  This 
be  j^Tots  while  envoy  at  Paris.  Indeed  his  early  t;^aste  and 
learning  never  forsook  him,  but  appeared  in  the  exercise 
of  his  miore  formal  political  functions.  He  was,  says  War- 
ton,  frequently  disgudted  at  the  pedantry  and  official  bar- 
barity of  style,  in  which  the  public  letters  add  instruments 
^ere  usually  fjiamed.  Even  in  the  decisions  and  pleadings 
of  the  Star-chamber  court,  he  practised  and  encouraged 
an  unaccustomed  style  of  eloquent  and  graceful  oratory.^ 

SACKVILLE  (Charles),  sixth  earl  of  Dorset  and  Mid- 
dlesex, a  celebrated  wit  and  poet,  was  descended  in  a 
direct  line  from  Thomas  lord  Buckhorst,  and  born  Jan.  24, 
1637.  He  had  his  education  under  a  private  tutor;  after 
which,  making  the  tour  of  Italy,  he  returned  to  England  a 
little  before  the  Restoration.  He  was  chosen  in  the  first 
parliament  that  was  called  after  that  event  for  £^ast  Grin« 
stead  in  Sussex,  made  a  great  figure  as  a  speaker,  and  was 
caressed  by  Charles  IL;  but,  having  as  yet  no  turn  to 
business,  declined  all  public  employmeoit  He  was,  is 
truth,  like  Villiers,  Rochester,  Sedley,  &c.  one  of  the  wits 
or  libertines  of  Charleses  court;  and  thought  of  nothing  so 
much  as  feats  of  galfamtry,  which  sometimes  carried  him  to 
inexcusable  excesses  *.  He  want  a  volunteer  in  the  first 
Dutch  war  in  1665;  and,  the  night  before  the  engage* 
ment,  composed  .the  celebrated  song  ^'  To  all  you  Ladies 

*  "  One  of  these  frolicks  has,  by  cr»wd  attempted  to  force  the  door,  and, 

the  industry  of  Wood,  come  dowu  to  being  repulsed,  drore  in  the  perforoi- 

|K>sterity.     Sackville,    wbo  was  thea  en  with  ttooea,  and  bcttke  the  wiodoira 

lord  Buckburst,  with  sir  Charles  Sed-  of  tlie  house.     For  this  misdeoieanonr 

ley  and  sir  Thomas  Ogle,  got  drunk  at  they  were  indicted,  ^nd  Sedley  waf 

the  Cock  in  Bow-street  by  Covent-gar*  fined  five  bnodred  pounds:  wliat  was 

^en,  and,  going  into  the  balcony,  ex*  the  sentence  of  the  otbe^  js.not  koown* 

posed  themselves  to  the  populace   in  Sedley  employed  Kiliigrew  and  another 

Very    indecent  postures.     At  last,  as  to  procure  a  remission  from  the  king ; 

%bey  grew  warmer,  Sedley  stood  Ibrth  bat  (mark  the  /riendsbip  of  ibe  diaso- 

naked,  and  harangued  the  populace  in  lute  !)  they  begged  the  fine  for  them* 

such  profane  language,  that  the  pub-  selves,  and  exacted  it  to  the  last  groat." 
Ac  indignation    was    awakened  ;    the  Johnson's  Lives. 

»  ColHns's  Peerage,  by  sir  B,  Bridges. — Wartaii*s  Hittnry  of  Poetry;-^Biog. 
9«*it.— Bibliograpberj  vol.  I. — Hailewood's  edition  of  the  ^irrQr  for  Maeialf^lHL 
1815,  4to.^Park's  edit,  of  the  Royal  andNoble  Authors! 


now  at  land,^  which  is  generallj^  esteemed  the  happiest 
of  his  productions ;  but  there  is  reason  to  think  it  was  not 
originally  composed,  but  only  revised  on  this  occasion.  Soon 
after  he  was  made  a  gentleman  of  the  bed-chamber ;  and, 
on  account  of  his  distinguished  politeness,  sent  by  the 
king  upon  several  short  embassies  of  compliment  inta 
France,  Upon  the  death  of  his  uncle  James  Craniield,  earl 
of  Middlesex,  in  1674,  that  estate  devolved  on  him;  and 
he  succeeded  likewise  to  tlie  title  by  creation  in  1675«r 
His  father  dying  two  years  after,  he  succeeded  him  in  hia 
estate  and  honours.  He  utterly  disliked,  and  openly  dis- 
countenanced, the  violent  measures  of  James  ITs  reign; 
and  early  engaged  for  the  prince  of  Orange,  by  whom  be 
was  n)ade  lord  chamberlain  of  the  household,  and  taken 
ieto  the  privy  •council.  In  1692;:  he  attended  king  Wil- 
liam to  the  congress  at  the  Hague,  and  was  near  losing  hia 
life  in  the  passage.  They  went  on  board  Jan.  10,  in  a  verjr 
severe  season ;  and,  when  they  were  a  few  leagues  off 
Goree,  having  by  bad  weather  been  four  days  at  sea,  the 
king  was  so  impatient' to  go  on  shore,  that  he  took  a  boat; 
when,  a  thick  fog  arising  soon  after,  they  were  so  closely 
surrounded  with  ice,  a&  not  to  be  able  either  to  make  the 
sbore,  or  get  back  to  the  ship.  In  this  condition  they  re« 
mained  twenty-two  hours,  almost  despairing  of  life ;  and 
the  cold  was  so  bitter,  that  they  could  hardly  speak  or 
stand  at  thetr  landing ;  and  lord  Dorset  contracted  a  lame* 
ness,  which  continued  for  some  time.  In  1698,  his  health 
insensibly  declining,  he  retired  from  public  afiairs ;  only 
now  and  then  appearing  at  the  council*  board.  He  died  at 
Bath  Jan.  19,  1705-6,  after  having  married  two  wives;  by 
the  latter  of  whom  he  had  a  daughter,  and  an  only  son, 
Lionel  Cran field  Sackville,  who  was  created  a  duke  in 
1720,  and  died  Oct.  9,  1765. 

Lord  Dorset  wrote  several  little  poems,  which,  however, 
are  not  numerous  Enough  to  make  a  volume  of  themselves, 
but  are  included  in  Johnson's  collection  of  the  '^  English 
Poets.''  He  was  a  great  patron  of  poets  and  men  of  wit, 
who  have  not  failed  in  their  turn  to  transmit  his  with  lustre 
to  posterity.  Prior,  Dryden,  Congreve,  Addison,  and  many 
more,  have  all  exerted  themselves  in  their  several  panegy* 
rics  upon  this  patron ;  Prior  more  particularly,  whose  ex- 
quisitely-wrought character  of  him,  in  the  dedication  of 
hia  poems  to  his  son,  the  first  duke  of  Dorset,  is  to  this 
da^  admired  as  a  master-piece.    He  says,  <<The  brightness 


of  his  parts/  the  solidity  of  his  judgment,  and  the  candour 
and  generosity  of  bis  temper,  distinguished  him  in  an  age' 
of  great  politeness,  and  at  a  court  abounding  with  men  of 
the  finest  sense  and  learning.  The  most  eminent  masters 
in  their  several  ways  appealed  to  bis  determination  :  Wsd« 
ler  thought  it  an  honour  to  consult  him  in  the  softness  and 
harmony  of  his  verse ;  and  Dr.  Sprat,  in  the  delicacy  and 
turn  of  his  prose:  Dry  den  determines  by  him,  under  the 
character  of  Eugenius,  as  to  the  laws  of  dramatic  poetry : 
Butler  owed  it  to  him,  that  the  court  tasted  his  *  Hudibras  :* 
Wycberley,  that  the  town  liked  his  *  Plain  Dealer;  and^ 
the  late  duke  of  Buckingham  deferred  to  publish  his  ^Re- 
bearsar  till  he  was  sure,  as  he  expressed  it,  that  my  lord 
Dorset  would  not  rehearse  upon  him  again.  If  we  wanted 
foreign  testimony,  La  Fontaine  and  St.  Evremond  have 
acknowledged  that  he  was  a  perfect  master  of  the  beauty 
and  fineness  of  their  language,  and  of  all  they  call  *  les 
'  belles  lettres.'  .  Nor  was  this  nicety  of  his  judgment  con- 
fined only  to  books  and  literature:  he  was  the  same  in 
iftatuary,  painting,  ^nd  other  parts  of  art.  Bernini 
tyould  have  taken  his  opinion  upon  the  beauty  and  at-v 
titude  of  a  figure ;  and  king  Charles  did  not  agree  with 
Leiy^  that  my  lady  Cleveland's  picture  was  finished,  till  it 
bad  the  approbation  of  my  lord  Buckhurst." 

'^  He  was  a  man,'-  says  Dr.  Johnson,  '<  whose  elegance 
and  judgment'  were  universally  confessed,  and  whose 
bounty  to  the  learned  and  witty  was  generally  known.  To 
the  indulgent  affection  of  the  public,  lord  Rochester  bore 
ample  testimony  in  this  remark :  '  I  know  not  how  it  is, 
but  lord  Buckburst  may  do  what  he  will,  yet  is  never  in 
tKe  wrong.'  If  such  a  man  attempted  poetry,  we  cannot 
wonder  that  his  works  were  praised.  Dryden,  whom,  if 
Prior  tells  ti:uth,  he  distinguished  by  his  beneficence,  and 
\vho  lavished  his  blandishments  on  those  who  are  not  known 
to  have  so  well  deserved  them,  undertaking  to  produce 
authors  of  our  own  country  superior  to  those  of  antiquity, 
says,  *  I  would  instance  your  Lordship  in  satire,  and  Shak- 
s&peare  in  tragedy.'  Would  it  be  imagined  that,  of  this 
rival  to  antiquity,  all  the  satires  were  little  personal  in- 
vectives, and  that  his  longest  composition  was  a  song  of 
eleven  staii:^as  ?  The  blame,  however,  of  this  exaggerated 
praise  falls  on  the  encomiast,  not  upon  the  author ;  whose 
performances  are>  what  they  pretend  to  be,  the  effusions 
9ff^man  of  wit;  gay,  vigorous,  and  airy*     His  verses  to 


8  A  C  K  V  I  L  L  E.  ft 

JHoward  shew  great  fertility  of  miad ;  aod  bis  ^  Dorinda" 
lias  been  imitated  by  Pope. ' 
SACY.     See  MAISTRE. 

SADEEL  (Anthony),  one  of  tbe  promoters  of  the  re- 
jformatioD,  was  born  in  1534,  at  the  castle  of  Cbabot  io 
the  Maconais,  and  was  descended  of  a  noble  and  ancient 
family  of  the  Forez.     His  father  dying  when  he  was  very 
young,  the  care  of  his  education  devolved  on  his  mother^ 
wbo  sent  him  to  Paris,  where,  he  6rst  was  initiated  in  the 
principles  of  the  Protestant  religion.    These  he  afterwarda 
became  better  acquainted  with  at  Tboulouse  and  Geneva, 
when  iotroduced  to  Calvia  and  Beza.     On  the  death  of  aq 
uncle  he  was,  recalled  home,  and  again  sent  to  Paris,  in 
£ODsequen<:e  of  a  contest  respecting  the  will  of  that  uncle^ 
wl\o  had  left  considerable  property.     While  here,  becom- 
ing more  attached  to  the  cause  of  the  reformatron,  he  was 
induced  to  study  divinity,  instead  of  law,  forVhipb  he  had 
been  .originally  intended ;  and  such  was  his  progress  and 
tbe  promising  appearance  of  his  talents  and  zeal,  that  at 
the  age  of  twenty,  he  was  invited  to  preach  to  the  congre- 
gation of  the  reformed  at  Paris*     Their  assembling,  how* 
ever,  was  attended  with  great  danger;  and,  in  1557,  whea 
they  met  to  celebrate  the  sacrament,  about  150  were  ap- 
prehended and  thrown. into  prison,  their  pastors  only  es- 
caping.    The  priests  having  circulated  various  scandalous 
reports  of  this  meeting,    which  the  judges  found  to  be 
false,  Sadeel  was  employed  by  his  brethren  in  draining, 
up  a  vindication  of  them.    Next  year  he  was  himself  taken, 
up,  and  imprisoned,    but  the  king  of  Navarre,  who  had 
often  been  one  of  his  hearers,    immediately  seat  to  the 
officers  to  release  him,  as  beiqg  one  of  his  own  suite,  and 
when  they  refused,  went  in  person  to. the  prison,  coip- 
plained  of  the  affront,  and  released  Sadeel.     Jt  not,  how- 
ever, being  thought  safe  for  him  to  remain  at  this  crisis  in 
Paris,  be  retired  for  some  time  to  Orleans,  and  when  the 
danger  seemed  to  be  over^  returned  again,  and  drew  up 
a  Confession  of  Faith,  first  proposed  in  a  synod  of  the  re-, 
formed  clergy  of  France,  held  at  Paris,  which  was  pre- 
sented  to  the  king  by  the  famous  admiral  Coligni.     The 
kjng  dyii^  soon  after,  ^nd  the  .queen  and  the  family  oj^. 

*  Biog.  Brit. — Collins's  Peerage  by  sir  E.  Bridges*— AUi.  Ox*  Tol.  IL— ^ 
^rk*f  editioB  Of  tbe  Hoyal  and  Noble  Avtborg.  V 

U  I  A  D  E  E  L, 

Onise  renewing  with  inore  fmy  than  evet  i;h#  p«r^<^Gutioii 
of  the  reformed,  Sadeel  was  obliged  again  lo  leave  the 
metropolis,  which,  however,  he  continued  occasionally  to 
visit  when  it  could  be  done  without  danger. 

In  1562,  he  presided  at  a  national  synod  at  OrieanSji 
Urnd^  then  went  to  Berne,  and  finally  to' Geneva,  where  h^ 
was  associated  with*  the  ministers  of  that  place,  Henry  1V% 
tPho  had  a  great  respect  for  him,  gave  him  an  invitation-  to 
his  court,  which,  after  some  hesitation,  from  his  aversioiiL 
to  public  life,  he  accepted,  and  was^  chaplain  at  the  batttlts 
f)f  Courtray,  and  had  the  charge  of  a  mission  to  the  pro^ 
testant  prince^  of  Germany ;  but  unable  at  length  to  beat? 
Ihe  fatigues  of  a  military  life,  which  be  was  obliged  t6 
]l>ass  with  his  royal  benefactor,  he  retired  to  Geneva  iii 
15S9,  and  resumed  his  functions  as  a  preacher,  and  under<r 
took  the  professorship  of  Hebrew  until  his  death,  Feb.  23, 
1591.  Besides  his  sermons,  which  were  highly  popular 
and  persuasive,  he  aided  the  cause  of  reformatiorr  by  taking 
an  active  part  in  the  controversies  which  arose  ouft  of  it, 
and  by  writingsr  of  the  practical  kind.  One  French  bio- 
grapher tells  us  that  Sadeel  was  an  assumed  name,  but  in 
^11  other  authorities,  welind  him  called  by  th^t  hatpe  only 
with  the  addition  of  CHANDi£Us,  Which  alluded  to  bis  an. 
cestors,  who  were  barons  of  Chandieu.  Accordingly  hi* 
works  are  entitled  <<  Antonii  Sadeelis  Chapdaei,  nobilissi- 
Aii  viri,  opera  thedlogica,"  Geneva,  1592,  folio ;  reprinted 
1593,  4^0;  and  1599  and  1615,  folio.  They  consist, 
among  others,  of  the  following  treiitisesf  published  aepa-^ 
lately,  *'  De  verbo  Dei  scripto,"  Gen,  1592.  "  De  vera 
peccatorum  remissione^'*  ibid.  1591.  **  De  «nico  Christi 
Sfl^^rdotio  et  sacrificio,^'  ibid.  1692.  ^<  De  s[Sirituali  et^ 
sacramentali  manducatione  Corporis  Christi  ;'^  two  trea-^ 
tises,  ibid.  1596.  "  Posnaniensiutn  assertionutn  refatatio,'^ 
ibid.  1596,  ^^  Refutatio  libelli  Claudii  de  Sainctes,  inti*" 
l^lati,  Examen  doctrines  Calvinianae  et  BezansB  de  cceina; 
Dornini,^'  ibid.  1592.  He  wrote  also,  in  Frenebi  "  His- 
tbire  des  persecutions  et  des  nnartyrs  de  Tegtise  de  Pari$y 
depuis  Tan  1557,  jusqu^au  regne  de  Charles  IX."  printed 
at  Lyons,  in  1563,  8vo,  tinder  the  name  of  Zamariel,  He 
wrote  also  ^*  Metamorphose  de  Ronsard  en  prettre,"  in 
verse,  part  of  a  controversy  he  had  with  that  writer,  who  in 
his  work  on  the  troubles  dur'mg  the  minority  of  Charles  IX, 
bad  attributed  them  to  the  reformers.  His  life,  ,by  Jaihes^ 
Xectius,  was  prefixed  to  \x\s  works,  wd  published  .sepa^ 

^  A  D  I.  95 

mdf  Hi  Geivet^  ih  1595,  Sto.  Tbe  substonQe  of  it  is  givea 
in  our  6rst  authority.' 

SADI,  or  S A  DE£>  ai  eelebrated  Penian  po€ft  and  mo« 
liiisty  wa^b'oniin  1175,  at  Sheeraz,  or  Schiraz, '  tbe  capi« 
tri  of  Persia,  anrd  wa9  educated  af  Damascus,  btrt  quitted 
Ills  country  when  it  was  desolated  by  the  Turks,  and  com-> 
flhefik;ed  bis  travels,  He  was  afterwards  taken  prisoner,  and 
§otfdefnned  to  work  at  the  fortifications  of  TripoK.  Wbile 
in  this  deplorable  state,  he  was  redeented  by  a^merclHint  of 
.  Aleppo,  who  had  so  much  i^gard  for  him  as  to  give  him  his 
ddu^bter  in  marriage,  with  a  dowry  of  one  hundred  sequins. 
Thik  lady,  however,  beti^  aii  intolerable  scold,  proved  the 
plague  of  his  life,  and  gave  him  that  unfavourable  opinion 
of  the  ^r  Which  appears  occasionally  in  his  works.  During 
one  of  tfaeif  altercations  she  reproached  him  with  tbe  fa* 
TOurs-het  family  bad  conferred-*-"  Ae  not  you  the  man 
ay  ftilfcer  bought  for  ten  pieces  of  gold  ?'* — •*  Yes,"  an* 
sa^e^ed  Sadi,  ''and  he  sold  me  again  for  an  hundred  se«' 
qurtts  ?" 

Wt  find  few  other  particiilars  of  bis  life,  daring  which 
h6  appeatis  to  have  been  admired  for  his  wise  sayings  and 
hi^  wit;  He  is  tfaid  to  have  lited  an  hundred  and  twenty 
yifeM,  that  is,  to  the  year  1295,  but  different  dates  are 
^ignedy  some  making  hinf  born  in  1 193,  and  die  in  1^12. 
He  composed  such  a  variety  of  works  in  prose  and  verse, 
Arabic  and  Persian,  as  to  fill  two  lar^  folio  volumes,  which 
were  printed  at  Calcutta,  in  1795.  It  was  not,  botvever, 
metely  as  a  poet,  that  he  acquired  fame,  but  as  a  phifloso- 
l^r  and  a  moralist.  His  works  are  quoted  by  the  Persians 
on  the  daily  and  hourly- occurrences  of  life ;  and  his  tomb, 
a(^oining  the  city  where  he  was  born,  is  still  visited  with 
feneration.  "  Yet,'*  says  sir  WWiam  Ouseley,  speaking 
of  ibis  author's  works,  '<  I  shall  not  here  suppress  that  there 
is  attriboted  to  Sadi  a  short  collection  of  poetical  composi«» 
tabns,  inculcating  lessons  of  the  grossest  sensuality  ;*'  and 
even  bis  most  mot^l  work,  called  *'  Gulistan,''  or  ^^  Garden 
of  Flowers/'  is  by  no  means  immitculate.  Mr.  Gladwin 
also,  to  whom  we  owe  an  excellent  translation'  Of  it,  pub^^ 
fished  at  Calcutta,  1806,  in  4to,  with  the  Original  Persian, 
has  been  obliged  to  omit  or  disguise  ^  few  passages,  which, 
be  says,  **  although  not  offensive  to  th6  coarse  ideas  of 

I  Melchior  Adain.«*Freheri  Th«atniiiu«*Moreri  et  Biog.  Uak.  in  art  Chan* 

t6  S  A  D  L 

native  readers,  couM  not  ppssibly  be  translated  wilbout 
transgressing  the  bounds  of  decency.'* 

This  work  has  been  idng  known  in  Europe  by  the  edition 
and  translation  published  by  the  learned  Gentius,  lender 
the  title  of  '^  Rosarium  politicum,  sive  amoenum  sortis  hU"« 
mans  Theatrum,  Persice  et  Lat.''  Arast.  1651,  foi.  There  * 
was  also  a  French  ti^^nslation  by  P.  du  Ryer,  1634,  Svo, 
and  another  by  d'Alegr^,  in  1704,  12  mo,  since  which  the 
abbe  Gaudin  gave  a  preferable  translation,  first  in  1789^ 
under  the  title  of  ^^,]£ssai  historique  sur  la  legislation  de  la 
Perse,''  and  afterwards  by  the  more  appropriate  titl^  of 
^'Gulistan,  ou  Tempire  des  roses,"  17i^l,  8vo.  The  En« 
glish  public  was  in  soooe  degree  made  acquainted  with  this 
work  by  a  publication  by  Stephen  Sullivan,  esq.  entitled 
**  Select  Fables  from  Gnlistan,  or  the  Bed  of  Ros^i^,  trans^ 
lated  from  the  original  Persian  of  Sadi,"  1774,  12mo* 
These  are  chiefly  of  a  political  tendency,  recommending; 
justice  and  humanity  to  princes.  Mr.  Gladwin's  includes 
the  whole,  and  is  a  valuable  contribution  to  our  knowledge 
of  Persian  manners  and  morals.  Sadi's  other  works^are en- 
titled <<  Bostan,  or  the  Garden  of  Flow^ers,"  which  is  in 
verse,  and  ^^  Molam^t ;"  in  Arabic,  sparks,  rays,  or  spe* 
cimens.  We  may  add,  that  Olearius  published  the  ^^  Gu- 
listan,"  in  Geripan,  wit^  plates,  in  1634,  fol.  under  i\xe 
tjtle  of  *^  Persianischjer  Ros^ntbal.'*^ 

SADLER  (JoH^),  an  English  writer,  descended  of  a^ 
ancient  family  in  Shropshire,  was  born  in  1615^  and  admit* 
ted  pensioner  of  Emanuel  college,  in  .Cambridge,  Nov.  IS^ 
1.630,  where  he  became  eminent  for  his  knowledge  in  the 
](iebrew  and  Oriental  languages.  After  having  taken  his 
degrees  ajt.tbe  usual  periods,  that  of  M.  A.  in  163.8,  in 
which  year  be  Y^^  chosen  fellpw  qf  his  college,  he  removed 
to  Lincoln's-Inh ;  where  he  made  a  considerable  progress 
in  the  study  of  the  law,  and  was  admitted  Que  of  the  mas- 
ters in  ordinary  in  the  court  of  chancery,  June  I,  1 644^ 
and  was  likewise  one  of  the  two  masters  of  requests.  In 
1649,  he  was  chosen  town -clerk  of  London,  and  published 
in  tbe  same  year  in  4to,  a  work  with  this  title,  "  Rights  of 
the  Kingdom  :  or.  Customs  of  our  Ancestors,  touching  the 
duty,  power,  election,  or  succession,  of  our  kings  and 
partiaments,  our  true  liberty,  due  allegiance,  three  estates^ 
their  legislative  power,  original,  judicial,  and  executive, 

*  '  •      •  * 

1  D'Herbelot  Bibl.  Oriental.— Gladwin's  Persian  Classics,  vol.  I.— Waripf 'f^ 
Tour  to  Sheerez.'— Month.  Re?.  1774.— JlriU  Crit  vol.  XXI^ 

6  A  D  L  £  R.  .         9T 

with  the  militia  J  freely  discussed  through  the  British,  Saxon, 
Normally  laws  and  histories."     It  was  reprinted  in  1682, 
^d  has  always  been  valued  by  lawyers  and  others.     He 
wa$  greatly  esteemed  by  Oliver  Cromwell ;  who,  by  a  let- 
ter from  Cork,  of  Dec.  1,  1649,  offered  him  the  place  of 
chief  justice  of  Munster  in  Ireland,  with  a  salary  of  1000/. 
per  annum  ;  but  this  he  excused  himself  from  accepting, 
lo  August  1650,  he  was  made  master  of  Magdalen  college, 
ID  Cambridge,  upon  the  removal  of  Dr.  Rainbow,  who 
again  succeeded  Sadler  after  the  restoration.    In  1653,  he 
was  chosen   member  of  parliament  for  Cambri^e.     In 
1655,  by  warrant  of  Cromwell,  pursuant  to. an  ordinance 
for  better  regulating  and  limiting  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
hi^h  court  of  chancery,  he  was   continued  a  master  in 
chancery,  when  their  number  was  reduced  tb  six  only.     It 
was  by  his  interest,  that  the  Jews  obtained  the  privilege  of 
building  a  synagogue  in  London.     In  1658,  he  was  chosen 
member  of  parliament  for  Yarmouth  ;  and  in  December  of 
the  year  following,  appointed  6rst  commissioner,  under  th# 
gte^Lt  seal,  with  Taylor,   Wbitelock,  and  others,  for  the^ 
probate  of  wills.     In  1660,  he  published  in  4to,  his  ^^  Ol- 
bia :  The  New  Island  lately  discovered.     With  its  religion, 
rites  of  worship,    laws,  customs,  government,  characters, 
and  language;  with   edu<5atiou  of  their  children  in  their 
sciences,  arts,  and  manufacturet ;    with  other  things   re- 
markable ;  by  a  Christian  pilgrim  driven  by  tempest  from 
Civita  Vecchia,  or  some  other  parts  about  Rome,  through 
the  straights  into  the  Atlantic  ocean.     The  first  part."     Of 
^fais  work,  which  appears  to  be  a  kind  of  fiction.  Dr.  John 
Worthington,    in  a  letter  to  Mr.  Samuel  Hartlib,   dated* 
April  1,  1661,  says,  *^  Is  the  second  part  of  Olbia  like  to 
come  out  shortly?  It  is  said  to  treat  of  the  religion,  wor- 
ship,   laws, '  customs,    manner  of  education,  &c.   of  that 
place.     The  design  promiseth  much  variety." 

Soon  after  the  restoration,  he.  lost  all  his  employments, 
by  virtue  of  an  act  of  parliament  13  Caroli  II,  <^for  the 
well-governing  and  regulating  of  corporations:"  his  con- 
science not  permitting  him  to  take  or  subscribe  the  oath 
and  declaration  there  required,  in  w^hich  it  was  declared, 
tha)b  ^'  it  was  not  lawful,  upon  any  pretence  whatever,  to 
tak^^  afms  against  the  king;"  an  obedience  so  absolute, 
^at  be  thought  it  not  due  to  any  earthly  power,  though  he 
had  never  engaged,  or  in  .any  manner  acted,  against  the 
kteking.    Ii>  the  fire  of  London,  1666,  bis  house  in  Sa?> 

M  ^  SADLER. 

lislmrj^^courty  which  he  birilt  at  the  erpeiis^  of  5000/1  lind 
several  other  of  his  houses  in  London  vi^re  destroyed  ;  »nd^ 
soon  after,  his  inaBsion*iioiise  in  Shropshire  had  the  same 
fate.  He  was  also  now  deprived  of  Va»xball  on  the  river 
Thames,  and  other  estates  which  he  had  purchased,  being 
crown  lands,  and  of  a  considerable  estate  in  the  Fens  in 
Bedford  Level,  without  any  recompence.  These  misfor- 
tjunes  and  several  others  coining  upon  him,  he  retired  to 
his  manor  and  seat  of  Warm^ell  in  Dorsetshire,  which  he 
bad  obtained  with  bis  wife ;  where  he  lived  in  a  private 
manner,*  and  died  tti  April  1674,  aged  fifty-nine.  Thomas 
Sadler,  esq.  deputy  to  lord  Walpole,  clerk  of  the  pells, 
who  contributed  the  above  account  to  the  editors  of  the 
General  Dictionary,  and  Daniel  Sadler,  chief  clerk  in  the 
Old  Annuity  office,  were  his  grandsons-  Walker  says  he 
was  informed  that  Mr.  Sadler  was  a  very  insignificant  man, 
and  Calamy  tells  us  that  a  clergyman  of  the  church  of  Er^ 
gland  gave  him  this  character,  *'  We  accounted  him,  not 
4Dly  a  general  scholar,  and  an  accomplished  gentleman, 
but  also  a  person  of  great  piety;  though  it  must  be  owned 
be  was  not  always  right  in  his  kead.*'^ 

SADLER  (Sir  Ralph),  an  eminent  English*  statesman,, 
was  born  in  1507,  at  Hackney,  in  Middlesex.  He  was 
the  son  of  Henry  Sadler,  who,  though  a  gentleman  by 
birth,  and  possessed  of  a  fair  inheritance,  seems  to  have 
been  steward  or  surveyor  to  the  proprietor  of  the  manor  of 
Gillney,  near  Great  Hadham,  in  Essex.  Ralph  in  early 
life  g^iJted  a  situation  in  the  family  of  Thomas  Cromwell, 
earl  of  .Essex,  and  by  him  was  introduced  to  the  notice  of 
Henry  VHL  who  took  him  into  his  service,  hut  at  whatf 
time  is  not  tery  clear.  He  was  employed  in  the  great  work 
of  dissolving  the  religious  houses,  and  had  bis  fuil  share  of 
the  spoil.  In  1537,  he  commenced  a  long  course  of  diplo« 
matic  services,  by  an  embassy  to  Scotland,  whose  monarch' 
was  then  absent  in  France.  The  objects  of  his  mission 
were  to  greet  the  queen  dowager,  to  strengthen  the  En* 
glisb  interests  in  the  councils  of  regency  which  then  go- 
verned Scotland,  and  to  discover  the  probable  convequences 
of  the  iiuimate  union  of  Scotland  with  Fraiace.  Having- 
collected  such-  information  as  he  could  procure  on  these' 
topics,  be  returned  in  the  beginning  of  the  following  year, 
but  went  again  to  Scotland  soon  after,  ostensibly  to  main* 

1  Gen.  Diet. — OaUmy.— Hutchins's  Dorsetshire. — Walker's  SufferiDg9»  art« 
Rainbow. — Cole's  MS  Athena  iu  Brit.  Mus.— Birch's  MSS.  in  Ayscough's  Ca« 


SADLER.  29 

ftm  a  good  correspondence  between  the  two  crowns,  but 
Maily,  asapj^ars  from  his  state-papers,  to  detach  the  king 
of  Scotland  from  the  councils  of  cardinal  Beaton,  who  was 
mt  the  bead  of  the  party  most  in  the  interest  of  France.  H^ 
was  instrocted  also  to  direct  the  king's  attention  to  the  orer- 
grown  possessions  of  the  chcirch  as  a  source  of  revenue, 
and  to  persuade  him  to  imitate  his  uncle  Henry  Vllfth's 
eonduct  to 'the  see  of  Rome,  and  to  make  coiifimon  cause 
with  England  against  France.  In  all  this,  however,  he 
appears  to  have  failed,  or  at  least  to  have  left  Scotland 
mthout  having  viaterially  succeeded  in  any  part  of  his 

In  the  same  year,  1540,  be  lost  his  patron  Cromwell, 
who  was  beheaded ;  but  he  retained  his  favour  with  Henry, 
and  in  154 1  was  again  sent  to  Scotland,  to  detach  the  king 
from  the  pope  and  the  popish  clergy,  and  to  press  upon 
him  the  propriety  of  a  personal  meeting  with  Henry.  This 
however  the  king  of  Scotland  appears  to  have  evaded  with 
considerable  address,  and  died  the  following  year  of  a  broken 
heart,  in-coaaequeace  of  hearing  of  the  fatal  battle  of  Sol- 
way.  The  crown  was  now  left  to  James  V.*s  infant  daughter 
Mary;  and  sir  Ralph  Sadier^s  next  employment  was  to  lend 
his  aid  to  the  match,  projected  by  Henry  VIII.  between  his 
son  Edward  and  the  young  queen.  Bat  this  ended  so  un-^ 
successfully,  that  Sadler  was  obliged  to  return  to  England 
in  Oee.  1549,  and  Henry  declared  war  against  Scotland, 
in  the  niean  tine  be  was  so  satisfied  with  Sadler's  services, 
ereo  in  ibis  last  negociation,  that  he  included  him,  by  the 
title  of  sir  Ralph  Sadleyr,  knight,  among  the  twelve  per- 
sons whom  he  named  as  a  privy  ^council  to  the  sixteen  no- 
bles to  whom,  in  his  will,  he  bequeathed  the  care  of  his 
sen,  and  of  the  kingdom.  When  this  will,  was  set  aside  by 
the  protector  duke  of  Somerset,  and  it  became  necessary 
to.  reconcile  the  feing^s  executors  and  privy-counsdlors,  by 
wealth  and  honours,  sir  Ralph  Sadler  received  a  confirma- 
tion wf  alt  the  churchy-lands  formerly  assigned  to  him  by 
Henry,  with  splendid  additions. 

When  the  war  with  Scotland  was  renewed,  sir  Ralph  so 
distingvished  himself  at  the  battle  of  Pinkie,  that  he  was 
00 :ihe  field  raised  to  the  degree  of  knight  banneret;  but 
we  bear  nothing  more  of  him  during  the  reign  of  Edward 
VL  except  that  in  a  grant,  dated  the  4th  of  that  king's 
reign,  be  is  termed  master  of  the  great  wardrobe*  In 
Marj*s  reign,  although  be  appears  to  have  been  in  ber 

*o  jS  A  D  L  E  R, 

favour^  be  Retired  to  his  estate  at  Hackney,  atid  resigned 
the  office  of  knight  of  the  bamper,  which  bad  been  con« 
ferred  oc^  him  by  Henry  VIII.     On  (be  accession  of  £ii^ 
zabetb,  he  again  appeared  at  court,  «vas  called  to  tbe  privy 
.council,  and  retained  to  bis  death  a  great  portion  of  tbe 
esteem  of  that  princess.     He.  was  a  mciniber  of  her  first 
parliament,  ,as  one  of  the  knights  of  the  shir«  for  the 
.  county  of  Hertford,  and  continued  to  be  a  representative 
of  the  people  during  the  greater  part^  if  not  the  whole,  of 
her  reign.     When  queen  Elizabeth  thought  proper  to  [9^ 
yom  the  cause  of  the  reformation  in  Scotland^  and  to  sup'* 
port  the  nobility  who  were  for  it  against  Mary,  sir  Ralph 
Sadler  was  her  principal  agent,  and  so  negotiated  as  to 
prepare  the  way  for  Elizabeth's  great  influence  in  the  afr 
fairs   of  Scotland.     He   was  also  concerned  in  tbe  sub^ 
sequent  measures  which  led  to  the  death  of  queen  Mary, 
and  was  appointed  her  keeper  in  the  castle  of  Tutbury ; 
but  such  was  Elizabeth's  jealousy  of  this  unfortunate  prin-^ 
cess,  that  even  Sadler's  watchfulness  became  liable  to  her 
suspicions,  and  on  one  occasion,  a  very  heavy  compiaint 
>was  made  against  him,  that  he  had  permitted  Mary  to  ac* 
company  him  to  some  distance  from  the  castle  of  Tutbury^ 
to  enjoy  tb^  sport  of  hawking*     Sir  Ralph  bad  been  hither** 
to  so  subservient  to  his  royal  mistress,  in  all  her  measures^ 
and  perhaps  in  some  which  he  could  not  altogether  approve^ 
that  this  complaint  gave  him  great  uneasiness  and  he  ans- 
wered it  rather  by  an  expostulation  than  an  apology.     He 
admitted  that  he  bad  sent  for  his  hawks  and  falconeriS  to  di^^ 
vert  '^  the  miserable  life"  which  he  passed  at  Tutbury,  and 
that  be  had  been  unable  to  resist  the  solicitation  of  the 
prisoner,  to  permit  her  to  see  a  sport  in  which  she  greatly 
delighted,     fiut  he  adds,  that  this  was  under  the  strictesl 
precautions  for  security  of  her  person;  and  he  declares 
to  the  secretary  Cecil,  that,  rather  than  continue  a  charge 
.whicli  subjected  him  to  such  misconstruction,  were  it  not 
more  for  fear  of  offending  the  queen  than  dread  of  .the 
punishment,  he  would  abandon  his  present  charge  on  coa* 
dition  of  surrendering  himself  prisoner  to  the  Tower  for 
all  the  days  of  his  life,  and  concludes  that  be  is  so  wearjF 
of  this  lite,  that  death  itself  would  make  him  more  happjb 
Elizabeth  so  far  complied  with  his  intimation  as  to  com'' 
mit  Mary  to  a  new  keeper,  but  she  did  :not  withdraw  bet 
ponfidence  from  sir  Ralph  in  other  matterS|  and  after  the 
execution  of  Mary,  employed  him  to  go  to  the  court  of 

8  A  b  L  E  It.  31 

'lames  'VI.  tb  dissuade  him  from  entertaining  thoughts  of  a 
war  with  England  on  his  mother^s  account,  to  which  thera 
was  reason  to  think  he  might  have  been  excited.'  In  this 
sir  Ralph  had  little  difficulty  in  succeeding,  partly  from 
James's  love  of  ease,  and  partly  from  the  prospect  he  had 
of  succeeding  peaceably  to  the  throne  of  England.  This 
was  the  last  time  sir  Ralph  Sadler  was  employed  in  the 
fiublic  service,  for  soon  after  his  return  from  Scotland,  hb 
died  at  his  lordship  of  Standon,  March  30,  1587,  in  the 
eightieth  year  of  his  age,  and  was  buried  in  the  church  df 
Standon,  where  his  monument  was  decorated  with  the  king 
of  Scotland's  standard,  which  he  took  in  the  battle  of  Mus- 
selburgh. He  left  behind  him  twenty-two  manors,  several 
parsonages,  and  other  great  portions  of  land,  in  the  several 
counties  of  Hertford,  Gloucester,  Warwick,  Buckingham, 
and  Worcester.  He  married  Margaret  Mitchell,  a  laundress 
in  the  family  of  his  first  patron,  Thomas  Cromwell,  earl 
of  Essex,  in  the  life-time,  though  in  the  absence,  of  her 
husband,  Matthew  Barr6,  a  tradesman  in  London,  pre- 
sumed to  be  dead  at  that  time,  aud  he  afterwards  procured 
an  act  of  parliament,  37  Henry  VIH.  for  the  legitimatiotf 
of  the  children  by  her,  who  were  three  sons^  and  four 
daughters;  Anne,  married  to  sir  George  Horsey  of  Digs^ 
well,  knight ;  Mary,  to  Thomas  Bollys  aliter  Bowles  Wai- 
lington,  esq.  Jane,  to  Edward  Baesh,  of  Stanstead,  esq. 
(which  three  gentlemen  appear  to  have  been  sheriffs  of  the 
county  of  Hertford,  14,  18,  and  13  Eliz.);  and  Dorothy, 
to  Edward  EIryngton  of  Berstall,  in  the  county  of  Bucks, 
^q.  The  sons  were,  Thomas,  Edward,  and  Henry.  Tho- 
mas succeeded  to  Standon,  was  sheriff  of  the  county  29 
aud  37  Eliz.  was  knighted,  and  entertained  king  James 
there  two  nights  on  his  way  to  Scotland.  He  had  issue, 
Ralph  and  Gertrude  married  to  Walter  the  first  lord  Aston 
of  the  kingdom  of  Scotland ;  Ralph,  his  son,  dying  with- 
out issue^  was  succeeded  in  bis  lordship  of  Standon  and 
other  estates  in  the  county  of  Hertford,  by  Walter,  the 
aetond  lord  Aston,  eldest  surviving  son  of  his  sister  Ger-^ 
trude  lady  Aston.  The  bnrying-place  of  the  family  is  in 
the  chaocel  of  the  church  at  Standon.  Against  the  south 
wall  is  s  monument  for  sir  Ralph  Sadler,  with  the  effigies 
of  jiimself  in  armour,  and  of  his  three  sons  and  four 
daughters,  and  three  inscriptions,  in  Latin  verse,  in  En- 
glish verse,  and  in  English  prose :  against  the  north  wall  is 
fitaother'  for  air  Thomas^  with  the  effigies  of  himself  io 

32  B  A  D  L  E  R. 

armour,  his  lady,  son  and  d^lughter,  i^nd  sin  epitaph  iH  £tt-« 
glish  prose.  1  here  are  also  several  inscriptions  for  tarioiis 
persons  of  the  Aston  family. 

The  transactions  of  sir  Ralph  Sadler^s  inost  meypoi'abk? 
embassies  are  recorded  in  ^'  Letters  and  NegociatioB^s  of 
Sir  Ralph  Sadler/'  &c.  printed  at  Edinburgh,  1720,  Syq^ 
from  MSS.  in  the  advocates'  library ;  but  a  more  complete 
collection  was  recently  published  of  his. '*  State  papers  and 
Letters,"  from  MSS«  in  the  possession  of  Arthur  Clifford^ 
esq.  a  descendant,  1809,  in  2  vols.  4to,  with  a  life  by  WaU 
ter  Scott,  esq.  to  which  we  are  principally  indebted  for  thief 
preceding  account.  From  this  valuable  and  interesting 
publication  the  character  of  sir  Ralph  Sadler  will  be  esti>» 
mated  according  to  the  views  the  reader  has  been  ace  us-* 
tomed  to  take  of  the  measures  of  die  reigjYs  in  which  be 
lived ;  and  on  this  account  bis  character  will  probably  be 
more  highly  esteemed  in  England  thap  in  Scotland.  That 
be  should  have  preserved  the  favour  of  four  such  discordatit 
sovereigns  as  Henry,  Edward,  Mary,  aiid  Elizabeth,  is' 
extraordinary,  but  not  a  solitary  instance.^ 
.  SADELER  (John),  the  first  of  a  family  of  distinguished 
engravers,  the  son  of  a  founder  and  chaser,  was  boru 
at  Brussels  in  1550.  He  applied  early  in  life  to  drawing 
and  engraving,  and  published  some  prints  at  Antwerp^ 
which  did  him  great  honour.  Encouraged  by  this  success, 
he  travelled  over  Holland  that  he  might  work  under  the 
inspection  of  the  best  masters,  and  found  a  generous  be^ 
nefactor  in  the  duke  of  Bavaria.  He  went  afterwards  into 
Italy3  and  presented  some  of  his  prints  to  pope  Cleaienl: 
VllJ.  but  receiving  only  empty  compliments  from  that 
pontiff,  retired  to  Venice,  wher^  be  died  1600^  in  his  fif* 
tieth  year,  leaving  a  son  named  Juste  or  Justin^*  by  wbons 
^1^  we  have  some  good  prints.  Raphael  Sadeler,  John's 
brother,  and  pupil,  was  born  in  1555,  and  distinguished 
himself  as  an  engraver,  by  the  correctness  of  his  drawings 
and  the  natural  expression  of  his  figure^.  JJe  accompanied 
John  to  Rome  and  to  Venice,  and  died  in  the  lajtt^  city* 
Raphael  engraved  some  plates  for  a  work  entitled  *'  de 
opificio  mundi,^*  1617,  3vo,  which  is  seldom  found  per^ 
feet.  The  works  executed  by  him  aod  John  in  conjunction^ 
are,  "Solitude,  sive'vitae  patrum  eremicolarum,^'  4to; 
*♦  SylvoB  sacrff:,"  "  Trophaeum  vitae  solitariss  ;*'  ^' Oraou* 

*  Life  by  Walter  Scott,  esq.  &c.— Brit.  Grit.  vol.  XXXVII. 

S  A  D  E  L  E  It.  33 




liim  aitacboreticum,"  <<  Solitudo  sive  vitas  feminartim  ftna« 
choreticarum ;''  *' Recueil  d^Ettampes,  d>apres  Raphael^ 
Titieo,  Carrache,''  &c.  amounting  to  more  thto  500 
prinisy  in  2  vols.  fol.  Giles  Sadeler  was  nephew  and  pupil 
of  John  and  Raphael,  but  excelled  them  in  correct  draw- 
ingi  and  in  the  taste  and  neatness  of  his  engraving.  -  After 
having  remained  some  time  in  Italy,  he  was  invited  into 
Germany  by  the  emperor  Rodolphus  II.  who  settled  a  pen- 
sbn  upon  him ;  and  Matthias  and  Ferdinand,  this  emperor*s 
Miccessorss  continued  also  to  esteem  and  honour  him.  He 
died  at  Prague  in  1629,  aged  fifty-nine,  being  born  at 
Antwerp  in  1570,  leaving  ^*  Vestigi  delP  antichit^  di  Ro- 
ma,'* Rome,  1660,  fol.  obi.  These  engravers  employed 
their  talents  chiefly  on  scripture  subjects.  Mark  Sadeler^ 
related  to  the  three  above  mentioned,  seem^  to  have  been 
merely  the  editor  of  their  works.' 

SADO LET  (James),  a  polite  and  learned  Italian,  was 
born  at  Modena  in  1477,  and  was  the  son  of  an  eminent 
civilian,  who,  afterwards  becoming  a  professor  at  Ferrara, 
took  him  along  with  him,  and  educated  him  with  great  care. 
He  acquired  a  masterly  knowledge  in  the  Latin  and  Greek 
early,  and  then  applied  himself  to  philosophy  and  elo- 
queace ;  taking  Aristotle  and  Cicero  for  his  guides^  whom 
he.  considered  as  the  first  masters  in  these  branches.  He. 
also  cultivated  Latin  poetry,  in  which  he  displayed  a  very 
high  degree  of  classical  purity.  Going  to  Rome  under  the 
pontificate  of  Alexander  Vh  when  he  was  about  twenty- 
two,  be  was  taken  into  the  family  of  cardinal  Caraffa,  who 
loved  men  of  letters;  and,  uponrthe  death  of  this  cardinal 
in  1511)  passed  into  that  of  Frederic  Fregosa,  archbishop 
of  Salerno,  where  he  found  Peter  Bembus,  and  contracted 
ao  intimacy  with  him.  When  Leo  X.  ascended  the  papal 
throne  in  1513,  be  chose  Bembus  and  Sadolet  for  his  se- 
cretaries; men  extremely  qualified  for  the  office,  ias  both 
of  them  wrote  with  gredt  elegance  and  facility:  and  soon 
after  made  Sadolet  bishop  of  Carpentras,  pear  Avignon, 
Upon  the  death  of  Leo,  in  1521,  he  went  to  his  diocese, 
and  resided  there  during  the  pontificate  of  Adrian  V I,;  •  but 
Clement  YII.  was  no  sooner  seated  in  the  chair,  in  1123, 
than  lie  recalled  him  ta  Rome*  S9>dolet  submitted  to  his 
holiness,  but  on  condition  that  he  should  return  to  bis  dio- 
cese at  the  end  of  three  years*    Paul  IIL  who  succeeded 

»  Slrutr*  Dict->Diet.  Hiit.  ^ 


S4  *  A  D  O  L  E  T. 

.Clement  VII.  in  1534,  called  bim  to  Rome  again ;  made 
him  a  cardinal  in  1536,  and  employed  him  in  mieiny  impor- 
laat  embassies  and  negociations*  Sadolet,  at  lengthy  grown 
^too  old  to  perfonn  the  duties  of  bis  bishopric,  went  no 
.more  from  Rome ;  but  spent  the  remainder  of  bis  days 
there  in  repose  and  study.  He  died  in  1547,  not  without 
poison,  as  some  have  imagined ;  because  he  corresponded 
too  familiarly  with  the  Protestants,  and  testified  much  re- 
gard for  some  of  their  doctors.  It  is  true,  he  had  written 
in  1539  a  Latin  letter  to  the  senate  and  people  of  Geneva, 
with  a  view  of  reducing  them  to  an  obedience  to  the  pope; 
add  had  addressed  himself  to  the  Calvinists,  with  the  affec- 
tionate appellation  •  of  *^  Charissimi  in  Christo  Fratres;'* 
but  this  proceeded  entirely  from  his  moderate  and  peace- 
able temper  and  courteous. disposition.  He  was  a  sincere 
adherent  to  the  Romish  church,  but  without  bigotry.  The 
liberality  of  sentiment  he  displayed  in  his  commentary  on 
the  epistle  pf  St.  Paul  to  the  Romans  incurred  the  censure 
of  the  Roman  court. 

Sadolet  in  his  younger  days  was  somewhat  gay,  but  re- 
formed bis  manners  very  strictly  afterwards,  and  became 
a  man  of  great  virtue  and  goodness.  He  was,  like  other 
scholars  of  his  time»  a  close  imitator  of  Cicero  in  his  prose 
works,  and  of  Virgil  in  his  poetry.  In  the  best  of  bis  La- 
tin poems,  his  ^^  Gurtius,**  he  is  allowed  to  have  adorned  a 
dignified  subject  with  numbers  equally  chaste, 'spirited, 
and  harmonious.  His  works  consist  of  epistles,  disserta^ 
tions,  orations,  poems,  and  commentaries  upon  some  parts 
<>f  holy  writ.  They  have  been  printed  oftentimes  sepa* 
rately :  and  were  first  collected  and  published  together,  in 
a  large  8vo  volume,  at  Mentz,  in  1607  ;  but  a  more  com- 
plete and  excellent  edition  was  published  at  Verona,  in 
1737,  4  vols.  .4to*  All. his  contemporaries  have  spoken  of 
bim  in  the  highest  terms ;  Erasmus  particularly,  who  calls 
bim  ^^  eximium  eetatis  suae  decus."^ 
.  SAEMUND  (SiGFUSSOV),  a  celebrated  Icelandic  writer, 
was  the  son  of  a  priest  named  Sigfus,'  and  was  bom  about 
the  middle  of  the  eleventh  century,  between  105a  and 
1Q60.  He  travelled  at  a  very  early  period  into  Italy  and 
Germany,  in  order  to  improve  himself  in  knowledge,  and 
for  a  considerable  time  his  countrymen  were  not  at  all  aware 
of  what  had  become  of  him.    At  length  Jonas,  the  son  of 

Tinboschi.— NiotroD,  ? oL  XXVIII.--«Ftfl8weH*8  Politiaa.— Roseoe't  tinot 

S  A  £  M  y  N  D.  35 

Ogmund,  who  was  afiterwards  a  bishop,  found  him  at  Paris, 
aod  carried  him  back  to  Iceland..   Here  he  took  the  order 
of  priesthood,  and  succeeded  his  father  as  priest  of  Odda.- 
fie  also  established  a  school,  and  contributed  with  others 
to  induce  the  Icelanders  to  pay  tithes,  and  took  a  consi- 
derable part  with  regard  to  the  formation  of  the  ecclesias- 
tical code  of  laws.     He  died  in  1 133  or  1  ld5,  being  about 
^iglity  years  of  age.     At  the  age  of  seventy  he  wrote  a 
History  of  Norway,  from  the  time  of  Harold  Haarfager  to 
that  of  Magnus  the  Good«     He  is  generally  allpwed  the 
merit  of  having  collected  the  poetical  Edda,   by  which 
means  he  preserved  these  curious  and  valuable  remains  of 
the  ancient  Scandinavian  mythology,  poetry,  and  morality, 
from  being  lost   They  were  printed  at  Copenhagen,  1787, 
4t0y  with  a  Latin  translation,  the  editors  of  which,  in  their 
preface,  give  a  full  account  of  the  supposed  authors,  and 
the  claim  of  Saemund  to  be  considered  as  the  principal 

SAGE  (Alain  Rene'  Le),  the  first  of  French  novelists, 
was  born,  according  to  one  of  bis  biographers,  in  1677,  at 
Ruys,  in  Britanny;  or,  according  to  another,  in  1668,  at 
Vannes.  At  tlie  age  of  twenty-five  he  came  to  Paris,  with 
a  view  to  study  philosophy.  His  talents,  although  they 
did  not  display  themselves  very  early,  proved  to  be  equally 
brilliant  and  solid.  He  made  himself  first  known  by  a  pa- 
raphrastic translation  of  the  ^'  Letters  of  Aristasnetus," 
which  he  published  in  two  small  volumes*  He  then  travelled 
through  Spain,  and  applied  to  the  study  of  the  Spanish 
language,  customs,  and  writers,  from  whom  he  adopted 
plots  and  fables,  and  transfused  them  into  his  native  tongue 
with  great  facility  and  success.  His  works  of  this  kind  are, 
**  Guzman  D'Alfarache  ;'*  the  **  Bachelor  of  Salamanca;*' 
"  Gil  Bias;'*  "New  Adventures  of  Don  Quixote,'*  origi- 
nally written  by  Avellaneda;  **-The  Devil  on  two  Sticks,** 
as  it  is  called  in  our  translation,  in  French  '<  Le  Diable  boi- 
teux,**.and  some  others  of  less  note.  Of  the  "Devil  on 
two  Sticks,**  we  are  told  that  the  first  edition  had  amazing 
success,  and  the  second  sold  with  still  greater  rapidity. 
Two  noblemen  coming  to  the  bookseller's,  found  only  one 
lingle  copy  remaining,  which  each  was  for  purchasing: 
and  the  dispute  grew  so  warm,  that  they  were  going  to 
decide  it  by  the  sword,  had  not  the  bookseller  interposedi 

•  Work  aboTe  inentioft«d,«-5ee  Aiulytiatl  Itevicw,  vol.  Il 


it  iS  A  G  ic. 

He  was  also  dbtinguisbed  for  some  dramatic  pieces,  of 
which  "Crispin,**  and  "Turcaret,"  both  comedies,  wer* 
the  most  successful,  and'  allowed  to  fall  very  little  short  of 
the  genius  of  Moliere.  "  Turcaret,*'  which  was  first  played 
in  1709,  has  been  praised  by  the  French  critics,  as  com- 
prebending  a  dialogue  just  and  natural,  characters  drawn 
with  peculiar  fidelity,  and  a  well-conducted  plot  He 
composed  also  many  pieces  for  the  comic  opera,  which, 
if  somewhat  deficient  in  invention,  were  in  general  sprightly, 
and  enriched  with  borrowed  fancies  very  happily  adapted 
to  the  genius  of  the  French  theatre. 

When  a  favourite  with  the  town,  he  appears  to  have  pre- 
sumed a  little  on  that  circumstance.  It  was  his  custom  to 
read  his  plays  in  certain  fashionable  circles,  before  they 
were  publicly  represented.  On  one  of  those  occasions, 
when  engaged  to  read  a  piece  at  the  duchess  de  Bouil- 
lon's, an  unexpected  affair  detained  him  until  a  considera- 
ble time  after  the  appointed  hour.  The  duchess,  on  his 
entrance,  began  to  reproach  him,  but  with  pleasantry,  for 
bis  having  made  th^  company  lose  two  hours  in  waiting  for 
him.  "  If  I  have  made  them  lose  them,^'  said  Le  Sage, 
^^  nothing  can  be  more  easy  than  to  recover  them.  I  will 
not  read  my  play,''  and  immediately  took  his  leave,  nor 
could  any  invitation  induce  him  to  visit  the  duchess  a  se- 
cond time. 

He  had  several  children,  the  eldest  of  whom  was  long  a 
distinguished  actor  on  the  French  stage,  under  the  name  of 
Montmenil,  and  amidst  all  the  temptations  of  a  theatrical ' 
life,  was  a  man  of  irreproachable  character.  ^  He  died  sud- 
denly white  partaking  of  the  pleasures  of  the  chase,  Sept. 
8,  1743,  and  his  death  was  a  loss  ^o  the  public,  and  parti- 
cularly to  his  father,  who  was  now  grown  old,  and  had 
been  poorly  rewarded  by  the  age  which  he  contributed  so 
often  to  entertain.  He  was  likewise  at  this  time  very  deaf^ 
and  obliged  to  have  recourse  to  an  ear-trumpet,  which  he 
used  in  a  manner  that  bespoke  the  old  humourist.  It  was 
his  practice  to  take  it  out  of  his  pocket  when  he  had*  reason 
to  think  that  his  company  was  composed  of  men  of  genius^ 
but  he  very  gravely  replaced  it,  when  he  found  that  thej 
were  of  an  inferior  stamp. 

This  infirmity,  however,  depriving  him  of  the  pleasure! 
of  society,  he  left  Paris  for  Boulogne-sur-mer,  in  the  ca-. 
ihedral  of  which  one  of  bis  sons  held  a  canonry:  and  al- 
though of  ao  adyaQced  age,  Le  Sage  left  the  metropolian  ^f 

SAGE.  3^ 

taste,  literature,  and  gaiety,  with  considerable  regret.  He 
did  not  enjoy  his  retirement  long,  being  cut  off  by  a  severe 
illness,  Nov.  17,  1747,  in  his  eightieth  year.  He  was  in- 
ttrred  at  Boulogne,  with  the  following  epitaph : 

**  Sous  ce  tombeau  git  Le  Sage,  abattu 
Par  le  ciseau  de  la  Parque  importune : 
S*il  ne  fut  pas  ami  de  la  Fortune,  ^ 

II  fut  toq^ours  ami  de  la  Vertu." 

His  character  is  said  to  have  been  truly  amiable,  and  his 
conduct  strictly  moral  and  correct,  free  from  ambition,  and 
one  who  courted  fortune  no  farther  than  was  necessary  to 
enjoy  the  pleasures  and  quiet  of  a  literary  life. 
'  Of  all  his  works,  his  '*  Gil  Blas^*  is  by  far  the  most  po- 
pular, and' deservedly  ranks  very  high  among  the  produc- 
tions of  historical  fancy.  It  has  been,  we  believe,  trans- 
lated into  every  European  language,  iind  received  in  all 
nations,  as  a  faithful  portrait  of  human  nature.  Few  books 
have  been  so  frequently  quoted,  as  affording  happy  illus- 
trations of  general  manners,  and  of  the  common  caprices 
and  infirmities  incident  to  man.  Le  Sage,  says  Dr.  Moore, 
proves  himself  to  have  been  intimately  acquainted  with 
human  nature.  And  asjthe  moral  tendency  of  the  character 
of  Gil  Bias  has  been  sometimes  questioned,  the  same  au- 
thor very  properly  remarks  that  he  never  intended  that 
character  as  a  model  of  imitation.  His  object  seems  to 
have  been  to  exhibit  men  as  they  are,  not  as  they  ought  to 
be :  for  this  purpose  he  chooses  a  youth  of  no  extraordi-* 
nary  talents,  and  without  steady  principles,  open  to  be 
duped  by  knavery,  and  perverted  by  example.  He  sends 
him  like  a  spaniel,  through  the  open  fields,  the  coverts, 
the  giddy  heights,  and  latent  tracts  of  life,*  to  raise  the 
game  at  which  he  wishes  to  shoot ;  and  few  moral  bunts- 
men  ever  afforded  more  entertaining  sport. 

The  popularity  of  this  novel,  which  equals  that  of  almost 
any  of  our  own  most  favourite  productions,  may  afford  a 
lesson  to  the  writers  of  fiction,  who  are  ambitious  that  their 
works  may  live.  Had  Le  Sage  drawn  those  extravagant 
and  distorted  characters  which  are  so  common  in  the  novels 
published  within  the  last  twenty  years,  he  could  not  have 
expected  that  they  would  outlive  the  novelty  of  a  first  pe- 
rusal ;  but,  depicting  nature,  and  nature  only,  as  he  found 
her  in  men  of  all  ranks  apd  stations,  he  knew  that  what 
would  please  now  would  please  for  ever,  and  that  he  was  ^ 
speaking  a  ian|[uage  that  would  be  understood  in  every 


38  SAGE 

spot  of-  the  globe.  The  artifices  of  refined  and  highly  po* 
lished  society  may  introduce  variations  and  disguises 
which  give  an  air  of  novelty,  to  the  actions  of  men  ;  but 
original  manners  and  caprices,  such  as  Le  Sage  has  describ- 
ed, will  perhaps  at  all  times  be  acknowledged  to  be  just, 
natural,  and  faithful,  whether  we  apply  the  test  of  self- 
exafpination,  or  have  recourse  to  the  more  easy  practice  of 
remarking  the  conduct  of  those  with  whom  we  associate.^ 

SAGE  (John),  a  bishop  of  the  old  episcopal  church  of 
Scotland,  a  man  of  great  learning  and  worth,  and  an  able 
Controversial  writer  in  defence  of  the  church  to  which  he 
belonged,  was  born  in  1652.  He  was  the  son  of  captain 
Sage,  a  gentleman  of  Fifeshire  in  Scotland,  and  an  officer 
of  merit  in  lord  DufFus's  regiment,  who  fought  on  the  side 
'of  the  royalists  when  Monk  stormed  Dundee  in  1651.  Al- 
'  though,  like  many  other  royalists,  he  was  scantily  rewarded 
for  his  services,  he  was  able  to  give  his  son  a  liberal  edu- 
cation at  school,  and  at  the  university  of  St.  Andrew's, 
where  he  tooH  his  degree  of  master  of  arts  in  1672.  He 
passed  some  years  afterwards  as  schoolmaster  of  the  pa* 
rishes  of  Bingry  in  Fifeshire,  and  of  Tippermoor  in  Perth- 
shire, and  as  private  tutor  to  the  sons  of  a  gentleman  of 
focjtune,  whom  he  attended  at  school,  and  accompanied  to 
the  university  of  St.  Andrew's.  Jn  1684,  when  his  pupils 
left  him,  he  removed  from  St.  Andrew's,  and  when  uncer- 
tain what  course  to  pursue,  was  recommended  to  archbishop 
Hose,  who  gave  him  priest's  orders,  and  advised  him  to 
officiate  at  Glasgow.  Here  be  continued  to  display  his 
talents  till  the  revolution  in  1638,  when  the  presbyterian 
form  of  church  government  was  established,  and  then  went 
to  Edinburgh.  He  preached  in  this  city  a  while,  but  re- 
fusing to  take  the  oaths  of  allegiance,  was  obliged  to  de- 
sist, and  found  an  asylum  in  the  house  of  sir  William 
Bruce,  the  sheriff  of  Kinross,  who  approved  his  principles, 
and  admired  bis  virtues.  Returning  to  Edinburgh  in  1695^ 
where  he  appears  to  have  written  some  defences  of  the 
church  to  which  he  belonged,  he  was  observed,  and  obliged 
again  to  retire.  At  length  he  found  a  safe  retreat  with 
the  countess  of  Caliendar,  who  employed  him  as  chaplain, 
and  tutor  to  her  sons,  and  afterwards  he  lived  with  sir  John 
Steuart  of  GarntuUy  as  chaplain,  until  Jan.  25,  1705,  when 

1  Diet  Hist — Moore's  Life  of  Smollett.— Blair's  Lectares,— BeaUie's  Disser* 
tatiODS,  p.  570. 

SAGE.  89 

be  was  consecrated  a.  bishop.  In  the  folio  wing  year  his. 
health  began  to  decay,  and  after  trying  the  waters  of  Bath, 
in  1709,  and  change  of  air  in  other  places,  without  much 
benefit,  he  died  at  Edinburgh  June  7,  1711. 

Bishop  Sage  was  a  man  profoundly  skilled  in  all  the  an- 
cient languages,  which  gate  him  an  eminent  advantage 
over  his  adTersaries,  the  most  distinguished  of  whom  was 
Mr.  Gilbert  Rule,  principal  of  the  college  of  Edinburgh, 
who,  with  mneh  zeal^  and  no  mean  abilities,  was  over- 
matched by  the  superior  learning  and  historical  knowledge 
of  his  antagonist.  Sage  wrote  the  second  and  third  letters^ 
concerning  the  persecution  of  the  episcopal  clergy  in  Scot* 
land,  which  were  printed  at  London,  in  1689,  the  rev.- 
Thomas  Merer  having  written  the  first,  and  professor 
Monro  the  fourth'.  2.  **  An  account  of  the  late  establish" 
ment  of  Presbyterian  Government  by  the  parliament  of 
Scotland  in  1690,'*  Lond.  1693.  3.  '<  The  fundamental 
charter  of  Presbytery,'\ibid.  1695.  4.  "The  principles  of 
the  Cyprianic  age — with  regard  to  episcopal  power  and 
jurisdiction,"  ibid.  1695.  5.  "A  Vindication**  of  the  pre-' 
ceding,  ibid.  1701.  6.  ^VSome  remarks  on  a  Letter  from 
a  gentleman  in  the  city,  to  a  minister  in  the  country,  on 
Mr. David  Williamson's  sermon  before, the  General  As- 
sembly,'* Edin.  1703.  7.  ^^A  brief '  examination  of  some 
things  in  Mr.  Meldrum's  sermon,  preached  May  16,  1705, 
against  a  toleration  to  those  of  the  episcopal  persuasion," 
ibid.  1703.  8.  <<  The  reasonableness  of  a  *  toleration  of 
those  of  the  Episcopal  persuasion  inquired  into  purely  on 
chnreh  principles,'*  ibid.  1704;  9.  ^'The  Life  of  Gawin 
Douglas,"  bishop  of  Dunkeld,  prefixed  to  Ituddiman*s  edi- 
tion of  ^*  Douglas's  Virgil,**  1710.  10.  '^  An  Introduction  to 
Drummond's  History  of  the  Five  James*s,**  Edio.  1711,  with 
notes  by  Ruddiman,  who  always  spoke  highly  of  Sage  as 
a  scholar  and  companion.^ 

SAGITTARIUS  (Gaspar),  an  eminent  Lutheran  divine, 
historian  to  the  duke  of  Saxony,  and  prpfessor  of  history 
at  Halley  was  bom  Sept.  23,  1643,  at  Lunenburg.  He  stu« 
died  in,  or  visited  the  greatest  part  of  the  German  univer- 
sities, where  he  was  much  esteemed  for  his  extensive  know« 
ledge  of  history  and  antiquities.     He  died  March  9,  1694, 

*  Life  of  Sage,  anoninaouSy  but  written  by.  Mr.  Jobn  Gillan,  a  bishop  of  the 
same  churchy  Lond.  1714,  8vo.— Chalmers's  Life  of  Raddiman,  p.  54.— Tytler*! 
Life  of  Kaimes.— Gillan's  Life  of  Sage  is  scaree  ^  but  an  ample  abridgment  may 
be  Men  in  the  Encyclopedia  Britannica. 



leaving  nearly  TO  yolumes  of  dissertationsi  principally  en 
historical  subjects ;  on  oracles ;  on  the  gates  of  the  an- 
cients; ^^Tfae  succession  of  the  Princes  of  Orange/'  4to; 
**  History  of  the  City  of  Herderwich ;"  a  life  of  St  Norbert, 
1683 ;  ^^Tractatus  varii  de  historia  legenda/'  4to  ;  **  His- 
toria  antiqua  Noribergse/'  4to;  '^  Origin  of  the  Dukes  of 
Brunswick  ;"  "  History  of  Lubec ;"  "  Antiquities  of  the 
kingdom  of  Thuringia  ;*'  "  History  of  the  Marquises  and 
Electors  of  Brandenburg/'  and  many  others,  enumerated  by 
Niceron.  His  life  was  written  by  Schmid,  and  published 
in  1713,  8vo.' 
SAINCTES  (Claudius  de),  in  Latin  Sanctesius,  was 

.  born  in  1525,  at  Perche.  He  entered  as  a  regular  canon 
in  the  abbey  de  St.  Cheron,  nea^  Chartres  ;  at  the  age  of 
fifteen  was  admitted  doctor  of  the  Sorbonne,  1555,  and  re^ 
sided  afterwards  in  the  house  of  cardinal  de  LoiYaine,  who 
employed  him  at  the  conference  of  Poissy,  in  1561,  and 
persuaded  king.  Charles  IX.  to  send  him  to  the  council  of 
Trent,  with  eleven  other  doctors.  In  1566  De  Sainctes, 
with  Simon  Vigor,  afterwards  archbishop  of  Narbonne,  dis- 
puted against  two  protestant  ministers,  at  the  house  of  the 
duke  de  Nevers,  and  published  the  records  of  this  con- 
ference two  years  after,  and  had  also  a  controversy  with 
Sadeel,  as  we  have  recently  noticed  in  his  article.  He 
became  so  celebrated  for  his  writings,  sermons,  and  zeal 
against  the  protestants,  as  to  be  promoted  to  the  bishopric 
of  Evreux  in  1575.  The  following  year  he  attended  the 
states  of  Blois,  and  in  1581,  the  council  of  Rouen;  but 
having  afterwards  joined  the  most  violent  among  the 
Leaguers^  was  seized  at  Louviers  by  Henry  IVth^s  party, 
who  found  a  writing  among  his  papers,  in  which  he  pre- 
tended to  justify  the  assassination  of  Henry  III.  and  de- 
clared that  the  present  king  deserved  the  same  treatment. 
Being  carried  as  a  prisoner  to  Caen,  he  would  there  have 
received  the  punishment  due  to  his  attempt,  had. not  car- 
dinal de  Bourbon,  and  some  other  prelates,  interceded  that 
his  punishment  should  be  perpetual  imprisonment.  He 
vas  accordingly  confined  in  the  castle  de  Crevecoeur,  in 
the  diocese  4f  LisieUx,  where  he  died  in  1591.  De  Sainctea 
left  many  learned  works,  the  largest  and  most  scarce  among 

'  which  is  a  "  Treatise  on  the  Eucharist,^'  in  Latin,  folio,  au 
edition  of  St.  James's,    St.  Basil's,  and  St.  Chrysostom^s 

1  NioeroDy  toI.  IV.— Mortrl— Diet*  Hitt. 



Liturgies,"  Antwerp,  1560,  8vo,  afterwards  reprinted, 
bat  this  is  the  only  edition  that  is  valued.' 


ST.  AMAND  (James),  a  classical  scholar  and  critic,  was 
probably  the  descendant  of  a  French  family^  but  we  find  no 
mentbn  of  him  in  any  French  biographical  work,  and  are 
unable  to  say  much  of  his  early  history.  In  1705,  he  was 
a  student  at  Lincoln  college,  Oxford,  but  made  no  long 
stay  there.  His  passion  for  Greek  literature,  but  particu* 
lariy  for  acquiring  materials  towards  a  new  edition  of  Theo» 
critus,  led  him  to  Italy,  where,  though  yoi:^ng,  for  he  was 
scarce  twenty,  he  obtained  a  distinguished  reputation  for 
learning,  and  became  acquainted  with  men  of  the  first 
erudition,  among  whom  were  Gravina,  Fontanini,  and 
others.  By  their  acquaintance  he  was  easily  introduced 
into  the  best  libraries ;  and  at  Florence  in  particular,  he 
was  favoured  with  the  friendship  of  the  learned  professor 
Salvini,  who  furnished  him  with  several  materials  relating 
to  Theocritus  from  the  Laurentian  library  and  St.  Mary's 
monastery  of  Benedictines.  The  patronage  and  friendship 
of  Mr.  Newton  too,  the  English  ambassador  at  the  grand 
duke's  court,  were  of  signal  service  to  him.  After  spend- 
ing some  time  with  these  and  other  learned  men,  in  a  mu-- 
tual  exchange  of  literary  treasures  and  observations,  he 
returned  to  England  by  way  of  Geneva  and  Paris,  and  died, 
not  about  1750,  as  Mr.  Warton  says,  but  Sept.  5,  1754,  at 
his  house  in  Red-lion-square,  leaving  the  valuable  collec- 
tion of  books  and  MSS.  he  had  made  abroad  to  the  Bodleian 
library,  and  the  duplicates  of  his  books  to  Lincoln  college. 
Of  the  MSS.  Mr.  Warton  availed  himself  in  his  edition 
of  Theocritus.  Mr.  St.  Amand  left  also  8006/.  to  Christ's 
hospital^  and  other  legacies,  which  shew  that  he  was  a  man 
of  considerable  opulence.* 

ST«  AM  ANT  (Mark-Anthony- Gerard,  sieur  de),  a 
French  poet,  was  born  at  Roan  in  Normandy  in  1594.  In 
the  epistle  dedicatory  to  the  third  part  of  his  works,  he  tells 
us,  that  his  father  commanded  a  squadron  of  ships  in  the 
service  of  Elizabeth  queen  of  England  for  twenty-two' 
years,  and  that  he  was  for  three  yeass  prisoner  in  the  Black 
Tower  at  Constantinople.  He  mentions  also,  that  two 
brothers  of ,  bis  had  been  killed  in  an  engagement  against 

1  Gen.  Diet.  art.  Sabctesiut.— Moreri. 

•  Warton's  Preface  to  bii  Tbeocritas.— Gent,  Mag.  Tol.  XXIV.— Wood*t  Col« 
Icf  61  and  Ball8»  and  Annali* 


42  ST.   A  M  A  N  T. 

the  Tiirks.  His  own  life  was  spent  in  a  continual  succes- 
sion of  travels,  which  were  of  no  advaiftage  to  his  fortune. 
There  are  miscellaneous  poems  of  this  author,  the  greatest 
part  of  which  are  of  the  comic  or  burlesque,  and  the  ama- 
tory kind.  The  first  volume  was  printed  at  Paris  in  1627, 
the  second  in  1643,  and  the  third  in  1649,  and  they  bare 
been  reprinted  several  times.  "  Solitude,  an  ode,"  which 
is  one  of  the  first  of  them,  is  his  best  piece  in  the  opinion 
of  Mr.  Boileau.  In  1650  he  published  <^  Stances  sur  la 
grossesse  de  la  reine  de  Pologne  et  de  Suede.'*  In  1654 
he  printed  his  ^<  Moise  sauv6,  idylle  heroique,"  Leyden  ; 
which  had  at  first  many  admirers:  Chapelain  called  it  a 
"speaking  picture  ;  but  it  has  not  preserved  its  reputation. 
St.  Amant  wrote  also  a  very  devout  piece,  entitled  "  Stances 
it  M.  Corneilie,  sur  son  imitation  de  Jesus  Christ,^'  Paris, 
1656.  Mr.  Brossette  says  that  he  wrote  also  a  poem  upon 
the  moon,  in  which  he  introduced  a  compliment  to  Lewis 
XIV.  upon  his  skill  in  swimming,  an  amusement  he  often 
took  when  young  in  the  river  Seine  ;  but  the  king's  dislike 
to  this  poem  is  said  to  have  affected  the  author  to  such  a 
degree,  that  he  did  not  survive  it  long.  He  died  in  1661, 
aged  sixty-seven.  He  was  admitted  a  member  of  the 
French  academy,  when  first  founded  by  cardinal  Bichelieu, 
in  1633;  and  Mr.  Pelisson  informs  us,  that,  in  1637,  at 
his  own  desire,  he  was  excused  from  the  obligation  of 
making  a  speech  in  his  turn,  on  condition  that  he  would 
compile  the  comic  part  of  the  dictionary  which  the  academy 
had  undertaken,  and  collect  the  burlesque  terms.  This 
was  a  task  well  suited  to  him  ;  for  it  appears  by  his  writings 
that  he  was  extremely  conversant  in  these  terms,  of  which 
he  seems  to  have  made  a  complete  collection  from  the 
markets  and  other  places  where  the  lower  people  resort.^ 

ST.  AMOUR  (William  de),  doctor  of  the  Sorbonne, 
and  one  of  the  greatest  ornaments  of  Christianity  which 
appeared  in  the  Romish  communion  in  the  thirteenth  cen- 
tury, had  his  name  from  St  Amour  in  Franche  Compt6, 
where  he  was  born  about  the,  commencement  of  that  cen- 
tury. The  zeal  which  he  showed  against  the  new  institu- 
tion of  mendicant  friars,  both  in  his  sen^pns,  and  as  theo- 
logical professor,  induced  the  university  of  Paris  to  make 
choice  of  him  to  defend  their  interests  against  the  Domini- 
cans and  Franciscans,  who  wished  to  engross  the  power  and 

1  Gen.  Diet*— -Aforeri. 

ST.    A  M  O  U  »•  43 

influence  of  tbe  unirersity  to  themselves.  In  1255,  the  de- 
bate was  brought  before  the  pope  Alexander  IV.  who^-with 
intolerable  arrogance,  ordered  the  university  not  only  to 
restore  the  Dominicans  to  their  former  station,  but  also  to 
grant  them  as  many  professorships  as  they  should  require. 
The  magistrates  of  Paris,  at  first,  were  disposed  to  protect 
the  university ;  but  the  terror  of  the  papal  edicts  reduced 
them  at  length  to  silence;  and  not  only  the  Dominicans, 
but  also  the  Franciscans,  assumed  whatever  power  they 
pleased  in  that  famous  seminary,  and  knew  no  other  restric- 
tions than  what  the  pope  imposed  upon  them.  St.  Amour, 
however^  wrote  several  treatises  against  the  mendicant  or- 
ders, and  particularly,  in  1255,  or  1256,  his  famous  book, 
*^  Perils  des  derniers  temps,"  concerning  the  ^^  perils  of 
the  latter  days,"  in  which  he  maintained  that  St.  Paul's 
prophecy  of  the  latter  times  (2  Tim.  iii.  1.)  was  fulfilling  in 
the  abominations  of  the  friars,  and  laid  down  thirty-nine 
marks  of  false  teachers. 

Some  years  before  the  pope  had  decided  in  favour  of  the 
mendicants,  a  fanatical  book  under  the  title  of'  an  *'  Intro- 
duction to  the  Everlasting  Gospel"  was  published  by  a 
Franciscan^  who  exalted  St.  Francis  above  Jesus  Christ, 
and  arrogated  to  his  order  the  glory  of  reforming  mankind 
by  a  new  gospel.  The  universal  ferment,  excited  by  thrs 
impious  book,  obliged  Alexander  IV.  to  suppress  it,  but  he 
ordered  it  to  be  burnt  in  secret,  being  willing  to  spare  the 
reputation  of  the  mendicants.  The  university  of  Paris, 
however,  insisted  upon  a  public  condemnation  of  the  book ; 
and  Alexander,  great  as  he  was  in  power,  was  obliged  to 
submit.  He  then  took  revenge  by  condemning  St.  Amour*s 
work  to  be  burnt,  and  the  author  to  be  banished  from 
France.  St.  Amour  retired  to  his  native  place,  and  was 
Hot  permitted  to  return  to  Paris  until  the  pontificate  of  Cle- 
ment IV.  He  died  at  Paris  in  1272*  His  works  were  pub- 
lished there  in  T632,  4to.  He  was  a  man  of  learning  and 
correct  manners,  of  great  zeal,  and,  in  the  opinion  of  a 
late  writer,  wanted  only  a  more  favourable  soil,  in  which 
he  might  bring  to  maturity  the  fruits  of  those  protestant 
principles,  the  seeds  of  which  he  nourished  in  bis  breast.^ 

SAINT-ANDRE'    (NathaNAEL),    an    anatomist,    well 
known  in  this  country  on  account  of  the  imposture  of  the 

>  Biog.  Uttiv.  art.  Amoar*— Milaer't  Eccl.  Hist.  toI.  IV.  p.  20.— Dapin.— 

*4  S  A  1  N  T  -  A  N  D  R  E'. 

RabbiUwoman^  and  for  various  eccentricities  of  conduct, 
was  a  native  of  Switzerland,  but,  on  coming  over  to  Eng- 
land, was  placed  by  some  friends  under  a  surgeon  of  emi- 
nence, in  which  profession  be  became  skilful.  ,  He,  for  a 
time,  read  public  lectures  on  anatomy,  and  obtained  con* 
siderable  reputation  ;  which  was  ruined  by  the  part  he  took 
in  the  affair  of  Mary  Tofts,  as  well  as  by  many  other  irre^* 
gularities  of  character.  He  died  in  1776,  after  having 
been  for  many,  years  the  subject  of  more  curiosity  and  con- 
versation than  any  of  his  contemporaries,  though  without 
eny  extraordinary-talents,  or  claims  to  distinction.  They 
'who  are  curious  to  know  more  of  his  character  may  have 
their  curiosity  gratified  in  the  ^^  Ane'cdotes  of  HogarthV  by 


ST.  GERMAN,  or  SEINTGERMAN  (Christopher), 
90  English  lawyer  and  law-writer  of  the  sixkeenthcentury^ 
is  supposed  to  have  been  born  at  Skilton,  near  Coventry, 
ia  Warwickshire,  and  educated  for  some  time  at  Oxford, 

'  whence  he  removed  to  the  Inner  Temple  for  the  study  of  the 
law.  After  being  admitted  to  the  bar,  he  became'an  emi- 
nent counsellor,  and  we  should  suppose  a  very  popular  one, 
as  he  frequently  refused  or  returned  his  fees.     What  he 

"  go^  by  honourable  practice  and  #ome  paternal  estate,  he 
expended  in  the  purchase  of  books,  and  gathered  a  very 
fine  library,  which  was  all  the  property  he  left  to  his  heirs. 
Besides  his  legal  knowledge,  be  was  conversant  in  philo- 
sophy and  the  divinity  of  tb^  times,  and  jirrote  on  tlie. latter 
subject  with  so  much  freedom  as  to  render  his  sentiments 
suspected,  for  which  reason  Bale  has  given  him  a  very  adi* 
vaQtageous  character.  He  is  jcommended  too  for  bis  pietjr, 
ivnd  pious  ordering  of  his  family,  to  whom  he  xead  .every' 
night  a  chapter  in  the  Bible,  and  expounded  it.  He  died 
Sept.  28,  1540,   and  npt  1539,  as  Bale  states.     He  was 

^  buried  in  the  church. of  St.  Alphage,.  within  Cripplegate, 
London.  It  appears  by  his  will  that  be  was  a  considerable 
l^enefactor  to  Skilton  church,  where  bis  father  sir  Henry 
St.  German,  knt.  and  his  mother  lie  buried,  and  to  that  of 

.  Laleford.  St.  German  has  immortalized  his  name  by  his 
valuable  and  well-known  work,  which  bears  the  title  of 
^VThe  Doctor  and  Student,  or  Dialogues  between. a. doctor 
•f  divinity,  and  a  student  in  the  laws  of  England,  concern- 

0  « 

I  Nichols's  Hogarth. 

ST.    GERMAN.  4B 

log  the  grounds  of  those  liws,**  first  printed  by  Rastell,  in 
Latin,  1523, 12mo,  and  reprinted  in  1528.  ]i|r*  Bridgoian 
eouoierates  above  twenty  editions  which  followed,  the  last 
in  1787,  8vo,'  with  questions  and  cases  concerning  the 
equity  of  the  law,  qorret.ted  and  improved  by  Wiiliam 
Muchall^  or  MiirchaU.  On  the  subject  of  this  celebrated 
work,  A^.iiargrave  (in  his  Law  Tract8j52 1),  has  published 
•from  a 'MS.  in  the  Cotton  library,  *^  A  Replication  of  a 
Seijftante  at  the  Laws  of  England,  to  certayne  pointes  al- 
leaged  by  a  student  of  the  said  lawes  of  England,  in  a  Dia*- 
logue  in  Englishe,  between  a  doctor  of  divinity  and  the 
said  student ;"  and  a  little  ^*  Treatise  concerning  writs  of 
Subpoena.''  Two  other  tracts  are  attributed  by  Ames  to 
.St  German,  though  they  bear  the  name  of  Thomas  God- 
frey, viz.  ^^  A  Treatise  concerning  the  power  of  the  Clergy 
and  of  the  lawes  of  the  Realme,'*  12mo,  no  date ;  and  ^*  A 
Treatise  concernynge  divers  of  the  Constitucyons  provya- 
cyall  and  legantines,''  12mo,  no  date.  Tanner  attributes 
to  him  ^<  A  Treatise  concerning  the  division  between  the 
.Spiritualitie  and  the  Temporaltie,"  printed  by  Redman 
without  date ;.  and  this  seems  to  be  the  same  work  as  **  The 
•PacyfyeV  of  the  division  between  the  Spiritualitie  and  Tem« 
poraltie,'V  printed  by .  Berthelet,  which  being  remarkable 
for  impartiality  and  temperate  language,  was  pointed  out 
to  sir  Thomas  More^  as  an  example  for  him  to  follow  in 
his  controversial  writings.  This  incited  sir  Thomas  to  pub* 
lish  <^  Ao  Apology e  made  by  him,  anno  1533,  after  he  had 
gevin  over  th'.'office  of  lord  chancellor  of  Englande,''  print- 
ed by  Rastell,  1 5 3 3, '  1 2 mo.  St.  German  was  also  proliibly 
the  author  of  ^*  Newe  addicions  treating  most  specially,  of 
the  power  of  .the  Parlyament  concernynge  the  Spiritualitie 
and  the  Spiritual  Jurisdiction,''  1531,  12mo,  now  reprinted 
in  all  the  modern;,  editions  of  the  **  Doctor  and  Student.'^ 
He  had  a.  controversy  with  sir  Thomas  More,  which  pro- 
duced ^^  Salem  and  6i:Saucej  being  a  dialogue  between  two 
Englishmen,  one  called  Salem,  and  llie  other  Bizance,*' 
1533,  8vo.  This  wa^  written  in  answer  to  More's  ^^  Apo- 
logye"  above  mentioned ;  and  sir  Thomas  replied  in  the 
'^Debellation  of  Salem  and  Bisance,"  by  Rastell,  in  153S(« 

SAINT-JOHN  (Henry),  lord  viscount  Bolingbroke,  au 
Eminent  statesman  atid  writer^   >yas   descended  from  an 

^  T^if^.-T'Bale.— Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.-'Bridsman's  Legal  Bibliography. 

W  S  A  IN  T- J  OH  N; 

ancient  and  noble  family,  and  born,  as  all  his  biographers 
say,  in  16]g,  but  it  appears  by  the  register  of  Battersea 
parish  that  he  was  baptised  Oct.  10,  1678.  Hisfather,  sir 
Henry  St.  John,  son  of  sir  Waiter  St.  John,  died  at  Bat- 
tersea, his  family-seat,  July  3,  1708,  in  his  eighty-seventh 
year :  his  mother  was  lady  Mary,  second  daughter  and  co- 
heiress of  Robert  Rich,  earl  of  Warwick.  He  was  bred 
up,  with  great  care,  under  the  inspection  of  bis  grand- 
father, as  well  as  his  father,  who  neglected  no  means  to 
cultivate  bis  mipd.  It  was  once  noticed  in  parliament  that 
he  was  educated  in  dissenting  principles,  and  it  is  very 
certain  that  the  first  director  of  his  studies  was  the  famous 
I>aniel  Burgess,  who,  with  all  his  oddities  (See  BuROESS) 
was  frequently  employed  s^  tutor  tct  the  sons  of  men  of 
rank.  Goldsmith  seems  desirous  to  impute  Bolingbroke^s 
infidelity  to  this  divine,  and  to  his  being  obliged  to  read 
Manton's  Sermons  on  the  1 19th  Psalm  ;  but  such  an  opi- 
nion is  as  dangerous  as  it  is  absurd.  From  Bui^ss  or 
Manton,  he  could  have  imbibed  owiy  a  higher  reverence 
for  religion  than  was  to  be  expected  from  a  lively  youth  ; 
end  as  to  the  disgust  he  felt,  to  which  his  biographer 
seems  inclined  to  trace  his  infidelity,  it  is  probable  that  a 
boy  would  not  have  entertained  much  less  dislike  to  a  vo*' 
luminous  history  of  England,  if  pbliged  to  read  it  when  he 
wished  to  be  idle.  But,  whatever  instruction  he  might  re- 
ceive from  his  first  tutors,  it  is  very  certain,  that  he  had  |i 
regular  and  liberal  education.  He  was  sent  to  Eton, 
where  he  had  for  his  companion  and  rival  sit*  Robert  Wal- 
poldb  "  The  parts  of  Mr.  St.  John,*'  says  Coxe,  *•  w^re 
more  lively  and  brilliant,  those  of  Walpole'more  steady 
and  solid.  Walpole  was  industrious  and  diligent,  because 
his  talents  required,  application ;  St.  John  was  negligent, 
because  >his  quickness  of  apprehension  rendered  labour 
less  necessary.'*  These  characteristics  prevailed  in  both 
throughout  life.  From  £ton  Mr.  St.  John  was  removed  to 
ChrisJ^churcb,  Oxford,  where  he  made  a  shining  figure<aa 
a  polite  scholar,  and  when  he  left  the  university,  he  was 
considered  las  a  youth  highly  accomplished  for  public  life. 
His  person  was  agreeable,  and  he  had  a  dignity  mixed  with 
sweetness  in  his  looks,  and  a  manner  very  prepossessing, 
and,  as  some  of  his  contemporaries  said,  irresistible*  He 
bad  much  acuteness,  great  judgment,  and  a  prodigious 
memory.  Whatever  he  read  he  retained  so  as  to  make 
it  entirely  hi3  own  ^  but  in  youth,  he  was  not  in  general 

S  A  I  N  T  .  J  O  H  N.  47 

much  given  either  to  reading  or  reflection.  With  great 
parts,  be  had,  as  it  usually  happens,  great -passions; 
which  hurried  him  into  those  indiscretions  and  follies  that 
distinguish  the  libertine.  He  does  not,  however,  appear 
to  have  been  without  his  serious  moments,  nor  always  un- 
willing to  listen  to  the  voice  of  conscience.  ^'  There  has 
been  something  always,"  says  he,  ^^  ready  to  whisper  in 
my  ear,  while  I  ran  the  course  of  pleasure  and  of  business^ 
f  Solve  senescentem  mature  sanas  equum;*  ^  and  while  'tis 
well,  release  thy  aged  horse.*  But  my  genius,  unlike  the 
demon  of  Socrates,  whispered  so  softly,  that  very  often  I 
heard  him  not,  in  the  hurry  of  those  passions  with  which  I 
was  transported.  Some  calmer  hours  there  were ;  in  them 
I  hearkened  to  him.  Reflection  had  often  its  turn ;  and 
the  love  of  study  and 'the  desire  of  knowledge  have  never 
quite  abandt>ned  me«  I  am  not,  therefore^  entirely  unpre- 
pared for  the  life  I  will  lead ;  and  it  is  not  without  reason 
that  I  promise  myself  more  satisfaction  in  the  latter  part  of 
it  than  I  ever  knew  in  the  former.** 

As  these  youthful  extravagances  involved  him  in  discre- 
dit, bis  parents  were  very  desirous  to  reclaim  bim.  With 
this  view,  when  in  his  twenty-second  year,  they  married 
him  toi  the  daughter  and  coheire;ss  of  sir  Henry  Winche- 
pomb  of  Bucklebury,  in  the  county  of  Berks,  hart.;  and 
upon  this  marriage  a  large  settlement  was  made,  which 
proved  very  serviceable  to  him  in  his  old  age,  though  a 
great  part  of  what  his  lady  brought  was  taken  from  him,  in 
consequence  of  his  attainder.  The  union  in  other  respects 
was  not  much  to  his  liking.  .  The  same  year  he  was  elected 
for  the  borough  of  Wotton^Basset,  and  sat  in  the  fifth 
pariiament  of  king  William,  which  met  Feb.  10,  1700; 
and  in  which  Robert  Harley,  esq.  afterwarda  earl  of  Ox- 
ford, was  chosen  for  the  first  time  speaker.  Of  this  short 
pariiament,  which  ended  June  24^  1701,  the  business  waa 
the  impeachment  of  the  king's  ministers,  who  wer^^  con- 
cerned in  the  conclusion  of  the  two  partition-treaties ;  and^ 
Mr.  St.  John  siding  with  the  majority,  who  were  then  con- 
sidered as  tories,  ought  to  be  looked  upon  a»  commencing 
his  politicid  career  in  that  character.  He  sat  also  in  the 
next,  which  was  the  last  parliament  in  the  reign  of  William, 
and  the  first  in  that  of  Anne.  He  was  charged,  sfo  early 
as  1710,  with  having  voted  this  year  against  the  succes- 
sion in  the  House  bf  Hanover ;  but  this  he  has  peremp- 
tiprily. denied^  becfiuse  in  1701  a  bill  wa»  brought  into  par- 


Jiament,  by  sir  Charles  Hedges  and  himself^  entitled  **  A 
Bill  for  tte  farther  security  of  bis  majesty's  person,  and 
the  succession  of  the  crown  in  the  Protestant  line,  and 
extinguishing  the  hopes  of  the  pretended  prince  of  Wale?, 
«nd  all  other  pretenders,  and  their  open  and  secret  abet*- 
•tors."  In  July  1702,' upon  the  dissolution  of  the  second 
parliament,  the  queen  making  a  tour  from  Windsor  to 
Bath,  by  way  of  Oxford,  Mr.  St.  John  attended  her;  and, 
at  that  university,  with  several  persons  of  the  highest  dis- 
tinction, had  the  degree  of  doctor  of  laws  conferred  upon 

Persevering  steadily  in  the  same  tory-connections,  to 
which  he  adhered  against  the  whig  principles  of  his  faniily, 
.his  fathe^  and  grandfather  being  both  of  that  party,  be 
gained  such  au  influence  in  the  house,  that  on  April  10^ 
1704,  be  was  appointed  secretary  pf  war,  and  of  the  ma- 
rines. As  this  post  required  a  constant  correspondency 
with  the  duke  of  Marlborough,  it  appears  to  have  been  the 
principal  foundation  of  the  rumours  raised  many  ye^ra 
after,  that  he  was  in  a  particular  manner  attached  to  the 
duke.  It  is  certain,  that  he  knew  his  worth,  and  was  a 
Mncere  admirer  of  him ;  but  he  always  denied  apy  particu* 
lar  connection ;  nor  was  he  ever  charged  by  the  duke  or 
duchess  with  ingratitude  or  breach  of  engagement  to  them; 
In  all  political  measures,  Mr.  St.  John  acted  with  Mr. 
Harley :  and,  therefore,  when  this  minister  was  removed 
from  the  seals  in  1 707,  Mr.  St.  John  chose  to  follow  his  for- 
tune, and  the  next  day  resigned  his  place.  He  was  not 
returned  in  the  subsequent  parliament ;  but,  upon  the  dis-^ 
solution  of  it  in  1710,  Harley  being  made  chancellor  and 
under^treasurei^  of  the  Exchequer,  the  post  of  secretary  of 
state  was  given  to  St.  John.  About  the  same  time  he  wrote 
the  famous  *^  Letter  to  the  Examiner,^  to  be  found  among 
the  first  of  those  papers :  it  was  then  universally  ascribed 
to  him,  and  gave  no  inconsiderable  proofs  of  his  abilities 
as  a  writer ;  for  in  this  single  short  paper  are  comprehended 
the  outlines  of  that  design  on  which  Swift  employed  him- 
self for  near  a  twelvemonth. 

Upon  the  calling  of  a  new  parliament  in  November,  he 
was  chosen  knight  of  the  shire  for  the  county  of  Berks^ 
and  also  burgess  for  Wotton-Basset;  but  made  bis  election- 
for  the  former.  He  appeared  now  upon  a  scene  of  action^' 
which  called  forth  all  his  abilities.  He  sustained  almost 
tbe  whole-weight  of  the  business  of  the  peace  of  Utrecht, 

S  A  I  NT- J  O  H  N.  49 

which  bovtfwer  he  vras  not  supposed  to  negotiate  to  the 
adiracitage  of  his  country:  and  therefore  bad  an  ample 
abare  of  the  censure  bestowed  on  that  treaty  ever  since. 
The  real^  state  of  the  case  is,  that  '^  the  two  parties/'  as 
be  bioiseif  owns,  **  were  become  factions  in  tbe  strict  sense  . 
of  the  word."  He  was  of  that  which  prevailed  for  peace, 
againsv  those  who  delighted  in  war ;  for  this  was  the  Ian-* 
guage  of  the  times :  and,  a  peace  being  resolved  on  by  the 
English  ministers  at  all  risk^,  it  is  no  wonder  if  it  was  made 
with  less  advantage  to  the  nation.  He  owns  this,  yet  justi^ 
fies  the  peace  in  general :  '<  Though  it  was  a  duty,'*  saya 
he,  '*  that  we  owed  to  our  country,  to  deliver  her  from  the 
necessity  of  bearing  any  longer  so  uneqtol  a  part  in  so 
unneoessary  a  war,  yet  was  there  some  degree  of  merit  in 
performing  it,  I  think  so  strongly  in  this  manner,  I  am 
so  incorrigible,  that,  if  I  could  be  placed  in  tlie  same  cir<» 
camstances  again,  I  would  take  the  same  resolution,  and 
act  the  same  part.  Age  and  experience  might  enable  me 
to  act  with  more  abili^and  greater  skill;  but  all  I  have 
suffered  sipce  the  death  of  the  queen  should  not  hinder  me 
froin  acting.  Notwithstanding  this,  I  shall  not  be  surprised 
if  you  think  that  the  peace  of  Utrecht  was  not  answerable' 
to  the  success  of  the  war,  nor  to  the  e({brts  made  in  it.  I 
think  so  myself;  and  Have  always  owned,  even  when  it 
was  making  and  made,  that  I  thottght  so.  Since  we  had 
committed  a  successinl  folly,  we  ought  to  have  reaped 
more  advantage  from  it  than  we  did." 

In  July  1712,  be  was  created  baron  St.  John  of  Lediard* 
Tregoze  in  Wiltshire,  and  viscount  Bolingbroke ;  and  was 
also,  the  same  year,  appointed  lord-lieutenant  of  tbe  county 
of  Essex.  Biii^  these  honours  not  coming  up  to  the  mea- 
sure of  his  mtibitionl,  he  meditated  supplanting  Harley, 
now  earl  of  Oxford,  who  had  ofiended'  him,  even  in  the 
matter  of  tbe  peerage.  Paulet  St.  John,  the  last  earl  of 
Bolingbroke,  died  the  5th  of  October  preceding  his  crea-- 
tion ;  and  the  earldon^  became  extinct  by  bis  decease,  add 
this  honour  had  been  proudised  to  him;  but,  bis  presence 
in  the  House  of  Cottkmons  being  so  necesf^a^y  at  that  tiine^ 
Barley  prevailed  upon  him  to  remain  there  daring  that 
session;  with  an  assurance,  that  bis  rank  should  be  pre-^ 
served  for  him.  But,  whe»  be  expected  t heboid  title  should' 
have  been  renewed  in  his  favour,  be  received  only  that  of 
viscount;  which  he  resented  as  an  intended  alfr^nt  on  the 
part  of  Harley,  who  had  got  an  earldom  for  himself.     "  I 

Vol.  XXVII.  E 

50  S  A  I  N  T  -  J  O  H  N; 

eontinuecl>*'  says  Bolingblroke,  <^  in  the  House  of  Com*' 
mons  during  that  important  session  which  preceded  the 
peace;  and  which,  by  the  spirit  shewn  through  the  whole 
course  of  it,  and  by  the  resolutions  taken  in  it,  rendered 
the  conclusion  of  the  treaties  practicable.  After  this,  I 
was  dragged  into  the  House  of  Lc^rds  in  such  a  manner  as 
to  make  my  promotipn  a  punishment,  not  a  reward*;  and 
was  there  left  to  defend  the  treaties  alone.  It  would  not 
have  been  hard,"  continues  he,  *^  to  have  forced  the  earl 
of  Oxford  to  use  me  better.  His  good  intentions  began  to 
be  very  much  doubted  of:  the  truth  is,  no  opinion  of  his 
sincerity  had  ever  taken  root  in  the  party;  and,  which 
was  worse  for  a  man  in  his  stiation,  the  opinion  of  his 
capacity  began  to  fall  apace.  1  began  in  my  heart  to  re- 
nounce the  friendship  which,  till  that  time,  I  had  preserved 
inviolable  for  Oxford.  I  was  not  aware  of  all  his  treachery, 
nor  of  the  base  and  little'  means  which  he  employed  then, 
'  and  continued  to  employ  afterwards,  to  ruin  me  in  the 
opinion  of  the  queen,  and  every  where  else.  I  saw,  how- 
ever, that  he  bad  no  friendship  for  any  body;  and  that,  with 
respect  to  me,  instead  of  having  the  ability  to  render  that 
merit,  which  I  endeavoured  to  acquire,  an  addition  of 
strength  to  himself,  it  became  the  object  of  his  jealousy, 
and  a  reason  for  undermining  me.'^  There  was  also  ano- 
ther transaction,  .which  passed  not  long  after  lord  Boling- 
broke^s  being  laised  to  the  peerage,  SLud  which  aggravated 
bis  animosity  to  that  minister.  In  a  few  weeks  after  his 
return  from  France,  her  majesty  bestowed  the  vacant  rib- 
bons of  the  order  of  the  garter  upon  the  dukes  Hamilton, 
Beaufort,  and  Kent,  and  the  earls  Powlet,  Oxford,  and 
Strafford.  Bolingbroke  thought  himself  here  again  ijl 
used,  having  an  ambiuon,  as  the  minister  Well  knewy  to 
receive  such  an  instance  as  this  was  of  his  mistress's  grace 
and  favour.  Indignant  at  all  these  circunxstances,  we  are 
told  that  Bolingbroke,  when  the  treasurer's  staff  was  taken 
from  Oxford,  expressed  his  joy  by  entertaining  that  very 
day,  July  7,  1714,  at  dinner,  the  general  Stanhope,  Ca- 
dogan,  and  Palmer,  sir  William  Wyndham,  Mr.  Craggs, 
and  other  gentlemen.  Oxford  said  upon  his  going  out, 
that  *^  some  of  them  would  smart  for  it ;''  and  Bolingbroke 
was  far  from  being  insensible  of  the  danger  to  which  he 
stood  eicposed ;  yet  he  was  not  without  hopes  still  of  se- 
curing himself,  by  making  his  court  to  the  whigs ;  audit 
is  certain,  that  a  little  before. this  he  had  proposed  to  bring 


in  a  bill  to  the  House  of  Lords,  to  make  it  treason  to' enlist 
soldiers  for  the  Pretender,  which  was  passed  into  an  act. 

Soon^  however,  after  the  accession  of  king  George  L  in 
1714,  the  seals  were  taken  from  him,  and  all  the  papers 
in  his  office  securedi  During  the  short  session  of  parlia- 
ment at  this  juncture,  he  applied  himself  with  his  usual 
industry  and  vigour  to  keep  up  the  spirits  of  the  friends  to 
the  late  administration,  without  omitting*  any  proper  occa- 
sion of  testifying  his  reapect  and  duty  to  his  majesty,  by 
assisting  in  settling  the  civil  list,  and  other  necessary 
points.  But,  when  after  the  meeting  of  the  new  parlia- 
ment, his  danger  became  more  imminent,  be  withdrew 
privately  to  France^  in  March  1715.  It  is  said,  by  the 
continuator  of  Rapines  history,  that  bis  heart  began  to  fail 
him  as  soon  as  he  heard  that  Prior  was  landed  at  Dover, 
and  had  promised  to  reveal  all  he  knew.  Accordingly  that 
evening  his  lordship^  who  had  the  night  before  iappeared 
at  the  play-^house  in  Drury-lane,  and  bespoke  another  play 
for  the  next  night,  and  subscribed  to  a  new  opera  that  was 
to  be  acted  some  time  after,  .went  off  to  Dover  in  disguise, 
as  a  servant  to  Le  Vigne/one  of  the  French  king's  messen-^ 
gers.  His  lordship,  however/  al\^ays  affirmed  that  he  took 
this  step  upon  certain  and  repeated  informations,  that  a 
resolution  was  taken,  by  tbe  men  in  power,  not  only  to 
prosecute,  but  to  pursue  him  to  the  scaffold. 

Upon  his  arrival  at  Paris^  he  received  an  invitation  from 
the  Pretender,  then  at  Barr,  to  engage  in  his  service : 
which  he  at  first  absolutely  refused,  and  thought  it  wiser 
to  make  tbe  best  application,  that  his  present  circumstances 
would  admit,  to  prevent  the  progress  of  his  prosecution  in 
England.  While  this  was  in  doubt,  he  retired  into  Dau^ 
phio£,  where  he  continued  till  the  beginning  of  July  ;  and 
then,  upon  receiving  unfavourable  news  from  some  oif  his 
party  in  England,  he  complied  with  a  second  invitation 
from  tbe  Pretender;  and,  taking  the  seals  of  tbe  secretary's 
office  at  Commercy,  set  out  with  them  |br  Paris,  and  ar» 
rived  thither  the  latter  end  of  the  same  month,  in  order  to 
procure  from  that  court  tbe  necessary  succours  for  his  new 
master^s  intended  invasion  of  England.  The  vote  for  im- 
peaching him  of . high  treason  bad  passed  in  the  House  6i 
Commons  .the  June  preceding;'  and  six  articles  were 
brought  into  the  house,  and  read  by  VV^alpole^  August  4^ 
1715,  which  were  in  substance  as  follows:  1.  ^^  That 
whereas  he  had  assured  the  ministers  oC  tfa^Stat^s  General, 

52  S  A  I  N  T  -  J  O  H  N. 

by  order  from  her  majesty  in  1711)  that  she  would  make 
no  peace  but  in  concert  with  them ;  yet  be  sent  Mr.  Prior 
to  France,  that  same  year,  with  proposals  for  a  treaty  of 
peace  with  that  monarch,  without  the  consent  of  the  allies.'' 
2.  **  That  he  advised  and  promoted  the  making  of  a  sepa- 
rate treaty  or  convention,  with  France,  which  was  signed 
in  September/'  3.  **  That  he  disclosed  to  M.  Mesnager, 
the  French  minister  at  London,  this  convention,  which  was  ' 
the  preliminary  instruction  to  her  majesty's  plenipotenti' 
aries  at  Utrecht,  in  October."  4.  ^^  That  her  majesty's 
final  instructions  to  her  said  plenipotentiaries  were  disclosed 
by  him  to  the  abbot  Gualtier,  an  emissary  of  France."  5. 
**  That  he  disclosed  to  the  French  the  manner  how  Tour* 
nay  in  Flanders  might  be  gained  by  them."  6.  ^<  That  be 
advised  and  promoted  the  yielding  up  of  Spain  and  the 
West-Indies  to  the  duke  of  Anjou,  then  an  enemy  to  her 
majesty."  These  articles  were  sent  up  to  the  Lords  in 
August;  in  consequence  of  which,  he  stood  attainted  of 
high-treason,  September  the  10th  of  the  same  year. 

In  the  mean  time,  his  new  engagements  with  the  Pre* 
tender  were  so  unsuccessful  as  to  bring  on  him  a  similar 
disgrace;  for  the  year  1715  was  scarcely  expired,  when 
the  seals  and  papers  of  his  new  secretary's  office  were  de« 
manded,  and  given  up ;  and  this  was  soon  followed  by  an 
accusation  branched  into  seven  articles,  in  which  be  was 
impeached  of  treachery,  incapacity,  and  neglect.  Thus 
discarded,  he  turned  his  thoughts  once  more  to  a  reconci* 
liation  with  his  country,  and  in  a  short  time,  by  that  cha- 
racteristic activity  with  which  he  prosecuted  all  his  designs, 
he  procured,  through  the  mediation  of  the  earl  of  Stair, 
then  the  British  ambassador  at  the  French  court,  a  promise 
of  pardon,  upon  certain  conditions,  from  the  king,  who, 
in  July  1716,  created  his  father  baron  of  Battersea  and  vis* 
count  St.  John.  In  the  mean  time  these  vicissitudes  had 
thrown  Jiim  into  a  state  of  reflection ;  and  this  produced, 
by  way  of  relief,  a  <^  Consolatio  Philosophica,"  which  he 
wrote  the  same  year,  under  the  title  of  *^  Reflections  upon 
Exile."  In  this  piece  he  has  drawn  the  picture  of  his  own 
exile ;  which,  being  represented  as  a  violence,  proceeding 
solely  from  the  malice  of  his  persecutors,  to  one  who  had 
served  his  country  with  ability  and  integrity,  is  by  the 
magic  of  his  p^n  converted  not  only  into  a  tolerable,  but 
what  appears  tb  be  an  honourable,  station.  He  bad  ats^ 
this  year  writtei,^  several  letters,  in  answer  to  the  charge 
brought  against  him  by  the  Pretender  and  his  adherents, 



wbicb  were  primted  at  London  in  1735,  8vo,  together  with 
answers  to  them  by  Mr.  James  Murray,  afterwards  made 
earl  of  Dunbar  by  the  Pretender ;  but,  being  then  imme- 
diately suppressed,  are  reprinted  in  ^'  Tindal's  Contii^a- 
tion  of  Rapin's  History  of  England."  The  following  year, 
be  drew  up  a  vindication  of  his  whole  conduct  with  respect 
to  the  tories,  in  the  form  of  *a  letter  to  sir  William  Wynd- 
ham,  which  was  printed  in  1753,  8vo.  It  is  written  with 
the  utmost  elegance  and  address,  and  abounds  with  interest- 
ing and  entertaining  anecdotes. 

His  first  lady  being  dead,  be  espoused  about  this  time, 
17 16,  a  second  of  great  merit  and  accomplishments-,  niece 
to  madam  de  Maintenon,  and  widow  of  the  marquis  de 
Villette ;  with  whom  he  had  a  very  large  fortune,  encum- 
bered, however,  with  a  long  and  troublesome  law-suit.    In 
the  company  and  conversation  of  this  lady,  be  passed  &is 
time  in  France,  sometimes  in  the  country,  and  sometimes 
at  the  capita],  till  1723;  when  the  king  was  pleased  to 
grant  him  a  full  and  .free  pardon.     Upon  the  first  notice  of 
this  favour,  the  expectation  of  which  had  been  the  govern- 
ing principle  of  his  political  conduct  for  several  years,  he 
returned  to  his  native  country.     It  is  observable,  that  bi- 
shop Atterbury  was  banished  >at  this  very  juncture ;  and 
happening,  on  his  being  set  ashore  at  Calais,  to  hear  that 
lord  Bolingbroke   was   there,  he  said,  ^*  Then   I  am  ex- 
changed V*     His  lordship  having  obtained,  about  two  years 
after  his  return,  an  act  of  parliament  to  restore  him  to  his 
family-inheritance,  and  to  enable  him  to  possess  any  pur- 
chase he  sjiiould  make,  chose  a  seat  of  lord  Tankerville,  at 
Dawley   near  Uxbridge  in  Middlesex";  where  he  settled 
with  his  lad}^  and  gratified  his  taste  by  improving  it  into  a 
aiost  elegant  villa.     Here  he  amused  himself  with  rural 
employments,  and  with  corresponding  and  conversing  with 
Pope,  Swift,  and  other  friends ;  but  was  by  no  means  sa- 
tisfied within  :  for  he  was  yet  no  more  than  a  mere  titular 
lord,  and  stood  excluded  from  a  seat  in  the  House  of  Peers. 
Inflamed  with  this  taint  that  yet  remained,  in  his  blood,  he 
entered  again,  in  1726,  upon  the  public  stage;  and,  dis- 
avowing ail  obligations  to  the  minister  Wal|!)ole,  to  whose 
secret  enmity  he  imputed  his  not  having  received  the  full 
effects  of  the  royal  mercy  intended,  he  embarked  in  the  op- 
position, and  distinguished  himself  by  a  multitude  of  pieces, 
written  during  the  short  remainder  of  that  reign,  and  for 
ome  years  upder  the  following,  with  great  boldness  against 
^  measures  that  were  then  pursued.     Besides  his  papers 



in  the  ^*  Craftsman^^'  which  were  the  most  popular  in  that 
celebrated  collection,  he  published  several  pamphlets, 
which  were  afterwards  reprinted  in  the  second  edition  of 
h\^*^  Political  Tracts/'  and  in  the  authorized  edition  of 
his  works. 

Having  carried  on  his  part  of  the  siege  against  the  mini* 
ster  with  inimitable  spirit  for  ten  years,  he  laid  down  hit 
pen,  owing  to  a  disagreement  with  his  principal  coadju- 
tors; and,  in  1735,  retired  to  France,  with  a  full  resolu- 
tion never  to  engage  more  in  public  business.  Swift,  who 
knew  that  this  retreat  was  the  effect  of  disdain,  vexa- 
tion, ^l\d  disappointment,  that  his  lordship's  passions  ran 
high,  anci'that  his  attainder  unreversed  still  tingled  in  his 
veins,  cpncluded  him  certainly  gone  once  more  to;tfae  Pre- 
tender, as  bi^  enemies  gave  out ;  but  he  was  rebuked  for 
this  by  Pope,  who  assured  him,  that  it  was  absolutely  un- 
true in  every  circumstance,  that  he  had  fixed  in  a  very 
agreeable  retirement  near  Fontaiobleau,  and  made  it  his 
whole  business  vacate  lileris.  He  had  now  passed  the  60th. 
year  of  his  age ;  and  through  a  greater  variety  of  scenes^ 
both  of  pleasure  and  business,  than  any  of  his  contempo- 
raries. He  had  gone  as  far  towards  reinstating  himself  in 
the  full  possession  of  his  former  honours  as  great  parts  and 
great  application  could  go ;  and  seemed  at  last  to  think, 
that  the  door  was  finally  shut  against  him.  He  had  not 
been  long  in  his  retreat,  when  he  began  a  course  of  **  Letf 
ters  on  the  study  and  use  of  History,"  for  the  use  of  lord 
Cornbury,  to  whom  they  are  addressed.  They  were  pub- 
lished in  1752 ;  and,  though  they  are  drawn  up,  as  all  his 
works  are,  in .  an  elegant  and  masterly  style,  and  abound 
with  just  reflections,  yet,  on  account  of  some  freedoms 
taken  with  ecclesiastical  history,  they  exposed  him  to  much 
censure.  Subjoined  to  these  letters  are,  his  piece  *'upon 
Exile,"  and  a  letter  to  lord  Bathurst  ^'  on  the  true  use  of 
study  and  Retirement." 

Upon  the  death  of  his  father,  who  lived  to  be  extremely 
old,  he  settled  at  Battersea,  the  ancient  seat  of  the  family, 
where  he  passed  the  remainder  of  his  life.  His  age,  his 
genius,  perfected  by  long  experience  and  much  retiection, 
gave  him  a  superiority  over  most  of  bis  contemporaries, 
which  his  works  have  not  altogether  preserved.  Pope  and 
Swift,  however,  were  among  his  most  ardent  admirers; 
and  it  is  well  known,  that  the  former  received  from  him 
the  materials  for  his  **  Essay  on  Man."     Yet,  even  in  thi' 

SAIN  T-J  O  H  N 


retirement,  he  did  not  neglect  the  consideration  of  pnbhc 
affairs  ;  for,  after  the  conclusion  of  the  war  in  1747,  upoti» 
measures  being  taken  which  did  not  agree  with  his  notions 
of  political  prudence,  he  began    «'  Some  Reflections  on 
the  present  sute  of  the  nation,  principaUy  with  regard  to 
her  taxes  and  debts,  and  on  the  causes  and  consequences 
of  them  :'*  but  he  did  not  finish  them.     In  1749,  came  out 
his  «  Letters  on  the  spirit  of  Patriotism,  on  the  idea  of  a 
Patriot  King,  and  on  the  state  of  parties  ^t  the  accession  of 
king  George  I ;"  with  a  preface  in  which  Pope's  conduct, 
with  regard  to  that  piece,  is  represented  as  an  inexcusabla 
act  of  treachery  to  him.     Of  this  subject  wc  have  already 
taken  sufficient  notice  in  our  accounts  of  Mallet  and  Pope. 
Bolingbroke  was  now  approaching  his  end.     For  some  Ume 
a  cancerous  humour  in  his  face  bad  made  considerable  pro- 
greds,  and  he  was  persuaded  to  apply  an  empirical  remedy, 
which  exposed  him  to  the  most  excruciating  tortures.     Lord 
Chesterfield  saw  him,  for  the  last  time,  the  day  before 
these   tortures  began.     Bolingbroke,  when   they  parted, 
embraced  his  old  friend  with  tenderness,  and  said  "God, 
who  placed  me  here,  will  do  ^vhat  he  pleases  with  me  h»e- 
after,  and  he  knows  best  what  to  do.     May  he  t^less  you ! 
About  a  fortnight  after  be  died,  at  his  house  at  >attersca, 
Nov.  15,  1751,  nearly  eighty  years  old,  if  the  date  usually 
assigned  to  his  birth  be  correct.     His  corpse  was  interred 
with  those  of  his  ancestors  in  that  church,  where  there  is  a 
marble  monument  erected  to  his  memory. 

His  lordship's  estate  and  honours  descended  to  his  ne- 
phew; the  care  and  profits  of  his  manuscripts  he  left  to 
Mallet,  who  published  them,  together  with  his  works  already 
printed,  in  1754,  5  vols.  4to.  They  may  be  divided  into 
political  and  philosophical  works :  the  former  of  which  have 
been  mentioned  already,  and  consist  of  «  Letters  upon 
History,"  "  Letterto  Wyndham,"  "  Letters  on  Patriotism, 
and  papers  in  the  "  Craftsman;''  which  had  been  sepa- 
rately  printed  in  8  vols.  8vo,  under  the  title  of  ''  Disserta^ 
tion  upon  Parties,"  ''  Remarks  on  thie  History  of  England," 
and  «  Political  Tracts."  His  philosophical  works  consist 
of,  "  The  substance  of  some  letters  written  originally  m 
French  kbout  1720  to  Mr.  de  Pouilly  ;  letter  occasioned  by 
one  of  abp.  Tillotson's  sermons  ;  and  letters  or  essays  ad- 
dressed to  Alexander  Pope,  esq."  As  Mallet  had  published 
an  8vo  edition  of  the  "  Letters  on  History,"  and  the  '^  Let- 
ter to  Wyndham,"  before  the  4to  edition  of  the  works 

56  SAIN  T-J  O  H  N, 

came  out,  he  afterwards  pabHsbed  separately  tbe  pUlos^r 
pbical  writings,  5  vols.  Bvo.  These  esyajrs,  addressed  to 
Pope,  on  philosophy  and  religion,  contain  iqany  tbingf 
which  deny  o^  ridicule  the  great  truths  of  revelation ;  and^ 
on  this  account,  not  only  exposed  the  deceased  author  tp 
the  just  animadversions  of  several  writers,  but  occasionecl. 
also  a  presentment  of  his  works  by  the  grand  jmy  of  West-» 
minster ;  but  the  sale  of  them  was  very  slow,  and  of  li^e 
years  they  are  perhaps  still  less  consulted.  An  edition, 
however,  was  published  in  1809,  in  8  vols.  Svo,  with  many 
additions,  from  subsequent  authorities,  to  the  l^  of  Boling-^ 
broke,  which  was  written  by  Dr.  Goldsmith.  Soine  tintie 
before  this,  a  valuable  collection  of  lord  BohDgbroke^s  po-r 
litical  correspondence  was  published  in  4to,and  4  vols.  Svo, 
by  the  rev.  Gilbert  iParke,  which  contains  mocli  inforana* 
tiqn  respecting  the  memorable  peace  of  Utrecht.  His  cha* 
looter  has  been  (Irawn  by  various  able  pens,  by  Chestei^M, 
Mrs.  Cockburn,  Ruffbead  (under  the  guidance  of  Warbur* 
ton),  lord  Walpole,  Horace  Walpole,  lord  Orrery,  Ac.  &c. 
and  although  they  differ  in  some  points,  coincide  in  proving 
that  lord  Bolingbroke  was  cpnsidiered  by  all  as  a  politician 
of  an  impqttant  class  ;  that  those  who  have  been  at  most 
pains  to  dl'^ame  him  as  an  enemy,  would  ^hav4e  been  very 
desirous  to  secure  him  as  a  friend.,  and  that  they  may  be 
credited  in  every  thing  sooner  than  in  their  affecting  to 
undervalue  his  talents.  Ambition  and  immorality  consti- 
tute the  great  objections  tp  his  public  and  private  charac- 
ter. His  infidel  principles  were  not  much  known  before  his 
death,  except  to  his  friends.  Like  Chesterfield  and  Hume, 
be  left  something  behind  him  worse  than  be  had  prodiicea 
in  bis  life-time,  and  subjected  himself  to  accusations  to 
which  he  could  no  longer  reply.  In  his  character  since,  he 
has  suffered  equally  by  tbe  just  resentment  of  piety,  and 
By  the  unforgiving  prejudices  qf  party ;  and  an  impartial 
history  of  his  conduct  and  opinions  is  perhaps  yet  a  desir 

ST.  LAMBERT  {Charles  Francis  de),  fiwrmerly  a 
member  of  the  French  academy,  was  born  in  Nancy,  Dee. 
16,  17 17,  of  a  family  of  Lorrain.  He  was  educated  amoag 
tbe  Jesuits  at  the  college  of  Pont-a-Moussori,  but  in  early 

1  Life  by  Goldsmith,  io  edit.  1909.— Biog.  Brit.— Swill's  Works.— Po|ie'| 
Works  by  Bowles. — Coxe's  Waljjolt* .-:-LysoDs'*  Environs,  vol.  I.-— Royal  and 
Nebl«  Authors  by  Park.— Chesterfield's  Memoirs  and  Letters.— Leiand'sOteisti  • 
cal  Wffkera. — Warburton^s  LeUerif  to  Q[ard,  ^c*  l^c. 

ST.    L  A  M  B  E  E  T.  57 

life  eintered  into  the  army^  which  be  qaitted  at  the  peace 
of  Aix^ia-Cbapelle  in  1748,  and  joined  the  gay  party  as-  . 
sembled  by  Stanislaus,  king  of  Poland,  at  Luneville.  There 
be  becaaae  an  admirer  of  Madame  de  Cbatelet,  who  return- 
ed his  attachment  He  was  afterwards  intimate  with,  and 
the  egregious, flatterer  of  Voltaire.  It  is  not  said  what 
part  he  took  in  the  revolution,  but  he  escaped  its  dangers, 
and  died  at  Paris  Feb.  9,  1805.  He  was  a  man  of  genius, 
but  his  steps  in  the  literary  career  were  rather  slow,  afid  in- 
commensurate with  the  actitity  of  his  genius;  for  his  first 
poetical  work,  ^^  Les  F£tes  de  1' Amour  et  de  P Hymen,**  a 
theatrical  performance,  was  published  about  1760,  when 
be  was  already  turned  of  forty  years  of  age.  His  poem 
entitled  ^'  Les  quatres  parties  du  jour"  appeared  in  1764, 
and  soon  ranked  him  unong  the  greatest  poets  of  his  age. 
The  composition  was  acknowledged  to  possess  novelty  in 
the  descriptions,  interest  iu  the  details,  and  elegance  in 
the  style ;  although,  on  the  other  side,  it  was  charged  with 
coldness,  want  of  unity,  and  monotonous  episodes.  The 
same  year  he  published  his  *'  Essai  sur  le  luxe,"  8vo.  His 
next,  abd  jut»tly  celebrated,  poetical  performance,  **  Les 
Saisons,*'  which  was  published  in  176d,  raised  him  to  the 
highest  degree  of  reputation.  It  was  generally  admitted 
that  he  exhibited  here  a  large  share  of  ingenuity  and  inven- 
tion, by  introducing  pastoral  poetry  into  a  composition  of 
a  different  sort,  making  it  still  preserve  its  native  simplicity, 
and  yet  associate  naturally  with  more  elevated  subjects. 
An  additional  merit  was  discovered,  with  regard  to  this 
elegant  work,  in  the  motive  of  the  author  ;  as  his  professed 
design  was  to  inspire  the  great  proprietors  of  land  with  an 
incliiiation  to  live  on  their  manors,  and  contribute  to  the 
happiness  of  the  cultivators. 

In  1772,  he  published  his  '<  Fables  Orientales,"  which 
did  little  either  to  increase  or  to  diminish  his  poetical  fame : 
and  many  years  after  he  produced  his  ^^  Consolation  de  la 
Vieillesse,"  a  proof  that  his  talents  had  suffered  no  dimi- 
nution from  age  or  infirmity.  The  last  publication  of  Saint 
Lambert  is  a  philosophical  work  in  prose.  It  appeared  in 
1798,  in  3  vols.  8vo,  under  the  title  of  ^^  Catecfaisme  Uni- 
versel.'^  It  was  intended  to  exhibit  a  system  of  morals 
grounded  on  human  nature;  and  the  favourite  object  of 
the  author  was  to  confute  the  doctrine  of  a  moral  sense, 
which  has  been  supported  by  many  eminent  metaphysicians, 
ever  since  the  writings  of  Shaftesbury  and  of  Hutcheson. 

58  S  T.    L  A  M  B  E  R  T. 

This  work  was  justly  denominated  ^by  some  French  critics, 
alluding  to  the  age  of  the  author,  Le  soir  i^un  beau  jour 
(the  evening  of  a  beautiful  day  !)  He  wrote  also  some  ar- 
ticles for  the  £ncyclopedie,  and  many  fugitive  pieces  in 
the  literary  journals.' 

SAINTE-MARTHE,  in  Latin  Sammarthanus,  is  the 
name  of  a  family  in  France,  which  produced  many  men  of  let- 
ters. The  first,  Gaucher  de  SAinte-Marthe,  had  a  son 
Charles,  born  in  1512,  who  became  physician  to  Francis  11. 
and  was  remarkable  for  his  eloquence.  Queen  Margaret  of 
Navarre  and  the  duchess  of  Vendome  honoured  him  with 
their  particular  esteem  ;  and  when  they  died  in  1550,  he 
testified  his  grief  by  a  funeral  oration  upon  each,  published 
the  same  year.  That  upon  the  queen  was  in  Latin,  the 
Other  in  French.  There  is  also  some  Latin  and  French 
poetry  of  bis  in  being.  He  died  in  1555. — Scevole,'  or 
ScAVOLA,  the  nephew  of  Charles,  was  born  at  Loudun  in. 
I5.S6,  and  became  very  distinguished  both  in  learning  and 
business.  He  loved  letters  from  his  infancy,  attained  an 
intimate  acquaintance  with  the  Latin,  Greek,  and  Hebrew 
tongues  ;  and  became  an  orator,  a  lawyer,  a  poet,  and  an 
historian;  he, is  also  represented  as  a  good  friend,  zealous 
for  his  country,  and  of  inviolable  fidelity  to  his  prince.  He 
bad,  in  the  reigns  of  Henry  IIL  and  Henry  IV.  several  con* 
siderable  employments,  which  he  filled  with  great  reputa- 
tion. In  1579,  he  was  governor  of  Poitiers,  and  afterwards 
treasurer  of  France  for  this  district.  In  1593  and  1S94,  he 
exercised  the  office  of  intendant  of  the  finances,  in  the 
army  of  Bretagne,  commanded  by  the  duke  de  Montpen- 
sier  :  aud,  in  the  latter  of  these  years,  he  reduced  Poitiers 
to  the  subjectioQ  of  Henry  IV.  Some  time  after,  he  con- 
ceived thoughts  of  retiring  to  his  own  country,  and  de« 
voting  the  remainder  of  his  life  to  contemplation  :  but  was 
again  made  governor  of  Poitiers,  in  so  honourable  a  man- 
ner that  he  could  not  decline  it.  Upon  the  expiration  of 
this  office^  he  went  to  Paris,  and  thence  to, Loudun,  where 
he  passed  the  rest  of  his  days  ^'  in  otio  cum  dignitate." 
This  town  had  been  often  protected  from  ruin  in  the  civil 
wars  merely  by  his  credit,  and  therefore  regarded  him  as 
its  protector.  He  died  there  in  1623,  universally  regretted  ; 
and  his  funeral  oration  was  pronounced  by  the  famous 
Urban  Grandier.     He  was  the  author  of  **  La  loUange  de 

1  Diet.  Uist.— Baldwin's  Literary  Journal. 

SAINT  E*M  A  R  T  H  K  S9 

laville  de  jPoitiers,"  157S;  **  Opera  Poetica,*'  consisting 
of  odesy  elegies,  epigrams,  and  sacred  poems,  in  French 
and  Latin^  1575;  ^<  Galiorum  dootrina  illustrium  elogia/* 
1598  :''  bat  his  chief  work,  and  that  which  keeps  his  naine 
still  alive  in  the  republic  of  letters,  is  bis  work  called  **  Ps* 
dotrophia,  sea  de  puerorum  educattone,*'  printed  in  1584, 
and  dedicated  to  Henry  III.  This  poem  went  through  tea 
editions  in  the  author's  life -time,  and  hath  gone  through  as 
many  since*  It  was  neatly  printed  at  London  in  1708,  in 
12mo,  together  with  tlie^^  Callip^dia^'  of  Quillet.  It  is, 
also  printed  with  a  complete  edition  of  his  and  his  son 
Abel's  works,  under  the  title  ^^  Sammarthanorum  patris  et 
filii  opera  Latina  et  Gallica,  turn  soluta  oratione,  tum  versa 
schpta,"  ,Paris^  1633,  4to.  Scevole  left  several  sons;  of 
whom  Ab£L,  the  eldest,  born  at  Loudun  in  1570,  applied 
himself,  like  his  father,  to  literature.  He  cultivated 
French  and  Latin  poetry ;  the  latter^  were  printed  with 
those  of  his  father  in  the  edition  just  mentioned,  but  are 
inferior  to  them.  Lewis  XIII.  settled  on  him  a  pension,, 
for  the  services  he  had  done  him,  and  made  him  a  coun* 
sailor  of  state.  In  1627,  he  was  made  librarian  to  the 
king  at  Fontainebleau  ;  and  had  after  that  other  commis- 
sions of  importance.  He  died  at  Poitiers  in  1652,  where 
his  ^^  Opuscula  Varia^'  were  printed  in  1645^  8vo.  This 
Abel  had  a  son  of  his  own  name,  bom  in  1630,  and  after- 
wards distinguished  by  his  learning.  He  succeeded  his  fa- 
ther as  librarian  at  Fontainebleau,  and  in  that  quality  pre- 
sented to  Lewis  XIV.  in  1668,  ^'  Un  Discours  pour  le  r£- 
tablissemeot  de  cette  Bibliotheque."     He  died  in  1706. 

Scevole's  second  and  third  sons,  Scevole  and  Lewis,. 
were  born  in  1571.  They  were  twin-brothers,  of  the  same 
temper,  genius,  and  studies ;  with  this  difference  only^ 
that  Scevole  continued  alayman,  aiid  married,  while  Lewis 
embraced  the  ecclesiastical  state.  They  spent  tbeir  lives 
together  in  perfect  union,  and  were  occupied  in  the  same 
labours.  They  were  both  counsellors  to  tiie  king,  and  his- 
toriographers of  France.  They  were  both  interred  at  St. 
Severin  in  Paris,  in  the  same  grave  ;  though  Scevole  died 
in  1650,  and  Lewis  did  not  die  till  1656.  They  distin- 
guished themselves  by  their  knowledge,  and  in  conjunc- 
tion composed  the  '^  Gallia  Christiana,  seu  series  omnium 
Episc.  &6.  Francia;,*'  of  which  there  is  an  edition  in  13. 
vols,  folio,  1715 — 1786,  but  three  more  volumes  are  yet 
necessary  to  complete  it. 

$0  SAINT  E-M  A  R  T  H  EL 

Besides  these,   there  were  Denis,    Pet^e    Scevole^ 

'  Abel  Lewis,  and  Claude,  ]>e  Saikte-Marthe,  all  men 

of  learning,  and  who  distinguished  themselves  by  various 

publicaUons  ;  but  their  works  are  not  of  a  natare  to  make 

a  particular  enumeration  of  them  necessary  here.' 

ST,  PALAY£  (John  Baptist  de  la  Cuane  de),  an  in^ 
genious  French  writer,  was  borp  at  Auxerre  in  1697.  TIm 
only  information  we  have  of  his  early  life  is  restricted  to  a^ 
notice  of  the  affection  which  subsiatwi  between  him  and  his 
twin-brother  M.  de  la  Corne.  It  appears  that  he  devoted 
himself  to  researches  into  the  language  and  antiquities  of. 
bis  country,  and  was  admitted  a  member  of  the  French 
academy,  and  that  of  inscriptions.  In  all  his  labours  he 
was  assisted  by  his  brother,  who  liv^  with  him,  and  was 
his  inseparable  associate  in  lus  studies,  and  even  in  his 
amusements;  St.  Palaye  died  in  1781.  La  Harpe  haa 
published  some  spirited  verses  which  he  addressed  in  his 
eightieth  year  to  a  lady  who  had  embroidered  a  weistcoat 
for  him ;  but  he  is  chiefly  known  as  an  author  by .  '^  Me* 
moires  sur  FAncienne  Chevalerie,*^  3  vols.  ISmo,  in  which 
he  paints  in  very  Hvely  colours  the  manners  and  customs 
of  diat  institmion.  Mrs.  Dobscm  published  an  English 
translation  of  this  in  1784.  After  his  decease  the  afebd 
Mijlot  drew  up,  from  his  papers,  ^*  L'Histoire  des  Trouba- 
dours,'' in  3  vols.  12mo.  St.  Palaye  had  meditated  on  an 
*^  Universal  French  Glossary,"  which  was  to  be  more  co- 
pious than  that  of  Du  Cange,  and  left  two  works  in  maou-* 
script,  one  a  history  of  the  variations  that  have  taken  place 
in  the  French  language,  the  other  a  Dictionary  of  French 

ST.  PAVIN  (Dennis  Sanguin  de),  a  French  poet  of 
the  seventeenth  century,  was  born  at  Paris,  and  studied 
with  a  view  to  the  ecclesiastical  profession,  but  his  private 
attachment  was  wholly  to  the  belles  lettres  and  poetry, 
which  he  diligently  cultivated.  He  spent  the  greatest  part 
of 'his  life  at  Livri,  of  which  he  was  abbot,  though  no  cre- 
dit to  the  order,  for  he  lived  in  a  voluptuous,  indolent 
style,  circulating  and  practising  the  pernicious  maxims  he 
had  learnt  from  hts  master,  tbue  poet  Theophile,  and  to 
which. he  was  so  strongly  attached,  that  Boileau  in  his  first 
satire  places  St  Pavin's  conversion  among  things  morally 
impossible.     The  story  of  his  having  been  converted  by 

>  Moreri.^Dict.  Hist. — Dupio.  ^  Diet.  Hist. 

S  T     P  A  V  I  N  $1! 

hearing  a  terrible  voice  at  the  time  Theopbile  died^  in 
162S,  is  entirely  without  foundation,  for  his  conversion 
preceded  his  own  death  but  a  very  short  time.  He  died  in 
1670,  leaving  several  poems  not  inelegantly  written,  which 
form  part  of  vol.  IV.  of  Barbin's  collection ;  and  a  collec- 
tion of  bis  Works  was  published  In  1759, 12mo,  with  Charle- 
va),  Lalaiie,  and  Montplaisir  He  was  related  to  Claudius 
Saogain,  steward  of  the  household  to  the  king  and  the 
duke  of  Orleans,  who  published  **  Les  HeurW  in  French 
verse,  Paris,  1660,  4ta,  in  which  the  whole  Psalter  is  trans- 

ST.  PIERRE  (Charles  Irenes  Castel  de),  a  French 
moral  and  potitical  writer,  was  born  in  1658,  of  a  noble 
fiunily,  at  Saint-Pierre-  in  Normandy.  He  studied  at  the 
college  of  Caen^  and  was  brought  up  to  the  church,  and 
obtained  some  preferment ;  but  was  more  distinguished  for 
his  political  knowledge.  Previous  to  his  appearing  in  po- 
litical life,^  he  wrote  some  observations  on  philosophical 
grammar,  in  consequence  of  which  he  was  admitted  a  mem- 
ber of  the  academy  in  1695.  His  political  fame  induced 
the  cardinal  Polignac  to  take  him  with  him  to  the  confer- 
ences for  the  peace  of  Utrecht ;  and  here  he  appears  to 
have  announced  one  of  his  favourite  projects,  the  establish- 
ment of  a  kind  of  European  diet,  in  order  to  secure  a  per- 
petual peace,  which  cardinal  Fleury  received  with  good 
humour,  but  saw  at  once  its  practical  difficulties.  Such 
indeed  was  the  case  with  most  of  the  schemes  he  published 
in  bis  works,  which  are  now  nearly  forgotten.  He  cer- 
tainly, however,  had  the  merit  of  discovering  the  defects 
of  the  government  of  Louis  XIV.  a^d  pleaded  the  cause  of 
a  more  free  constitution  with  much  boldness.  One  of  his 
best  works  was  *^  A  Memorial  on  the  establishment  of  a 
proportional  Taille,"  which  is  said  to  have  n>eltorated  the 
state  of  taxation  in  France.  He  died  in  1743,  aged  eighty- 
five.  After  the  death  of  Louis  XIV.  he  published  some  of 
bis  spirited  sentiments  of  that  monarch  in  a  pamphlet  en- 
titled *^  La  Polysynodie,^'  or  the  plurality  of  councils,  for 
which  he  was  expelled  the  French  academy,  Fontenelle 
only  giving  a  vote  in  his  favour.  An  edition  of  his  works 
was  published  in  Holland,  1744,  18  vols.  l2mo.' 

ST.  REAL  (Casar  Vichard  de),  a  polite  French  writer, 
was  the  son  of  a  counsellor  to  the  senate  of  Chamberri  in 

1  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist  *  Eloges  by  D'Alemb«rt.— Diet.  Hist. 

62  S  T.    R  E  A  X. 

S4v6y,'  where  he  was  bom,  bat  it  is  hot  mentioned  in  wba€ 
year.  He  came  very  young  to  France,  was  some  time  A 
disciple  of  M.  de  Variilas,  and  afterwards  distinguished 
himself  at  Paris  by  several  ingenious  productions.  In  1675^ 
be  returned- to  Chamberri,  and  went  thence  to  England 
with  the  duchess  of  Ma2arin ;  but  soon  after  came  back  to 
Paris^  where  he  lived  a  long  time,  without  title  or  dignity/ 
intent  upon  literary  pursuits.  He  returned  a  second  time 
to  Chamberri  in  1692,  and  died  there  the  same  year,  ad« 
vanced  in  years,  but  not  in  the  best  circumstances.  He 
was  a  man  of  great  parts  and  penetration,  a  lover  of  the 
sciences,  and  particularly  foud  of  history,  which  he  wished 
to  have  studied,  not  as  a  bare  recital  of  facts  and  speeches, 
but  as  a  picture  of  human  nature  philosophically  contem- 
plated. He  wrote  a  piece,  with  this  view,  ^^  De  I'Usage 
de  PHistoire,^'  Paris,  1672,  12mo,  which  is  full  of  sensible 
and  judicious  reflections.  In  L674,  he  published  "  Con- 
juration des  Espaguols  centre  la  R^publique  de  Venise  en 
1618,"  12mo,  in  a  style  which  Voltaire  compares  to  that  of 
Sallust ;  but  what  he  gained  in  reputation  by  this,  he  is  said 
to  have  lost  by  his  '^  La  Vie  de  J6sus  Christ,^'  pablbhed 
four  years  after.  He  wrote  many  other  things  :  some  to 
illustrate  the  Roman  history,  which  he  had  made  his  parti- 
cular study;  some  upon  subjects  of  philosophy,  politics, 
and  morals ;  and  notes  upon  the  first  two  books  of  Tully's 
**  Letters  to  Atticus,'^  of  which  he  made  a  French  transla- 
tion. A  neat  edition  of  his  works  was  published  at  the 
Hague  in  1722,  in  5  vols.  i2mo,  without  the  letters /to  At- 
ticus;  which,  however,  were  printed  in  the  edition  of  Paris, 
1745,  in  3  vols.  4to,  and  six  12iho.'' 

ST.  SIMON  (Louis  de  Rouvroi,  duke  OF),a  French  wri- 
ter of  memoirs,  was  the  son  of  a  duke  of  the  same  title,  born 
June  16,1 67.5,  and  was  introduced  at  the  court  of  Louis  XIV. 
in  his  fifteenth  year,  but  bad  been  educated  in  virtuous  prin- 
ciples, and  never  departed  from  them,  either  at  court  or 
in  the  army,  in  which  he  served  till  1697.  In  1721  he  was 
appointed  ambassador  extraordinary  to  the  court  of  Spain^ 
for  the  purpose  of  soliciting  the  infanta  in  marriage  for 
Louis XV.  After  being  for  some  time  confidential  adviser  to 
the  regent,  duke  of  Orleans,  he  retired' to  his  estate,  and 
passed  most  of  his  time  in  his  library,  where  he  read  in- 
cessantly and  forgot  nothing.     The  marshal  de  Belle-Isle 

^  Niceron,  vol.  lU 

S  T.    S  I  M  O  N.  6S 

used  to  say  that  he  was  the  most  interesting  and  agreeable 
dictionary  be  had  ever  consulted.  At  fourscore  be  enjoyed 
all  his  faculties  as  perfect  as  at  forty  :  the  precise  time  o^ 
his  death  is  hot  mentioned,  but  it  appears  to  have  taken 
place  about  1757.  He  composed  '^  Memoii^  of  the  reign 
of  Louis  XIV.  and  the  Regency,"  which  consist  of  a  va- 
riety of  anecdotes  relative  to  the  courts  of  Louis  XIV.  and 
XV.  which  are  told  in  an  elegant  style,  but  his  manner  is 
often  sarcastic,  although  his  justice  has  never  been  called 
in  question.  M.  Anquetil  has  made  this  nobleman's  me- 
moirs the  basis  of  his  history  of  ^'  Louis  XIV.  his  Court  and 
the  Regent.^'  Some  of  the  editions  of  these  Memoirs  have 
been  mutilated,  but  the  most  complete  was  printed  at  Stras- 
burg,  in  1791,    13  vols.  8 vo." 

SALDEN  (Wzluam),  a  learned  writei'  in  the  sixteenth 
century,  born  at  Utrecht,  was  successively  minister  of  se- 
veral churches  in  Holland,  and  lastly  at  the  Hague,  where 
he  died  in  16d4.  .Hi^  most  knpwn  and  valuable  works  are, 
"  Otia  Theologica,''  4to,  containing  dissertations  on  diffe- 
rent subjects,  from  the  Old  and  New  Testament ;  '<  Con- 
cionator  Saper,''  12mo;  and  ^'  De  Libris  varioque  eorum 
usu  et.abusu,V  Amsterdam,  1668,  12mo.'. 

SALE  (G£ORG£)y  a  learned  Eaglisbman,  who  died  at 
London  in  1736,  was  a  man  who  did  much  service  to  the 
republic  of  letters,  but  of  his  private  history  we  have  no 
account.  He  had  a  hand  in  the  ^'  Universal  History,"'  and 
executed  the  cosmogony  and  a  part  of  the  history  follow- 
ing. He  was  also  engaged  in  other  publications ;  but  his 
capital  work  is  ^^  The  Koran,  commonly  called  the  Alcoran 
of  Mohammed^*  translated  into  English  immediately  from 
the  original  .Arabic ;  with  explanatory  notes  taken  from  the 
most  approved  commentators.  To  which  is  prefixed,  a 
preliminary  Discourse,*'  1734,  4to.  The  preliminary  dis- 
course consists  of  1S6  pages,  and  is  divided. into  eight  sec- 
tions, which  treat  of  the  following  particulars:  Sect.  1. 
'^  Of  the  Arabs  before  Mohammed,  or,  as  they  express  it, 
in  the  'time  of  ignorance ;'  their  history,  religion,  learning,- 
and  customs."  Sect.  2.  *^  Of  the  state  of  Christianity,  par- 
ticularly of  the  Eastern  Churches,  and  of  Judaism,  at  the 
^  time  of  Mohammed's  appearance ;  and  of  the  methods 
taken  by  him  for  establishing  his  rehgion,  and  the  circum- 
stances which  concurred  thereto."     Sect.  3.  '^  Of  the  Ko- 

^  Anquetily  ubi  supra.— Diet.  Hist.  *  Burman  Traj.  Eradit. — Moreri. 

64  8  A  L-t£« 

ran  itself^  the  peculiarities  of  that  book,  tbe  maoiH^  of  its 
being  writteo  and  published,  and  tbe  general  design  of  it.'* 
Sect.  4«  ^'  Of  the  doctrines  and  positive  precepts  of  the 
Koran,  which  relate  to  futh  and  religious  duties.'*  Sect.  S. 
"  Of  certain  negative  precepts  in  the  Koran.**  Sect.  6. 
*^  Of  the  institutions  of  tbe  Koran  in  civil  affairs.**  Sect. 
7.  '*  Of  the  noontbs  commanded  by  the  Koran  to  be  kept 
S9cred,  and  of  the  setting  apart  of  Friday  for  the  especial 
service  of  God.'*  Sect.  8.  "  Of  the  principal  sects  among 
the  Mohammedans;  and  of  those  who  have  pretended  to 
prophesy  among  the  Arabs  in  or  since  the  time  of  Moham- 
med.*' This  preliminary  discourse,  as  should  seem,  might 
deserve  to  be  published  separately  from  the  Koran.  Mr. 
Sale  was  also  one  of  the  membsers  of  the  society  fbr  the  en- 
couragement of  learning,  begua  in  1736,  but  as  be  died 
in  that  year,  could  not  have  eujpyed  the  promised  advan- 
tages of  it.  He  was  oiie  of  the  authors  of  the  ^^  General 
Dictionary,"  to  which  w^  so  often  refer,  which  includes  a 
translation .  of  Bziyle,  10  vols,  follo^  Mr.  Sale  left  a  son, 
who  was  fellow  of  New  college,  Oxford,  where  be  took  bis 
degree  of  M.  A.  in  1756..  He  was  afterwards  a  fellow  of 
Winchester  college,  in  1765,  and  died  a  short  time  after.* 

SALIAN^  or  SALLIAN  (Jam^s),.  a. learned  Jesuit  of 
Avignon,  where  he  was  born  in  1557^  entered  into  that 
society  in  1578,  and  became  anoted  tuton  He  was. after- 
wards made  rector  of  the  college  of  Besangon^  and. died  at 
Parisian.  23,  1640,  in  the  eighty-third  year  of  his' age. 
He  wrote  some  pious  tracts,  but  is  principally  known  for 
bis  <^  Annals  of  the  Old  Testament/'  published  in  161  Si — 24, 
6  vols,  folio.  As  this  wotk' appeared  too  voluminous  for 
geueral  use,  M«deSponde,. bishop  of  Paniiers,  requested 
leave  to  publish  an  abridgment  in  the  manner  of  his  abridg- 
ment of  Baronius ;  but  Salian>  co«s<;iogs  how  much  origi-^ 
nais  suffer  by  abridgments^  refused  this  truest  with  much 
politeness;  and  when  induo^  at  last  to  make  an  abridg-* 
meat  himself,  contrived  to  do  it  in  such  a  laaanec  as.  to 
render  the  original  almost  indispensable  to  his  readers.'  . 

SALISBURY  (John  of),  one  of  the  greatest  ornaments 
of  the  twelfth  centucy^iwas  born  at  Old  Sarum,  whence  he 
derived  the  name  of  Sa&ISJSURI£nsis^  about  1116.  After 
he  had  gone  through  a  course  of  education  in  England,  he 
went  to  the  university  of  Paris  in  i  136,  and  attended  upon 

>  Gent  Mag.;  seelD^ex. — BosweH's  Life  of  Johusoo.      *  Moreri.— Alegambe. 

S  A  L  I  S  B  U  R  Y.  65 

the  lectures  of  Abelard  land  ottier  masters,  with  such  in- 
dustry  and  success,  that  he  acquired  an  uncommon  share  of 
knowledge  both  in  philosophy  and  letters.     At  an  early 
period  of  life,  his  poverty  obliged  him  to  undertake  the 
office  of  preceptor  ;  yet  amidst  engagements  of  this  kind, 
be  found  leisure  to  acquire  a  competent  knowledge  of  dia- 
lectics,   physics,  and  morals,  as  well  as  an  acquaintance 
with  the  Greek,  and  (what  was  at  that  time  a  rare  accom- 
plisbment)  with  the  Hebrew,  languages.     He  may  justly 
be  ranked  among  the  first  scholars  of  his  age.    After  many 
years  had  elapsed,  he  resolved  to  revisit  the  companions 
of  his  early  studies  on   Mount  St.  Genevieve,  in  order  to 
Confei*  with  them  on  the  topics  on  which  they  had  formerly 
disputed.     His  account  of  this  visit  affords  a  striking  pic- 
ture of  the  philosophical  character  of  this  age.     ^*  I  found 
them,^'  says  he,  *^  the  same  men,  and  in  the  same  place ; 
Bor  had  they  advanced  a  single  step  towards  resolving  our 
antient  questions,    nor  added  a  single  proposition,  how- 
ever stnati,  to  their  stock  of  knowledge.     Whence  1  in* 
ferred,  what  indeed  it  was  easy  to  collect,  that  dialectic 
studies,  however  useful  they  may  be  when  connected  wrth 
other  branches  of  learning,  are  in  tbemselven  barren  and 
uselesa.*'     Speaking  in  another  place  of  the  philosophers 
of  his  time,  be  eomplains,    that  they  collected  auditors 
solely  for  the  ostentation  of  science,  and  designedly  ren- 
dered  their  discourses  obscure,    that  they  might  appear 
loaded  with  the  mysteries  of  wisdom ;  and  that  though  all 
professed  to  follow  Aristotle,  they  were  so  ignorant  of  hisr 
true  doctrine,  that  in  attempting  to  explain  his  meaning, 
they  often  advanced  a  Platonic  notion,  or  some  erroneous 
tenet  equally  distant  from  the  true  system  of  Aristotle  and 
of  Platx>.     From  these  observations,  and  firom  many  similar 
passaged  to  be  found  in  his  writings,  it  appears,  that  John 
of  Salisbury  was  aware  of  the  trifling  character. both  of  the 
philosoph)^  hnd  the  philosophers  of  hts  age ;  owing,  pro- 
bably, to  the^iinoommon  share  ofgood  sense  which  he  pos- 
sessed, a^'  well  as  to  the'  unusual  extent  and  variety  of  his 
learning.  ^  Throughout  his  writings  there  are  evident  traces 
of  a  frttiifoV  genius',  of  sotihd  understanding,  of  various 
emdftidn,  and,  with  due  allowance  for  the  age  in^  which  he 
Kwd^ :  of  correct  taste, 

•  At 'Bi«  rblurm into  'England',  after  bis  first  visit  to  Paris, 
be  studi4sd'lh^  clvfl  law  ondcft  V««afius,  who  taught  Witb^ 
gr^at^^pkube  at03^ford4i¥>i449.  '  fitabmaeing  tb^  monsi* 
Vol.  XXVIL  F 

65  8ALISBU  R  Y; 

tic  Irfe  at  Canterbury,  he  became  the  diief  confidant  of 
two  successive  archbishops  of  that  see,  Theobald  and 
Tbonias  a  Becket.  To  the  last  of  these  he  dedicnted  his 
celebrated  work  "  Polycraticon,  or  De  nugis  curialiiim,  et 
vestigiis  philosophorum/*  a  very  curious  and  valuable  mo* 
nuoient  of  the  literature  of  bis  times.  Although  he  did 
not  approve  some  p^rt  of  the  conduct  of  Becket,  he  sub- 
mitted to  Henry  the  Second^s  sentence  of  banishment,  and- 
remained  in  exile  for  seven  years,  rather  than  give  up  the 
•party  of  the  archbishop,  which  was  the  condition  on  wbich^ 
he  might  have  been  permitted  to  return.  In  negotiating 
Becket's  affairs,  he  performed  no  less  than  ten  jour|[i4^». 
into  Italy.  In  one  of  these  journeys,  he  obtained  familiar 
uitercourse  witti  pope  Adrian  IV.  his  countryman,  who. 
having  asked  him  what  the  world  said  of  bitn  and  of  the:^ 
Roman  church,  John  returned  such  an  answer  as  might? 
have  been,  e^ipected  from  the  boldest  of  the  reformers' in> 
the  sixteenth  centcrry,  telUng  his  holiness,  among  other- 
thi^igs,  that  the  world  6aid,  **  the  pope  liimseM^  was  a  bUr*> 
then  to  Christendom  which  is  scarcely  to  be  borne."  The 
whole  of  this  curious  dialogue  may  be  seen. in  the  fM>rk' 
above  mentioned,  * 

At  length  he  was  permitted  to  return  to  England  in  1171, « 
9nd  was  a  spectator  of  the  murder  of  Us  friend  Becket, 
from  whom  he  endeavoured  to  ward  off  one  of  the  bhiWs,< 
and  received  it  on  bis  arm,  which  was  seriously  hurt.  In 
1172  be  was  promoted  to  the  French  bishopric  of  Char* 
tres,  in  the  province  of  Sens,  which  he  held  ten  years, 
dying  in  1182.  He  composed  many  other  works  besides 
the  *' Polycraticon,"  whibh  is  written  in  a  plain  concise 
style,  and  is  an  excellent  treatise  upon  the  employmems^^ 
occupations,  duties,  virtues,  and  vices,  of  great  men,  tod^ 
contains  a  number  of  moral  reflections,  passages  from  au« 
thors,  examples,  apologues,  pieces  of  history,  and  eom-< 
ii)on-pIaces.  His  familiar  acquaintance  with  the  classics 
aj>pears,  not  only  from  the  happy  facility  of  his  ianguage^^ 
but  from  the  many  citations  of  the  purest  Roman  authors^ 
with  which  his  wor^  are  perpetually  inteilqpersed. .  Mom- 
£lucon  says,  that  some  part  of  the  supplement  to  Petronios,) 
{|iib)ished  as  a  genuine  and  valuable  discovery  a  few  yetfra 
ago,  but  since  supposed  to  l^e  spurious,  is  quoted  in  the^ 
^^  Potg^QnatlciMi."  It  was  pul;^iisbed  at  Paris  in  1519,  and 
at  Ley  den  lo  li693.  Sire;  and  a  French  translation  of  it», 
entitled  *<  Les  Vanitez  de  la^^r/'  at  Pari^»  1640^  in*4tOjH 

•  » rfk   »    Jt  .  ^  ^ 

S  A  L  I  S  B  U  H  Y.  67 

with  a:  life  of  the  HUtbor  prefixed.  Among  his  othtv  inror^ 
ftre  a  volume  of  /^  Letters/^  published,  at  Paris  in  1611^ 
for  which  bis  stjle  seems  best  adapted^  anfl^bis  corre- 
spondents were  some  of  the  first  personages  of  the  ase* 
Their  cooteots,  as  detailing  important  occurrences,  are  in- 
terestingy  and  their  ti^rn  of  expression  sometimes  elegant. 
Another  of  his  works  was  a  learned  defence  of  grarpmar, 
riietoric,  and  logic,  against  one  whom  he  calls  pornificius, 
which  cqntains  a  most  curious  account  of  tlie  state  of  these 
vciences  at  this  period. ' 

SALISBURY,  or  SALESBURV  (William),  a  Welsh' 
aoiiqoary,  was  born  of  an  ancient  family  in  Denbighshire, 
and  studied  for  some  time  at  Oxford,  ,wb,ence  he  removed 
to  Thaives-Inn,  London.  Here  he  applied  to  the  law,  but 
does  not  appear  to  have  risen  to  any  eminence,  as  Wood 
speaks  of  himi  as  living  in  bis  latter  days  ii>  the  house  of 
a  bookselier  in  St.  Paul's  church-yard.  His  principal  ob- 
ject appears  to  have  been  the  cultivation  of  the  Welsh 
laof^uage,  askd  the  translation  into  it  of  the  Bible,  &c.  It 
)voald  appear  that  queen  Elizabeth  gave  him  a  patent,  for 
seven  years,  for  printing  in  A^elsh  th^  Bible,  Common- 
Prayer,  and  ^*  Administration  of  the  Sacraments/'  Hp 
compiled  ^^A  Qictipoary  in.  .j^pgUsh  and  Welsh,"  Lond. 
1547,  4to.  '  *>.A  Littl/s  Xireatise  pf  the  English  pronunci-  . 
atiou  of  the  Letters."  ^^^pl^n  apd  familiar  introduction'* 
to  tbe^ame,  Lopd.  1350,  4tQ.  <*  9attery  of  the  Pope's 
Botterepix,.  commonly  csdjied  t;he  High- Altar,"  ibid.  i550|^ 
8vo.  *<  The  Laws  of  Howell  Dha."  "  A  Welsh  Eheto- 
rick,"  revised,  enlarged,  &c.  by  Henry  Perry,  B.  D. 
The  period  of  his  death  is  uncertain,  but  ho  was  living  in 

i5«.,«  ',..-.:" 


S4LL£NCK^  (Albert  H^nry  de),  an  ingenious  and 
laborious  writer^  was  born  at  the  Hague  in  1694.  His 
father  was  receiver-general  of  Walloon  Flanders,  and  of 
aa  ancient  and  considerable  family.  He  was'educated  with- 
great  care,  and  sent  at  a  pi*oper  age  to  Leyden ;  where  he 
studied  history.,  iinder  Perjzonius,  philosophy  under  Bet* 
nard,  and  law  under  Voetius  and  Noodt.  Having  finished 
his  academical  studies  with  honour,  he  returned  to  his  pa-  the  Hague,  and  was  admitted  an  advocate  in  the 

'  ,    •      •    .• 

— lBerrtogtiMi>9^t^aiy  History  of  the  MMdie 
^  ath.  Os.  XMW  edit.  vol.  L 



S  A  L  L  E  N  G  R  E. 

court  of  Holland  After  the  peace  of  Utrecht  in  171 3,  be 
went  to  France ;  ^nd  spent  some  time  at  Paris  in  vifitiiig 
libraries,  and  in  cultivating  friendships  with  learned  men^ 
In  1716,  he  was  made  counsellor  to  the  princess  of  Nas- 
sau ;>«nd,  the  year  a/ter,  commissary  of  the  finances  of 
the  States  General.  He  went  again  to  France  in  1717; 
and  two  years  after  to  England,  where  he  was  elected  fel- 
low of  the  Royal  Society,  in  the  list  of  which  he  is  called 
*•  Auditor-Surveyor  of  the  Bank  of  Holland.'*     He  was  au- 

•  thor  of  several  publications,  which  shewed  parts,  learning, 
and  industry ;  and  without  doubt  woilld,  if  he  had  lived, 
have  been  of  great  use  and  ornament  to  the  republic  of 
letters';  btit,  catphing  the  smalUpox,  he  died  in  1725,  in 
his  thiitieth  year. 

He  was  for  some  time  editor  of  the  ^^  Literary  Journal,'* 
which  began  at  the  Hague  in  1713.  His  pait  eonsists  of 
four  volumes,  1715 — 1717,  The  eontimKition  waa  by 
Desmolets  and  Gouget.  In  1714,  he  published  **  L'Elog^ 
dei'Yvresse,^'  a  piece  of  much  spirit  and  gaiety <;  in  1715, 
^*  Histoire  de  Pierre  de  Montmaur,''  2  vols.  Svo,  a  collec- 
tion of  all  the  pieces  written  against  that  sHigubrchavac- 
t&vK  In  1716,  '<  Commentaires  sur  les  Epitres  d'Ovide 
par  M.  de  Meziriac,'*  with  a  discourse  upon  the  lifeand 
works  of  Meziriac ;  the  same  year,  <^  t^o^si'es  de  M»  de  la 
Monnoye;*Mn  1716^  1718, 171&I  ^^NovusTbesaurus  Anti- 
quitatuhi  tlomanarum,"  a  Supplement  to  Gravius'a  co)- 

' lection,  in  *Z  vols,  folio;  in  1718,  '^Huetti  de  rebus  ad 

*  PettT  de  MoDtmatir  was  a  Jesuit 

f)f  the  ^ev^at^enib  century,  nho  was 

sent  ID  early  life  by  bis  order  to  Rome, 

aud  there  be  tao^bt  grammar  w!thcre« 

dit  during  tbree  years.    He  afterwarcfs 

'  \th  tt)e,  Jesuits,  and  set  tip  as  a  drug- 

'  fist  at  Avignohi  wbicb  situation  proredf 

vefy  profitable  to  bim»    Than^oing  ta 

.  Paf  is,  |ie  ^attend^d  the  bar,  wbich  he 

quitted  to  devote  himself  to  poetry, 

displaying  bis  taste  chiefly   in-  ana- 

^  grsnas,  and  puns.    This  did  not,  bQw- 

,  ^yer,  jpreyeu^  his  succeeding  Ooulu  as 

regius  professor  of  Oreek,  from  whence 

-he  was  sunrmimedMontmaur  the  Grebiaiw 

>  liis  eon^taqt  pfaotice  i^as  to  ridicule 

,  m^ ,  of  learning  by  satires  ahd  sar- 

^catmis;  freqiieDtiy  making  aUmtons- 1» 

their  names,  taken  fromi  Greek  and 

'l4iii«,  which  Vert!  tailed  MoJatiqauir- 

kms.    Hence   a  warfare  .«esnn««c«4 

whiehdoas    not  appear  to  kave  re* 

dpuoded  much  to  the  cieifit  of  f  itbfr 
party»  Among  other  expedientH  they 
accused  Montm'aur  of  having  killed  the 
porter  of  the  college  of  Boncourt,  on 
which  he  was  seht  to  prison^  a^nd  scarce 
cleared  of  this  imaginary  crime,  befora 
they  accused  him  of  tothers  more  iofa- 
moas*  Varioi)^  attfmpta  we^e  also 
made  to  render  him  ridiculous.  '  Me- 
nage set  the  fiisbion  by  a  fictitious 
**  Life  of  Monttnaur,**  mblch  he  poh- 
liahed  in  Latin,  1636,  under  the  toame 
of  "  G argil lus  Mamurra.'*  Others  fol- 
lowed his'  example,,  and  |f.  de  Sallen- 
gre  publiahed  tlie  work  ^boye-mtn.. 
tioned,  which  forms  a  curious  and  ea-^ 
tertainihg  <^ollection.  Moptioaar  wftt 
certatnlji  a^badjpoct,  but  in  other  re- 
spects was  not  so  despicable  «s  most 
authors  repreietit  him.  Ut  4it4  im 
X^^»,  9(f«ifev«^rr«Mif. 

S  A  L  i,  E  IS  G-R  E.  69 

enm  pertinentibus  Coaiinentarius,*'  with  a  preface  written 
hff  biiDseif.  About  the  time  of  his  death  he  was  engaged 
io  writiog  '<  A  History  of  the  United  Provinces  from  1609, 
to  the  conclusion  of  the  peace  of  Munster  in  164S/'  which 
was  published  at  the  Hague  in  1728,  with  this  title,  <<£s-» 
sai  d'une  Histoire  des  Provinces  Unies  pour  Tann^e  1621, 
ou  la  Treve  finit,  et  le  Guerre  recommence  avec  TEs- 
pagne/*  4to.  * 

SALLO  (Denis  de),  a  French  writer,  the  first  projector 
of  literary  journals,  was  descended  from  an  ancient  and  . 
noble  family,  and  born  at  Paris  in  1626.  During  his  edu- 
cation,  he  gave  no  proofs  of  precocious  talent,  and  afforded 
little  hope  of  much  progress  in  letters  or  science.  But  this, 
seems  to  have  been  the  effect  rather  of  indolence  than  in- 
capacity, for  he  afterwards  became  an  accomplished  Greek; 
and  Latin  scholar,  and  maintained  public  theses  in  philoso- 
phy with  the  greatest  applause.  He  then  studied*  the  law, 
and  was  admitted  a  counsellor  in  the  parliament  of  Paris  in 
1652.  This,  however,  did  not  seem  so  much  to  his  taste 
as  general  imjuiries  into  literary  history  and  knowledge^ 
and  desultory  reading.  It  is  said  that  he  occasionally 
perused  all  kinds  of  books,  made  curious  researches,  and 
kept  a  person  always  near  him  to  take  down  his  reflections,, 
and  to  make  abstracts.  In  1664,  he  formed  the  project  of 
the/' Journal  des  ^gavans;'*  and,  the  year  following,  be- 
gan to  publish  it  under  the  name  of  Sieur  de  Hedouville, 
which  was  that  of  his  valet  de  chambre ;  but  the  severity  of 
his  censures  gave  offence  to  many  who  were  able  to  make, 
reprisals.  Menage's  ^*  Amoenitates  Juris  Civilis''  was  one 
%of  the  first  of  those  works  which  fell  under  Sallows  cogni- 
zance,  and  his  mode  of  treating  it  provoked  Menage  to 
return  his  abuse  with  equal  severity  in  his  preface  to  the 
works  of  Malherbe,  printed  in  1666.  Charles  Patin'a 
**  Introduction  a  la  connoissance  des  M^dailles*'  was  ano- 
ther work  with  which  he  made  free,  and  incurred  a  severe 
retaliation.  This  warfare  soon  proved  too  much  for  his 
courage;  and  therefore,  after  having  published  his  third 
journal,  he  turned  the  work  over  to  the  Abb£  Gallois,  who 
dropped  all  criticism,  and  merely  gave  titles  and  extracts. 
The  plan^  however,  in  one  shape  or  other,  was  soon  adopt- 
ed iti  most  parts  of  Europe,  and  continues  until  this  day, 
whether  with  real  advantage  to  literature,  has  never  been 

A  Niceron^  volt.  !•  and  ;S.— Moifri* 

70  S  A  L  t  O. 

folly  discussed.  Voltiaire,  after  mentioning  Sallo  as  the  in- 
ventor of  this  kind  of  writing,  says,  with  a  justice  appl^ 
cable  in  our"  own  days,  that  Sallows  attempt  "  was  after* 
wat'ds  dishonoured  by  other  journals,  which  were  published 
at  the  desire  of  avaricious  booksellers,  and  written  by  ob- 
scure men,  who  filled  them  with  erroneous  extracts,  f6Hies, 
and  lies.  Things,**  he  adds,  "  are  come  to  that  pass,  that 
praise.and  censure  are  all  made  a  public  traffic,  especfatly 
in  periodical  papers  ;  and  letters  have  fallen  into  disgrace 
by  the  management  and  conduct  of  these  infamous  scrib* 
bliers.**  On  the  pther  hand,  the  advantages  arising  froth 
such  journals,  when  under  the  management  of  men  of  can- 
dour and  independence,  will  scarcely  admit  of  a  doubt. 
Sallo  died  in  1669;  and,  although  be  published  a  piece  or 
two^of  his  own,  yet  is  now  remembered  only  for  his  plan 
of  a  literary  journal,  or  review.' 

SAIXUSTiUS  (Gaius  Grispus),  sfn  eminent  Rotnart 
historian,  was  born  at  Amiternum  in  8^  B.  C.  The  rank 
of  his  ancestors  is  iincertain,  but  from  some  circumstances 
in  his  writings,  it  is  not  improbable  that  his  family  was 
plebeian.  Having  passed  bis  more  early  years  at  bis  native 
town,  he  was  removed  to  Kome,  where  he  bad  the  advan- 
tage of  profiting  by  the  lessons  of  Atticus  Pratextatu^, 
surnamed  Philologus,  a  grammarian  and  rhetoriciai^  of 
great  celebrity.  Under  this  teacher  be  applied  to  learning 
^yith  diligence,  and  made  uncommon  progress.  It  appears 
that  he  had  turned  his  thoughts  in  his  younger  days  to  the 
writing  of  history,  for  which  he  had  unquestionably  great 
talents  ;  but,  as  he  himself  intimates' in  bis  preface  to  the 
history  of  Catiline^s  conspiracy,  he  was  diverted  fr6m  this 
pursuit  by  the  workings  of  ambition.  His  ^arly  life  too, 
appears  to  have  been  stained  by  vice,  which  the  gross  enor- 
mities of  his  more  advanced  years  render  highly  probable. 
In  this  respect  he  has  found  an  able  advocate  in  his  late 
learned  translator  and  commentator;  but  although  Dr. 
Steuart's  researches  have  removed  some  part  of  the  rii- 
proaches  of  ancient  authors^  enough  remains  to  shew  that 
Sallust  partook  largely  of  the  corruption  of  the  age  in 
tvhicb  he  lived,  and  added  to  it  by  bis  own  example.  The 
istory  of  bis  having  been  detected  in  an  adulterous  inter- 
course with  the  wife  of  Milo,  who,  after  a  severe  whipping, 
iliade  him  pay  a  handsome  sum  of  money,  may  rest  upon 

I  NiceroD,  vol.  IX.— Moieri. 

S  A  L  t  U  S  T  I  U  S;  7i 

Httle  aiitbority,  at  may  be  altogether  discarded  as  a  fiction, 
l^ot  the.  general  conduct  of  Sallust  shows  that  the  noble 
sentiments  in  his  works  bad  no  influence  on  bis  conduct. 

He  appears  to  have  been  advanced  to  the  office  of  quaes* 
tor  in  the  year  of  Rome  693,  and  in  701  was  made  tri«. 
bune.of  the  people.     It  was  now  that  he  employed  all  the 
arts  of  Action  to  inflame  the  minds  of  the  people  against 
Milo,  the  murderer  of  Clodi us;  and  those  biographers 'wbd 
admit  the  fact  of  his  being  disgraced  by  Milo,  as  we  bav^ 
above  related,  impute. to  him  motives  of  revenge  only;  and 
he.  was  equally  industrious  in  raising  a  clamour  against 
Cicero,  in  order  to  deter  bim  from  pleading  Milo's  cause. 
In  70S  be  was  expelled  the  senate  by  the  then  censors, 
Appiua  Claiadkis  and  Calphurnius  Piso,  on  account  of  bis 
profligacy,  hnt  restored  in  the  following  year  by'  Julius 
Caesar,  and  was  likewise  made  quaestor,  an  oJBce  wliich 
beemployed  in  aceumulating  riches  by  ievery  corrupt  mea^ 
lure.     During  Cassar^s  second  dictatorship  he  was  made 
praetor,  and  when  Caesar  went  into  Africa^  with  part  of  his 
army,:  be  took  Sallust  with  htm,  who  performed  some  im- 
porxant  services,  in  return  for  which  Caesar  made  him  go- 
vernor of  Numidia.     It  is  here  that  bis  public  character 
appears  most  atrocious  and  indefensible,     fie  seems  to 
have  considered  this  province  as  a  fund  destined  to  the  im- 
provement of  bis  private  fortune,  and  plundered  it  in  the 
most  inboman  manner.     In  vain  did  tbe  oppressed  Numi* 
dians -exclaim  against  his  rapacity,  and  commence  a  prose*^ 
.GUtion  against  him.     His   wealth  was  a  sufficient  guard 
agaia9t  tbe  arm  of  jiistioe,  and  by  sharing  with  Caesar  a 
.part  of  the  i^ils,  he  easily  baiBed  all  inquiry  into  his  pfo* 
viitcial  administration^     On  bis  return,    laden  with   fhis 
wealiSi,  be  purchased  a  country  bouse  at  Tivoli,  and  one 
of  tbe  noblest  dwellings  in  Rome  on  the  Quirinal  mount; 
with  beautiful  gardens,  which  to  this  day  are  called  the 
.gardens  of  Sallust.     In  this  situation  it  is  supposed  that  he 
wrote  his   account  of  ^^  Cat^liue^s  conspiracy,"  and   the 
f*  Jugurthine  war,'*  and  that  larger  history,  the  loss  of 
,wbicb  there  is  so  much  reason  to  deplore.     He  died  at  tbe 
'^9^  of  fifiy-one,  Q.  C.  35.     Having  no  children  of:bis 
<Miif%  bi^  ample  possessions  passed  to  the  grandson  of  his 
jAst^;  and  the  family  flourished,  with  undiminished  splen- 
4oiit*,  to  a  late  aera  of  the  Roman  empre. 

Whatever  objections  may  be  made  to  Sallust's  character 
as  amani  he  has  ever  been  justly  admired  as  a  historian. 

7«  8  A  t  I,  U  S  T  I  V  »• 

He  U  equally  perspicuous  and  instiluctive :  lus  style  is  ^aV 
ah^  nexvousy  bis  descriplion^,  rieflectionsy  speeches,  and 
ch9.racter8y  all  sbevtr  the  hand  of  a  master.  Biiit  bis  paurtia* 
lity  may  be  blamed  with  equal  justice,  and  even  soQ[ia  of 
bis  most  virtuous  sentiments  and  bitter  invectives  agaiiwt 
corruption  in  public,  men  .may  be  traced  rather  to  party 
spirit,  than  to  a  genuine  abhorrence  of  corruption,  wbicb^ 
indeed,  in  one  who  bad  practised  it  so  extensively,  coul4 
not  be  expected,  unless  the  result  of  a  penitence  we  no 
where  read  of.  His  attachment  to  Caasar,  and  bis  di&re« 
spect  for  Cicero,  are  two  glaring  defects  in  bis  merit  as  a 
faithful  historian^ 

.  Of  Sallust  there  are  many  excellent  editions*  His  worka 
were  first  printed  at  Venice,  in  1470,  and  reprinted  thirty, 
times,  before  the  conclusion  of  that  century,  but  tbesd 
editions  are  of  gr^tat  rarity.  The  best  of  the  more  modem 
are  the  Aldus  of  i521,  8vo,  the  Variorum  of  1690,  Svo, 
Wasse's  excellent  edition,  printed. at  Cambridge  in  1710^ 
4to;  Cortius's  edition,.  1724,  4to;  Havercamp's,  J  742, 
2  vols.  4to;  the  prize  edition  of  Edinburgh, .  1753,  12ma; 
the  fiipont,  1779,  bvo^  that  very  accurate  one  by  Mr, 
Homer,  Lond.  1789,  8vo;  and  one  by  Uarles,  J799,  BvQ» 
The  late  Dr.  Rose  of  Chiswick,  published  a  very  eorrect 
translation  of  Salhist  in  1751,  8vo,  with  Cicero's  Four 
Orations  against  Catiline ;  and  more  recently  Sallust  baa 
found  a  translator,  and  an  acute  and  learned  commentator 
and  advocate,  iu  Henry  Steuart,  LL,D.  F.  R.  S.  and  S.  A.EL 
Hvho  published  ini  1806,.  in,  2  vols.  4to,  **  The  Works  of 
£allust.  To  which,  are  prefixed,  two  Essays  on  the  Life» 
literary  character,  and  writings  of  the  historian ;  with 
'  notes  historical,  bjographicaJ,  ,and  critical.'^ ' 

SALMASIUS,  or  SAUMAiSE  (Claude),  one  of  tim 
post  learned  men  of  the  seventeenth  century,  and  wbom 
JBaillet  has  with  great  propriety  classed  among  his  *'  £n£uis 
celebres  par  les  etudes,*'  was  born  at  Semur-en-Auxois,  in 
Burgundy..  His  family .  was  ancient  aud  noble,  and  bis  fa« 
Iber,  an  eminent  lawyer,  and  a  member  of  tl>e  f^rliament 
of  Burgnnd}',  was. a  man  of  worth  and  learning.  Respect*' 
ing  the  time  of  his  birth,  all  his  bio&^raphers  diffen  Peter* 
Burman,.  who  has  compared  their  differences,  justly  thkika 
it  very  strange  that  so  many  persons  who  were  bis  eontani-^ 
poraries  and  knew  him  intimately,  should  not  b»veaseer«« 

>  Life  by  Dr.  Steuart,— and  by  Dr.  Host .— Dibdin't  ClaisiCi. 

S  A  L  M  A  S  I  U  S.  IS 

ibrittted^e  etCBct  dales  either  of  his  birtfa  or  death.  The 
foroier^  boweveri  we  presooae  may  be  fixed  either  in  1 593 
or  4694;  He  was  educated  at  first  solely  by  bis  fatberi 
wfao'taoght  hion  Latin  and  Greek  with  astonishing  saccess. 
Attbe  jage  of  ten  he  wa:>  able  to  trknslate  Pindar  very  cor-^ 
rectly,  and  wrote  Greek  and  Latin  verses.  At  the  age  of 
eleven,  bii  father  wished  to  send  him  for  farther  education' 
tatbeJesotts'*  college  at  EHjon,  not  to  board  there,'  but  to 
attend  tessons  twice  a  day,  and'icDprove  tlieni  at  hit  lodg^ 
ings.  Inthis  scheme^  however,  he  was  disappointed.  His 
Hiotbery  who  w^as  a  procestaiit,  had  not  only  inspired  Claude  ^ 
with  a  hatred  of.  the  Jesnits,  but  encouraged  him  to  write 
satires  against  the  order,  which  he  did  both  in  Greek  abd 
Latin,  and  entertained  indeed  tiiroughont  life  the  same 
aversion  to  them.  Having  refused  therefore  to  comply 
with  bis  father's  request  in  this  respect,  his  mother  proposed 
to. send  him  to  Paris,  where  her  secret  wish  was  that  he 
should  be  confirmed  in  her  religion.  This  being  complied 
with,  he  soon  formed  an  acquaintance  with  Casaubon  and 
some  other  learned  men  in  that  metropolis,  who  were  astor 
nished  to  find  sdeh  talents  and .  erudition  in  a  mere  boy. 
During  his  residence  here  he  conversed  much  with  the 
clergy ^f  the  reformed  cfaurchj  and  being  at  length  deter- 
milled  to  mdie  an  open  aVdwal  of  bis  attachment  to  protes- 
tantism, he  ai^ed  leave  of  his  father  to  go  to  Heideibergi 
partly  that  he:  might  apply  to  the  study  of  the  law,  but 
prilictpaliy  f but  be  might  be  more  at  his  freedom  in  reli- 
{[ious  matters.  Baillet  calls  this  a  trick  of  his  new  precep- 
tors,  who  willed  to  persuade  Salmasiiis^s  fatbier  that  Paris, 
with  respect  to  the  study  of  the  \Mi^  was  not  equal  to  Hei«« 
delberg,  where  was  the  celebrated  Oenis  Godefroi^  and  an 
exeellent  library. 

Salnmsios^s  father  hesitated  long  about  thta  proposition. 
As  yet  be  did  not  know  that  his  son  n^ai  so  far  gone  in  a 
thsmge  of  religion,  but  still  did  not  choose  that  he  ahould 
be  eent  to  a  place  which  swarmed  with  protestants.  He 
therefore  wished  his  son  would  prefer  Tbuloose,  where 
were  at  that  time  aome  eminent  law  professors;  but 
Claude  refused,  and  some  unpleasant  correspondence  took 
plaee  between  the  father  and  the  son,  as  appeatis  by  the 
words  in  ^hich^the  former  at  lait  granted  bis  permission—* 
^  Go  tben^  I  wiih  to  «how  how  much  more  I  am  of  an  in- 
dulgent father  than  you  are  of  aU.  obedient  son.*^  The  son 
indeed  in  this  manifested  a  little  of  that  conceit  and  arro« 

T4  S  A  UM  A  5  1  US. 

gance  which  sppwred  in' many  instances  in  his  fotilre  life, 
and  unmoved  by  the  kindness  be  bad  just  received^  refused  to 
%mfe\  by  the  way  of  Dijon,  as  his  fether  desired,  but  joined 
some  merchants  who  were  going  to  Francfort  fiiir,  and  ar- 
rived at  Heidelberg  in  Oct.  1606,  or  rather  1607,  when 
he  was  only  in  his  .-fourteenth  year.  Whatever  may  be 
thought  of  his  temper,  we  need  no  other  proof  that  he  wa8> 
•ne  of  the  most  extraordinary  youths  of  this  age  that  the 
world  ever  knew,  than  the  letters  addressed  to  him  at  this 
time .  by  Jungerman  and  others  on  topics  of  philology. 
They  afford  an  idea  of  Us  eruditi<Mi,  says  Burman,  wbiefa 
could  only  be  heightened  by  the  production  of  his  answevs. 
To  Heideft>^g  he  brought  letters  of  recommendation 
from  Gasaubon,  which  introduced  him  to  Godefroi,  Gruter, 
and  Lingelsheim,  and. his  uncommon  merit  soon  improved 
this  into  an  intimacy.  Under  Godefroi  he  applied  to  the 
BiuAy  of  civil'law  with  that  intenseness  with  which  he  ap- 
plied to  every  thing,  but  as  he  now  had  an  opportunity  of 
indulging  his  taste  for  the  belles  lettres,  and  was  admitted 
to  make  researches  among  the  treasures  of  the  Palatine  li«» 
brary,  he  spent  much  of  bis  time  here,  abridging'  hims^f 
even  of  sleep.  By  such  extraordinary  diligence,  he  accu- 
SDuli^ted  a  vast  fund  of  general  knowledge,  but  in  some 
measure  injured  his  health,  and  bfooght  on  an  illness  which 
laaled  above  a  year,  and  from  which  he  recovered  with  diU 
ficulty.  '  i 

.  With  an  insatiable  thirst  for  knowledge,  Salma^«ts  had 
an  early  and  strong  passion  for  fame.  He  commenced  au- 
thor when  between  sixteen  and  seventeen  years  of  age,  by 
publishing^  aa  edition  of  ^'  Nili,  archiepiscopi  Tbessaloni-* 
Csensis,  de  primatu  papie  Romani,  libri  duo,  item  Barlaam 
monacbus,  cum  interpretatione  Latina :  CI.  Salmasii  opera 
Qt  studio,  cam'  qusdem  in  utrumque  notis,"  Hanover,  160S, 
and  Heidelberg,  1608  and  16  IS,  8vo.  By  this  publicatioa 
against  the  authority  :of  the  pope,  he  seemed  determined 
to  make  a  more  public  avowal  of  his  sentiments  than  be  had 
yet  done,  and  to  shew  his  zeal  for  the  protestants,  by  coiik 
secrating  bis  first  labours  as  an  author  to  their  service.  In 
1609  appeared  his  edition  of  <<  Floras,''  printed  at  Pari% 
Svo,  and  dedicated  to  Gruter,  whose  notes  are  given  along 
with  those  of  Sahnasius.  This  was  reprinted  in  1636,  and 
in  1638,  to  which  last  be  added  <<  Lucii  Ampelii  libelhis 
memorialis  ad  Macrinum,''  which  bad  never  before  ap* 

S  A  L  M  A  ff  I  U  S.  15 

:  In  1^10,  he  returned,  home  and  was  admtHed  ao  adro-* 
eate,  but  bad  no  intention  to  follow:  that  profession,  and* 
preferred  lileratare  and  criticism  as  the  sole  empioynient 
of  his  life,  and  derived  the  highest  reputation  thateradi* 
tion  can  confer.  Such  was  hb  reputation,  that  he  began 
to  be  courted  by  foreign  princes,  and  universities.  The 
Venetians  thought  his  residence  apnong  them  would  be  such* 
an  honour,  .that  they  offered  him  a  prodigious  stipend ;  aad^ 
with  this  condition,  that  he  should  not  be  obliged  to  read 
lectures  above  three  times  a  year.  We  are  tok),  that  our 
university  of  Oxford  made  some .  attempts  to  get  him  over 
into  Engiaod ;  and  it  is  certain,  that  the  pope  made  similar, 
overtures,  though  Salmasius  bad  not  only  .deserted. his  re- 
ligion, and  renounced  his  authority,  but  had  actiiaily  writ* 
ten  against  the  papacy  itself.  He  withstood,. ^  however,  all 
these  solicitations  ;  but  at  last,  in  1632,  complied  .with  an 
inntation  from  Holland,  and  went  with  his  wife^  whom  he 
had  married  in  1621,  to  Leyden.  He  did  not  go  there  to 
be  professor,  or  honorary  professor;  but,  as  Vorstius  in  hisi 
*^  Funeral  Oration^'  expresses  it,,  *<  to  honour  the  university*' 
by  his  name,  his  writings,  and  his  presence.*' 

Upon  the  death  of  bis  fath^,  in.  1640^  he  returned  for 
a  time  into  France ;  and,  on  going  to  Paris,  wasmuchca- 
ressed  by  cardinal  Richelieu,  who.  used  all  possible  means 
to  detain .  him,  and  even  offered  him  his  own  terms ;  but 
could  not  prevail.  The  obligation  he  had  to  the  States  of 
Holland,  the  love  of  freedom  and  independence,  and  the 
necessity  of  a  privileged  plaee,  in  order  to  publish  such 
^ings  as  he  was  then  meditating,  were  the  reasons  .whioh 
enabled  him  to  withstand  the  cardinal.  Salmasius  also  re« 
fused  the  large  pension,  which  the  cardinal  offered  bim^ 
to  write  his  history,  because  in  such  a  work  he  thought  he 
must  either  ^ive  offencoy  or  advance.many,  things  contrary 
to  his  own  principles,  and  to  truth.  Wbiletllewas  in  Bor^  settle  family  affiEiirs,  the  cardinal  died,  and  was 
succeeded  by  Maeariu,  who,  upon  our  authpf  a  retora  to 
Paris^  honoured  him  with  the  same  solitcitations  as  his vpro)* 
decessor  haddoiie.  Salmaaius,  however,  declined  this  of* 
fers,  and  after  about  three  years  absence,  returned  to  HoU 
iand :  whence,  though  attempts  were  afterwards  made  to 
drawfhim  back  to  France,  it  does  not  appear;  that  he  ever 
entertained  the  least  thought  of  removing.  In  the  summer 
of  1650^  he  went  to  Sweden,  to  pay  queen.  Cbrislina  a 
y'mt,  with  whom  be  continued,  till  the  summ^  fodlowkig. 

76'  S  A  L  M  A  S  I  U  S. 

Tbe  recepiion  aii^  treatment  he  met  witb^^s  it  is  desdribed 
by  the  writer  of  his  life,  is  very  characteristic  of  that  ex- 
traordinary patroness  of  learned  men.  '*  She  performed 
for  him  all  offices,*'  says  he,  '<  which  conld  have  been  ex- 
pected even  irom  an  equal.  She  ordered  him  to  choose 
apartments  in  her  palace,  for  the  sake  of  having  him  with 
her,  '  ut  lateri  adhsBreret,'  whenever  she  would.  But  Sal- 
masius  was  almost  always  ill  while  he  stayed  in  Sweden, 
the  clioiate  being  more  than  his  constitution  could  bear :  at 
whicb  seasons  tbe  queen  would  come  to  tbe  &ide  of  his  bed, 
hold  long  discourses  with  him  upon  subjects  of  the  highest 
concern,  and,  without  any  soul  present,  but  with  the  doors 
ail  shut,  would  mend  his  fire,  and  do  other  necessary  of-= 
fices  for  Jiim.^  She  soon,  however,  changed  her  mind 
with  regard  to  Salmasius,  and  praised  his  antagonist  MiU 
ion,  with  whom  his  celebrated  controversy  had  now  begun. 
After  tbe  murder  of  Charles  I.,  Charles  II.,  now  in  Hoi- 
land,  employed  Salmasius  to  write  a  defence  of  his  father 
and  of  monarchy.  Salmasius,  says  Johnson,  was  lit  this 
time  a  man  of  skill  in  languages,  knowledge  of  antiquity,' 
and  sagacity  of  emendatory  criticism,  almost  exceeding  ail 
hope  of  human  attainment;  and  having,  by  excessive 
praises,  been  confirmed  in  great  confidence  of  himself, 
though  he  probably  had  not  much  considered  the  priniciples 
erf  society  or  the  rights  of  government,  undertook  the  em- 
ployment without  distrust  of  his  own  qualifications,  and,  as 
his  expedition  in  writing  was  wonderful,  produced  in  1649 
his  ^^  Defensio  Regia  pro  Carolo  I.  ad  Serenissimum  Mag- 
nte  Britannia^  Regem  Carolum  II.  filium  nato  majorem, 
baeredem  et  successorem  legitimom.  Sumptibus  Regiis, 
anno  164^9 .'*  Milton,  as  we  have  noticed  in  his  life,  was 
employed,  by  the  Powers  then  prevailing,  to  answer  this 
book  of  Salmasius,  and  to  obviate  the  prejudices  which 
ibe  reputation'of  his  great  abilities  and  learning  might  raise 
against  their  cause;  and  he  accordingly  published  in  1651^ 
a  Latin  work,  entitled  **  Defensio  pro  Popul6  Anglicano 
co&tra  Claudii  Salmasii  Defensionem  R^iam."  Of  these 
two  works  Hobbes  declared  himself  unable  to  decide  whose 
language  was  best,  or  whose  arguments  were  worst,  he 
might  have  added,  or  who  was  most  to  blame  for  scurrility 
and  personal  abuse.  Dr.  Johnsoli  remarks,  that  Salmasiua 
had  been  so  long  not  only  the  monarch,  but  the  tyrant  of 
literature,  that  almost  all  mankind  were  delighted  to  find 
him  defied  atttf  insulted  by  a  new  name,  not  yet  considered 

S  A  t  M  A  S  I  U  a.  .77 

jtt.any  one^sVivaL  Tbere  is  no  proof,  faoweirer,  that  S 
xsasjus's  geoeml  reputation  suifered  much  from  a  contest  in 
whicb  be  bad  not  employed  the  powers  wbieh  be  was  ac- 
knowledged to  possess.  His  misfortune  wits  to  treat  of 
.subjects  whicb  be  bad  not  much  studied,  and  any  repulse 
to  a  man  so  accustomed  to  admiration,  must  bave  been  very 
galling.  He  therefore  prepared  a  reply  to  Milton,  but  did 
not  live  to  finish  it,  nor  did  it  appear  until,  published  by  his 
,son  in  the  year,  of  the  restoration,  when  the  subject,  in 
.England  at  least,  was  no  longer  fit  for  discussion. .  He 
died  at  the  Spa,  Sept*  3,  .1653,  in  consequence  of  an  im- 
prudent use  of  the  waters;  hut  as  be  had  reproached  Mil- 
.toQ  with  losiug  his  eyes  io  tbeir  contest,  Milton  delighted 
himself  with  the  belief  that  he  had  shortened  Salmasius^;^ 
life.  Nothing,  however,  can  be  more  absurd,  if  any  cre- 
dit is  to  be  given  to  the  account  which  Salmasius's  bipgra- 
pherp  Clement,  gives  of  bis  feeble  constitution^  and  long 

Salmasius,  Dr.  Johnson  has  observed,  was  not  only  the 
monarch,  but  the  tyrant  of  litera^ture,  and  it  must  he  alr 
lowed  that  although  he  had  few,  if  any  equals,  in  extent 
of  erudition,  and  therefore  little  cause  of  jealousy,  be  was 
impatient  of  contradiction,  and  arrogaoiit  and  supercilious 
to  those  who  differed  from  him  in  opinion.  But  bet  nvust 
have  h^d  qualities  to  balaace  theae  imperfections,  before  he 
could  have  attained  thie  very  high  clu^acter  given  by  the 
ipcist  learbed  men  of  bis  age,  by  Casaubon,  by  Hueuus^  by^ 
Qronovius,  by  Scioppius,  by  our  Seldeu,  by  Grotius, 
Gruter^i  Balzac,  Menage,  Samvius,  Vor^ius,  &c.  &c.  &e. 
Those  wl^o.  have  ccitically  examined  his  writiqgs  attribute 
the  impexCeotions  occasionally  to  be  found  in  tbem  to  the 
hasty.  j»a«iie|c  in  which  he  wrote,  >aod  a  certain  hurry  and 
inipetuosijty  of  temper  when  be. took  up  any  subject  whicb 
engaged. his  attenAioe*  Gronotius,  seems  to.  think  that  he 
was.sometin^es  overwhelmed  with  the  vastness  of  his  erut- 
dtlion, . wd  knew  not  bow .  to  restrain  his  pen.  Hence, 
Gjronovius  adds,  we  find  so  many  contradictions  in  his 
mirka,  for  he  employed  no  ajoaanueiisis,  ^d  was  averse  to 
the  task  of  revision. 

Of  bis  aume/oua  works*  we  may  notice  as  the  moat  va- 
luable^ 1.  ^^  Amict^  ad.  amicumii  de  suburbicariis  regionib»a 
et  ecclesiis  suburbicariis,  epistola,^'  1619,  8vo,  reprinted 
more  correctly  at  the  end  of  his  epistles  in  1G56.  Tbi^ 
was  written  in  consequence  of  a  dispute  between  Godefroi 

7S  SAL  MA  &tV  9, 

and  fatber  Sirmoodv  2.  ^' Historise  Aiigustfl^'  tfcr^ptofM 
sex/'  Paris^  1620,  fol.  3.  '<  Sept.  Flarentis  TerttiHiain 
bber  de  Pallio/*  ibid*  1622,  Svo,  and  Leyden,  165G,  Sv6. 
This  involved  him  in  a  controversy  with  Denis  Petau,  to 
whom  he  published  two  answers.  4.  ^*  Piinianr  exercita^ 
tiones  in  Caii  Julii  S6lini  Poly  hist''  &c.  ibid.  1629^^  2  vols, 
fol.  and  Utrecht)  1689,  which  last  edition  has  another  work 
edited  by  Saumaise,  *^  De  homonymis  Hiles  iatricse  eser-^ 
citationes  ineditae,"  &c.  5.  **  De  Usuris/'  Leyden,  16S8^ 
8vov  -6.  ^^Notae  in  pervigilium  Veneris/'  ibid.  1638,  12mo. 
7.  <^De  modo  usuranim/'  ibid.  1639,  Svc  8.  '^Disser- 
tatio  de  foenore  trapezitieo,  in  tres  libros  divlsa,*'  ibid.  1640. 
9.  **  SimpHcii  commentarius  in  Enchiridion  Epicteti,''  &e. 
ibid.  1640,  4to,  and  Utrecht,  1711.  10.  <<  Achillis  Tatii 
Alexandrini  Eroticon  de  Clitopbontis  et  Leueippes  amori* 
bus,  iibri  octo,**  ibid.  1640,  12mo.  11.  ^Mnterpretatio 
Hippocratis  apborismi  69,  sect.  iv.  de  calcolo,"  &c.  ibid. 
1640,  8vo.  12.  *' De  Hellenistica :  commentarius  contro- 
versiam  de  tiftgaa  bellenistica  deetdens,  et  plenissime  per- 
tractans  origines  et  dialecticos  Grsstas  linguas,"  Leydcfrf, 
1645.  iSv  **  Obsenratfones  in  jus  Atticum  et  Romanum,'' 
ibid.  1645,  8vo^  &c.  &ci  with  many  others  on  various  sub- 
jects  of  philosophy,  law,  and  criticism.  A  collection  ^ 
bis  letters  was- published  soon  after  his  death  byAutoiij^ 
Clement,  4to,  with  a  life  of  the  author,  but  many  others 
are  to  be  found  in  variotis  collections.^ 

SALMON-(Framgis),  a  learned  doctor  and  librarian  ^ 
the  bouse  and  society  of  the  Sorbonne,  was  born  of  an 
opulent  family  at  Paris,  in  1677.-  He  waswell  acquainted 
wkh  itae  learned  languages,  psrticuhtriy  Heb? ew,  possessed 
great  literary  knowledge^  and  discovered  much  aiiectiotk 
for  young  persons  who  were  fond  of  study,  encMumging 
them  by  his  example  and  advke,'and  taking  pleattofein 
lending  them  his  books.  He  died  suddenly  at  his  country 
bouse,  at  Chaitlot,  near  Pftris,  Sept.  9,  1736,  aged  fifhr- 
nine^  He.  published  a  very  useful  work  illustimcive  or  a 
part  of  ecclesiastical  history,  entitled  ^  Trait6  de  Tetnde 
des  Conciles,*'  with  an  account  of  the  principal- authors  and 
works,  ^best  editions,  &c.  upon  the  subject  of  coonoils^ 
Paris,  1724,  4to.     This  has  been  translated  into  German, 

•and  printed  at  Leipsic,  in  1729.     He  intendedalioto  have 

.  '•  *.'.'■♦ 

>  Life  by  Cleiaent.— Baillet  Jagemens.*— Bloaat's  Censuis**— MorerU— Bur* 
mao's  *'Syllo5e."<^Sasii  Onomaiticon. 

SALMON.  3f 

given 'a  supplement  to  <^  Father  Labbe*s  CoUeotioti  of  Conn  <* 
cils^^' :  and  an  ^*  Index  Sorbonicus,^'  or  alphabetical  library^ 
in  which  was^  tobegiv^i,  under  the  namcfs  of  the  respective 
authors^  their  acts,  lives,  chronicles,  bistones,  books,  trea« 
tiaes,  bnlls^  &c.  but  did  not  live  to  oomplete  either.* .  • 

SALMON  (Nathaniel),  anEoglish  antiquary,,  was  the 
aen  of  the  rev.  Thomaa  Salmon^)  M.  A.  rectpr  of  Mepsali  in 
Bedfordahire,  by  a  daughter  of  the  notorious  serjeant  Brad<^ 
sha:w.  He  was  admitted  of  BeoeH  college,  Cambridigey 
June  i  1,  1'690,  where  his  tutors  were  dean  Moss  and  arch* 
deacpo  Lunn,  and  took  the  degree  of  LL.  B.  in  1695.  Soon 
aiievrhe  went  intO:  orders,  and ,  was  for  scune  time  curate  of 
Westmill  in.  Hertfordshire;  but^  although  he  liad  taken 
the  oaths  to  king  William,  be  had  so  many  scruples  against 
taking:«them  to  his  successor,  queen  Anne^,  that  he  became 
e^litatnted  to  resign  the. clerical  profession,  and  with  it  a 
living  of.  IWL  per  annum,  offered  bim  in  Suffolk.  He  thea 
applied  himself  to.  the  study. of  -physic,  which  he  practised 
first  at  St.  Ives  in  Huntingdonshire,  and  afterwards  at  Bi* 
sbq^.  Stortfiord^  in  the  county  of  Hertford*,  His  leisure 
tioie  aqppears  to  have  been  employed  in  studying  the  hbtoiy 
and  ajitiquitiesof  his  country,  on  which,  subjects  he  pub* 
liidiedy  1.  ^<  A  Survey  of  the  Roman  Antiquities  in  the  Mid* 
land  Coualies  in  England,'^  1786,  8va  2.  i%A  Survey  of 
the  Rpmanv  Stations  in  Britain,  aocordtng  to  the  Roman 
Itinerary 2"  1721,  8vo.  3.  ^<The  Histoiyof.Hertfordshii^^ 
descvibing .the  county  and  its.ancient  monuments,  particu* 
lady  tbier  Roman,  with  tbe  characters  of  those  that  have 
hMn  tknet  chief  ppssesscMs  of  the  lands,  and  an  account  of 
llw  XQoat  imemorable  occ»irreAoes/'  I728»  folio.  This  was 
dfmigned  as  a. continuation  of  Gbauncey's  History,  and  was 
d^tf3saledL>tQ  tbe  earl  pf  Hertford.  4.  ^*  The  Lives  of -the 
liii^UtthBishops  from  the  Restoration  to  \he  Revolution,  fit 
t^i^be  .opposed  to  tbe.  Aspersions  of  some  late  Writers  of 
SJeeret  jUi^tory,"  17$3,  a  work  which  we  have  occasionally 
found,  very  useful,  although  the  author^s  prejudices,  in 
Sfsme  induces,. appear  rather  strong.  5.  ^<A  Survey  of 
the/Roman  Stations  in  England,"  173i,  (an  improved  edi<>* 
tion.  probably  of  the  first  two  works  above  mentioned)  2 
Yeb«vd  ve*  ^  ^.  ^  The  Antiquities  of  Surrey^  collected  from 
tbe:  0iost  micient  records,  add  dedicated  to  Sir  John  Eve* 
lyni  bart»  with  some .  Account .  of  the  Present  State  and 

.      .  •  •  • 

*  Moreri.— Pict  Hi>t. 


Natural  History  of  the  County/*  1 736,  8tq.  7*  ^  The  His** 
(ory  and  Antiquities  of  Essex,  from  the  Collections  of  Mr« 
Strangeman,*^  in  folio,  with  soone  notes  and  luiditions  of 
hb  own ;  but  death  put  a  stop  to  thitf  work,  when  he  bad 
gone  through  about  two  thirds  of  the  county;  so  that  the 
hundreds  of  Chelmsford,  Hinkford,  Lexden,  Tendrlng, 
and  Tburstable,  were  left  unfinished. 

Mr.  Salmon  died  April  2,  1742,  leaving  three  daughters. 
His  elder  brother,  Thomas,  honoured  with  the  name  of 
the  historiographer,  is  said  to  have  died  in  1743,  but  most 
have  b6en  livlncr  some  years  after  this,  when  he  published 
bis  account  of  Cambridge,  &c.     Mr.  Cole  says,  <^  he  ivas 
brought  up  to  no  learued  profession,  yet  had  no  small  turn 
for  writing,  as  his  many  productions  shew,  most  of  whtdi 
w^e  written  when  be  resided  at  Cambridge,  where  at  last 
he  kept  a  coffee-house,  but^  not  having  sufficient  custom, 
removed  to  London.^^     He  told  Mr.  Cole  tbat  h^  had  been 
much  at  sea,  and  had  resided  in  both  Indies  for  some,  tiipe. 
His  best  known  publication,  and  that  is  not  much  known 
now,  is  hia  ^^  Modern  History,  or  Present  State  of  all  |>fa« 
Ijons,^  published  in  many  volumes,  8vo,  about  1731,  &c« 
and  re^ published,  if  we  mistake  not,  in  3  vols,  folio,  from 
which  it  was  afterwards  abridged  in  2  vols,  and  long  conti- 
nued to  be  published  under  various  fictitious  names*     Ha 
wrote  also  *^  Considerations  on  the  k\\\  for  a  general  natu** 
ralization,as  it  may  conduce  to  the.  imiprovement  ^f  oar 
manufactures  and  traffic,  and  to  the  stnengthening  or  eri* 
dangering  of  the  constitution,  eKemplified  in  the  revolu- 
tions that  have  happened  in  this  kingdom,  by  inviting  over 
foreigners  to  settle  among  us.     With  an  (nquiiy  into  the 
nature  of  the  British  constitution,  atid  die  freedom  orser- 
^tude  of  the  lower  class  of  people,  in  the  several' changes 
it  has  undergone^"  Lend.  1748,  8va     '<  I'he  Foreigner's 
Companion  through  the  universities  of  Oxford  and  Canoi'* 
bridge,  and  the  adjacent  counties,  describing  the  several 
colleges  aiid  other  public  buildings,  with  an  account  of  their 
respective  founders,  benefactors,  bishops,  and  other  emi* 
neiit  men  educated  in  then),'*  ibid.  1748,  8vo.    This  title 
ttre(  give  from  Cole,  as  we  have  not  seen  the  work»    Pievt«* 
ousiy.  to  this,  Mr.  Salmon  intended  to  write  ^'  The  present 
state  of  the  Universides,  and  of  the  five  adjacctfit:  ooundes 
of  Cambridge,  Huntingdon,  Bedford,  Bocks^  and  Oxibid/* 
but  published  only  the  first  volume,  1744,  8vo,  which  con- 
tains the  history  of  Oxford,  county  and  university.    To 

is  X  t  Al  0  JJ;  »i 

tHts  afe  added  some  shrewd  remarks  on  universrty  ddlica-* 
tion,  and  a  college  life,  with  the  cxpences  attending  it* 
In  the  preface  he  speaks  of  a  "  Greneral  Description  of  En-* 
giand,  and  particularly  of  London  the  metropolis,"  in  2 
Vbls.  which  he  had  published.  His  name  is  also,  to  a  **  Geo- 
graphical Grammar,^'  an  **  Examination  of  Burnet's  History 
of  his  own  Tinies,**  and  other  works.     The  "  New  Histori- 
cal account  of  St.  George  for  England,  and  the  original  of 
this  order,**  Lond.  J  704,  is  ascribed  by   Mr.   Gough  to 
Mr.  Tfabmas  Salmon,  the  father,  who,  it  may  noiv  be  meifl-  • 
tioned,  was  distinguished  as  a  musical  theorist^  and  wrota ' 
**  An  Essay  to  the  Advancement  of  Music,  by  casting  away 
the  Perplexity  of  different  Cliffs ;  and  uniting  all  sorts  of- 
Music,  Lute,  Viols,  Violins,  Organ,  Harpsichord,  Voices ' 
^c.  in  one  universal  Character,  by  Thomas  Salmon,*  ArM. ' 
of  Tfinity  College,  Oxford,*'  London,   167J^.     This  book, 
bays  Dr.  Burney,  "is  well  written,  and/  though  very  illl-  • 
berally  treated  by  Lock,  Play  ford,'  and  some  oiher  profes-^ 
sors,  contains  nothing  that  is  either  absurd  or  impracticable; 
tior  could  we  discover  any  solid  objection  to  its  doctrines 
bieing  adopted,  besides  the  effect  it  would  have  upon  old 
music,  by  soon  renderiiig  it  unintelligible.     At  present  the 
tenor  def  alone  is  thought  an  insuperable  difficulty  in  out 
country,  by  dilettanti  performers  on  the  harpsichord ;  but  * 
if  Salmon's  simple  and  easy  musical  alphabet  were  chiefly 
in  use,  the  bass  clef  would  likewise  be  soon  rendered  as 
obsolete  and  difficult  as  the  tenof ;  so  that  two  parts  of 
clefs  out  of  three,  in  present  use,  wpuld  become  unintel^ 
ligible.*'**^  - 

-SALTER  (Samuel),  a  learned  English  divine,  was  th« 
eldest  son  of  Dr.  Samuiel  Salter,  prebendary  of  Norwidh, 
and  archdeacon  of  Norfolk,  by  x\nne-Penelope,  the  daugh- 
tap  of  Dr.  Johrt  Jeffery,  archdeacon  of  Norwich.  '  He  was 
educate^d  fof  some  time  in  the  free-school  of  that  city, 
whence  he  removed  to  that  of  the  Charter-house,  and  was 

*  There  iras  m  WitiUM  Salmon,  larg^  Herbal,''  folt  which  Dr.  Pol^nejr 
Whether  related  to  the  above  family  is  mentions  wiih  some  degree  of  resf>eet. 
uncertain,  a  noted  empirii:,  who  prac-  His  *•  Polygraph  ice*'  has  sold  better 
tiaed  phj^ic  with  various  success  for  a  than  all  the  rest  of  his  ^orJu ;  the 
long  oaatie  of  years.  He  published  a  tenth  edition  of  it  is  dated  Lond.  17Q1,  , 
oohsideraDle  nupber  of  medical  boolcs,  He  lived  about  the  latter  end  of  the 
the  cAiief  of  wtiidiis  his  '*  Complete  aeventeenth  ceatury  aiid  beginning  of  * 
Pt^ieian,  otfDcoKgist'iSbopopetied^'^  the  eighteeiitb.   ,        '. 

a  thick  octavo  of  1207  pages;   "  A      .,  '  >      , 

*  'Ma8ters*8  WisU  of  C.  C.  C,  C— Cole's  MS  Athenas  Cantab,  in  Brit  i^fus.^ 
^iotogh't  Topograph V,  &c,—G«Dt»  Mag.  vol.  LXVf.* - 

Vol.  XXVII.  G 


ag;  SALTER. 

a4niitted  oC  BeneUi-cpHe^e,  Cambridge,  June  30,  1730#» 
.  under  the  tuition  of  Mr.  Cherries  Skottqwe.     Sooo  aft^r  bi^ 
taking  tl^e  degree  of  B.  A*  in  17^3,  he  was  c^i^sen  iuto  a. 
fi^lQwsbip,  ai^d  topk  bis  masffr's  d^gre^  in  1737.     His  na« 
taraV  aD4  a^cqtiired  abilities  rfscoo^ipend^d  bim  to  sir  Pbjlip. 
Xorke>  tb^p  lord-qluef-justipe  of  ^be  Kiog^s^hc^nch,  and 
afterwards  ^rL  of  Hardwicke,  for  the  instructipn.  of  his . 
e|4e|^tsoD  the  second  ^arl,  whq,  with,  three  of  his  brothei7»y 
ip  eqmpU^ent  toabp.  H^rrii^^g,  was  educated  at  that  col-, 
lege.    As  soon  as  that  eminent  lawyer  was  i^ade  lord^ 
chanCiel)or,  he  appointed.  Mi;.  Salter  his  don^e^iq  chaplain, 
and  gave  him  a  prebend  in,thje  church, of  Glojuf^est^r,  wbicb 
bfs  .afterwards  exchanged  for  one  in  that  of  N(orwich.    Ai^out 
the  tiiK\e  of  bis  quitting  Cambridge^  he  was  on^  of  the^writeVs 
in  th§  "  Atb^niat^  Letters.'*     Soon  after  the  chancellor  gave  . 
Mr.  Si^Uer  the  reptpry  of  B,urton  Coggles,  in  the  county  of 
I^ncoint  in  1740^  where  be  went  to  r^tde  soon  after^  and, 
niarryipg  Miss  Seeker,  a  relation  of  the  then  bishop,  of . 
Oxford,  continued  there  till  17]5,0,  when  he  wa$  noininated  , 
nqiinister  of  Qr^  Yarmouth  by  the  de^n  and  <:hapter  of' 
Norwich.     Hj^re.  be  performed  tl^  duties  of  tb^t  large, 
parish   with  great,  diligence,    till   his   prp^np.tiph   to  the 
preacbership  at  the  Cbarter^bpuse  in  Japuary  1754,  som^ 
time  before  which  (in  Jpiy,  175J),  abp.  Herring  had   ho- 
noured him  with  tbe|  degree;  of  D.  D.  at  Lambetb*     In  1756, . 
h^'  was. presented  by  the  iprd-chaDcelio^  to  th^.  rectory  of 
St,  E|artholomew  near  the  I^yal  Exchange>  wbicb  was  tbe 
laj;t  ecclesiastical  pref^r^^ent  he  obtained  j;  but  id  Nov. 
1761,  he  succeeded  Dr.  Bearcroft  as  master  of  the  Cbgr^  , 
ter-'kou^e,  who  had  been  bispreil^ecessor  in  the  preiacher-  ' 
ship.     While  he  was-  a   member,  of  Bene't  eollege,  Ire \ 
printed  Greek  Pindaric  odes  on  the  nuptials  pf  the  princes  , 
of  Orange  and  Wales,  and  a  copy  of  Latin  verses  on  the 
death  of  queei)  Caroline.     Besides  a  sermon. preached  on  . 
occasion  of  a  nvusic- meeting  at  Gloucester,  anojjifr  before 
ihe  lord-mayor,  Sept.  2,  1740,  on  the  anniversary  of  the  * 
fire  of  London,  a  third  before  tbe  sons  of  the  clergy,  1755, 
which  was  much  noticed  at  tbe  time,  and  underwent  seve^  ' 
ral  alteratidns  before  it  was  printed ;  and  one  before  the 
House  of  Commons,  Jan.  30,  1762;  he  published' "A  ' 
complete  CQUection  of  Sermons  and  Tracts''  of  his. grand- 
father Dr.  Jeffery,  1751,  in  2  vols.  8vo,  with  bis  life  pre-*^^ 
fixed,  and  a  new  edition  of  '^  Moral  add.  Religious  Apho«f  > 
fisms,'^  by  Dr.  WhicbcQte,  with  large  additions  of  some  > 

S  A  L  TE  ft.  83 

letters  that  passed  between  him  and  Dr.  Tucktiey,  ^'  con- 
cerning the  Use  of  Reason  in  Religion/'  &c.  and  a  bio* 
gfapfaic^l  preface,  1751,  8v6.  To  these  may  be  added, 
^*  Some  Queries  relative  to  the  Jevirs,  odcasidned  by  a  lat0 
sermon,'*  with  some  other  papers  occasioned  by,  the 
'^Queries,'*  published  the  same  yeac  In  1 773  and  1774, 
he  revised  through  the  press  seven  of  the  celebrated  . 
"  Letter^  of  Ben  Mordec^i  ;*'  written  by  .the  rev.  Henry 
l^aylor,  of  Crawley  in  Hants:  In  .1776,  Dr.  Salterprinted 
for  private  use,  *^  The  first  106  lines  of  the  First  Cfook  of 
the  Itiad  *  ;  nearly  as  written  in  Homer^s  Time  and  Coun- 
try;** and  printed  also  in  that  year,  **  Extract  from,  the 
Statutes  of  the  House^  and  Orders  of  the  Governors,  re- 
specting the  Pensioners  or  poor  Brethren"  (of  the  Charter-^ 
house),  a  large  single  sheet  in  folio ;  in  1777,  he  corrected 
the  proof-sheets  of  Bentley*s  *^  Dissertation  on  Pbalaris;** 
and  ndt  long  before  bis  death,  which  happened  May  2, 
177S,  he  printed  also  an  inscription  to  the  memory  of  his  . 
parents,  an  account  of  all  which  may  be  seen  in  the 
*VAnecdote8  of  Bowyer.**  Dr.  Salter  was  buried,  by  his 
own  express  direption,  in  the  most  private  manner,  in  the 
commbn  buriaUground  belohgfing  to  the  brethren  of  the 

In'  the  discussion  of  philological  subjects.  Dr.  Salter 
proved  himself  a  very  accurate.  Greek  scholar;  his  reading, 
was  universal,  and  extended  through  the  whole  circle  of 
ancient  literature ;  he  Was  acquainted  with  the  poets,  bis- 
toriansy  orators,  philosophers,  and  critics,  of  Greece  and 
Rdme ;  his  memory  was  naturally  tenacious,  and  it  bad 
aciouiredfreat  artificial  powers,  if  such  an  expression  be 
allowable,  by  using  no  notes  when  he  delivered  his  sermons. 
t\>  extempore  preaching  he  had  accustomed  hiniself  for  a 
lon^  course  of  years.  So  retentiveindeed  were  his  faculties, 
that,  .till  a  few  years  before  bis  deatb^  he  could  quote  long 
pasfages  from  almost  every  author  whose  works  he  had 
periised,  even  with  a  critical  exactness.  Nor  were  his 
studies  the  writesrs  of. antiquity;  be  was  eijually 
coij^ersiht  with  English  liters ture^^  and  with  the  languages*^ 
and  productions  of  the  learned  and  v  ingenious  in  variou3\ 
parts  of  Europe.     In  his  earlier  Ufe  he  had  be^en  acquainted 

*  Theie  (with   Dr.    Salter's  lenti-     '*  Daw.e9'i  Miscellanea   Critica/*  0%9 
me»t«  on  the  JDigamnHt)  baVe  hetti    ford/l'tSl,  8to;  p.  404~r4^, 
tiDM  copied  is  iD  imjpnrai  edltiQiii  of 

Q  3 

ti  SALTER. 


'ivith  Bentleyvand  cherished  his  memory  with  profound 
respect.  He  preserved  many  anecdotes  of  this  great  critic, 
which  were  published  from  his  papers  by  our  learned 
English  printer,  Bowyer.  *    - 



SALVIAN,  orSALVIANUS,  an  elegant  and  beautiful 
writer,,  was  one  of  those  who  are  usually  calledfathers  of  the 
^  church,  and  began   to  be  distinguished  about  440.     The 
time  and  place  of  his  birth  cannot  be  settled  with  any  ex- 
actness.    Some  have  supposed  him  to  have  been  an  Afri-  . 
can,  but  without  any  reasonable  foundation :  while  others 
have  concluded,  with  more  probability,  that  be  was  a  Gaul^ 
frbm  his  calling  Gallia  his  "  solum  patrium  f  though  per- 
haps this  may  prove  no  more  than  that  his  family  came 
frpm  that  country.     His  editor  Baluzius  infers  from   his 
first  epistle,  that  be  was  born  at  Cologne  in  Germany  ;  and 
it  is  known,  that  he  lived  a  long  time  at  Triers,  where  he  . 
inarried  a  wife  who  was  an  heathen,  but  whom  he  easily 
brought  over  to  the  faith.     He  removed  from  Trier?  into  , 
the  province  of  Vienne,  and  afterwards  became  a  priest  of 
Marseilles.     Some  have  said,  that  he  was'  a  bishop ;  but 
this  is  a  mistake,  which  arose,  as  Baluzius  very  well  con- 
jectures, from  this  corrupt  passage  in  Gennadius,  **  Ho- 
milias  scripsit  Episcopus  multas ;"  whereas  it  should  be 
tead  "  Episcopis"  instead  of  **  EpiscopiTs,"  it  being  known  ; 
that  he  did  actually  compose  many  homilies  or  sermons 
for  th6  use  of  some  bishops.     He  died  very  old  towardi  ' 
the  end  of  the  fifth  century,  after  writing  and  publishing  a 
grefit  many  works;  of  which,  however,  nothing  remairis  but/ 
efght  books   "  De  Providentia  Dei  ;'^  four  books  •*  Adver- 
8US  avaritiam,  prsesertim  Clericorum  et  Sacerdotum  ;"  and 
nfne  epistles.     The  best  edition  of  these  pieces  is  that  of 
Paris  1663,  in  8vo,  with  the  notes  of  Baluzius;  re-printed 
elegantly  in  166.9,  8v6.     The  "  Commonitoriiim"'of  Vin* 
^entius  Lirinensis  is  published  with  it,^  with  notes  also  bj 

SA  LVIATI  (Francisco  Rossi),  called  II  Salviati,  front 
the  favour  and  patronage  of  the  cardinal  Salviati,  was  the 
son  of  Michelangiolo  Rossi,  and  was  born  at  Florence  in 

1510.     He  was  first  placed  as  a  pupil  under  Andrea  d^^H 

•  •  •      '  ■    • 

>  Nichols'*  Bow?er.^Matter8'  Hist,  of  C,  C.  C.  q. 

*  C%fMt  v«L  L-«Wofkt  by  B»lu3itts.r-^Larda«r's  Works^— Dupin. 

S  A  L  V  I  A  T  I.  85 


Sanpi  ^nd  afterwards,  with  far  more'  advantage,  with  Bac- 
cio  Baiidinelii.  Here  he  had  for  his  fellow  pupil,  Vasar^, 
who  afterwards  pronounced  him  the  greatest  painter  thep 
in  Rothe.  His  employment  kept  pace  with  his  reputation, 
-and,' among  other  beneficial  orders,  he  was  engaged  by 
'bis  patron,  the  cardinal,  to  adorn  his  chapel  with  a  series 
of  frescoes,  the  subjects  being  taken  from  the  life  of  Sw 
John  Baptist.  He  produced  a  set  of  cartoons  of  the  historjr 
of  Alexander,  as  patterns  for  tapestries ;  and,  in  conjunc- 
tion with  Vasari,  ornamented  the  apartments  of  the  Can- 
celtaria  with  paintings  in  fresco.  From  Rome  he  went  to 
Venice^  where  he  painted  many  pictures,  both  for  public 
edifices  and  private  collections,  particularly  the  history  of 
•Psyche  for  the  Palazzo  Grimaldi.  He  afterwards  travelleii 
through  Lombardy,  and  made  some  stay  at  Mantua,  studyr 
ing  with  much  delight  the  works  of  Julio  Romano.  At 
Florence,  he  was  employed  by  the  grand-duke  to  adorn  the 
Palazzo  Vecchio :  in  one  of  the  saloons  he  represented  the 
victory  and  triumph  of  Furius  Camillus,  a  work  greatly  ad- 
mired for  the  truth  and  taste  of  the  imitation,  and  the  vi- 
<gour  and  spirit  df  the  composition. 

A  restless  habit,  and  a  disposition  to  rove,  led  Salviati 
to  accept  an  invitation  to  France,  from  the  cardinal  d^ 
Lorraine  in  the  name  of  Francis  I.,  then  engaged  in  con- 
structing and  adorning  his  palace  at  Fontainebleau ;  ancl 
during  his  «tay  here,  he  painted  a  fine  picture  for  th« 
church  of  the  Ceiestioes  at  Paris,  of  the  taking  down  from 
the  Cross.  He  soon  after  returned  to  Italy,  where  tha 
iarbulence  of  his  temper  and  his  continual  disputes  wiia 
his  brethren  shortened  tiis  days.  Such  continual  agitatiQii 
of  mifid  brou^t  on  a  fever,  of  which  he  died  in  1^63,  at 
the  age  of  fifty-three.* 

•  SALVINI  (Antonio  Maria),  a  learned  Italian,  was  born 
at  Florence  in  1654,  where  he  afterwards  became  professor 
of  Greek,  which  he  understood  critically.  He  has  the 
leredit  of  having  contributed  much  to  the  promotion  of 
good,  taste  in  Italy,  chiefly  by  his  translations,  which  com- 
prize the  Iliad  and  Odyssey  of  Homer;  Hesiod  ;  Theocri- 
tus ;  Anacreon  ;  and  many  of  liie  minor  poets  and  epi* 
grammatfsts:  the  Clouds  and  Plutus  of  Aristophanes;  parts 
of  Horace ^and  Ovid;  Persius;  part  of  the  Book  of  Job 
Atidthe  Lamentations;  Boileau's^^Art  Poetique;"  Addison's 

}  Argeuville^  vpL  L— Pilkiogtoii.— ^Reel's  Cyclopedia*  .,    .; 

.86  S  A  I,  V  I  N  I. 

"  CatoV  and  "Letters  from  Italy/*  and  other  piieces.AU 
these  are  literally  translated,  which  obliged  him  to  in^ro* 
duce  into  the  Tuscan  language  a  .multitiide  of  new  coa|« 
pound  tern^s.  He  wrote, also  '^  Spnnet9  and  other.origiml 
Toems/*  4to,;  «  Tuscan  pro^e,*'  1715,  2iroU..  4to;  *VA 
hundred  Academical  Discpurses  f  *  ^^  A  funeral  Oration  fqr 
Antonio  Magliabecchi,'^  apd  pth.^r  works,  fie  died  in  I72£f. 
'The  Salvinia,  in  bptaqy,  wa^  so  ,naa^pd  in  complimoat  %p 
faim,  but  of  his  bptapical  talents  we  have  no  informatipo* 
Salvini  also  belonged  to  the  academy  i>f  De  la  Crusca,fand 
\iras  particularly  iustruqDenta,l  in  the  cpmpletipa  of  that  ce« 
lebrated  Dictionary,  tleh^d  aypunger  brother^  a.c^non 
of  Florence,  who  died  at  an  adviinaedage  in  .1751.  H^a 
yas  also  a  distinguished  ,inan  of  letters,  and  published  |i 
'  work,  entitled  '^  Fasti  consplari  delle^  Acadf^mia  F^pren* 
jtina,*'  and  the  Lives  of  Magalptti  apd  Migliocucci/ 

SAMBUCUS  (JohnJ,  ap'^minept  physician,  and  one  qf 
the  most  learned  writefrs  in  the  sixteenth  century,  vfMs  born 
in  1531,  at  Tirnau  in  Hungary.  Qe  v^ited  t^e  universities 
of  Germany,  Italy,  and  Fran.ce,  ^iid  applied  with  alau>&t 
equal  success  to  the  stu4y  of  ^ledicine,  the  beUea  lettrea^ 
poetry,  history,  and  .antiquities,  flis  learning  ai^d  r^pu- 
tatipn  introduced  him  with  great  a^antage  at  tb^  courts .<]^ 
the  emperprs  Maximilian  IL  and  ^qdolphus  IJ.  to  w^oi^ 
he  bjecame  counsellor  ai)d  historiographer*  l^ambucus  died 
of  an  apoplexy  at  Vienna  in  Austria,  June  13^  ^584,  .#g^d 
fifty-three,  leaving  an  excellent  **  History  of  Hungary,'* 
in  the  German  histories  publishjed  by  Schardius.;  "  Livejs 
of  the  Roman  Emperors  f '  l4tjtui  translations  of  f'  liiesiQ/d, 
'Theophylact,  and  part  of  Plato,  Ovid,,  and  Thupydide^  ;'* 
^*  Commentaries  on  Horace's  Art  of  Poetry  ;'\  nptes  op  s^ 
veral  Greek  and  Latin  authors;  .'Mcones  D^edicprum,'' 
Antwerp,  1603,  fol.;  '^EmbleinaW  A^^twerp,  l^TC,  l^to, 
and  several  other  works  in  verse  and  prose«5 

SAMPSON  (Thomas),  an  eminpnjt  puritan  diyipte,  W3|^ 
according  to  Strype,  born  a(  Play  ford  in  Suffolk,  ai^]^;^ 
.a  fellow  pf  Pembroke- hall>  Cambridge.  Woofl  s^yi(  be 
Was  bom,  in  1517,  without  specifying  where;  bp|  a^ds, 
that  he  was  educated  ac,  Oxford,  .which  seeqas  mpst  probar 
1>le,  as  tha^  university  was  the.  scene  of  much  of  his  future 
life.     He.  appears  to  have,  imbibed  the  principles  of  thf 

>  VabroBi  Viie  1t|iloniin,-.*Moreri.-*-Saxii  Onomasdcon. 
s  BuUait't  Academic  des  Scieaces.i^BlouQi*ii  C«ii»ura.-«'Moreri«— *SflX]i  0«mi- 

k  ■ 


S  A  M  P  S  O  N.  si 

irfffolrmtitlon  ftt  a  very  early  period^  aiid  becamb  sueli  an 
Adtit^  rea^oner  thlit  Wood  informs  us  he  was  the  means  of 
cbbvertiiig  Jobh  Bradford,  the  famous  martyr.  He  began 
Kfce^ii^e  very  earty  to  entertain  those  prejudfces  agarnst 
die  habits  wbioh  occasioned  so  much  mischief  in  tlie  diarcb, 
zhd  which  were  confirmed  in  him,  and  many  others,  by 
aiisocia^ing  with  the  Geneva  reformers  during  their  exile 
m  the  time  bf  queen  Mary.  He  was  ordained  by  arch- 
bishop .Cranmer  and  bishop  Ridley,  who,  at  liis  request, 
dbpensed  with  the  habits,  to  which  now,  and  eVer  after, 
be  a^tacbed  the  idea  of  idolatry.  He  wks  chaplain  in^  tbe 
alrtify  of  lord  Rustel  in  bits  exjpedition  against  tbef  Scots. 
In  1551,  be  was  prisfer'red  to  the  rectory  of  Allhaflow^', 
Breadvstre^9  Loi^on,  which  he  resigned  in  1553,  ahd  the 
year  following  to  the  deanery  of  ChicKestler.  Odring  the 
reign  of  EdwaH  VI.  lie  was  accounted  one  of  the  ablest 
and  most  tiaeful  preachers  in  confirming  the  peopte  in  the 
d^btrims  of  tbe  reformation.  On  the  accession  of  queeh 
Maiy  he  cobbeiled  biinserlf  for  some  time ;  but  having  been 
active  in  collecting  money  forthe  Support  df  poor  ^cholar^ 
in  tb^  two  universities,  harrbwiy  escarped  being  apprehended, 
and  was  obliged  to  go  -abroad,  where  he  resided  chiefly  at 
Strasburgh^  wfth  tbe  other  JEngKsb  eiiles,  and  bad  s6md 
band  in  the  Geneva  translation  of  the  Bible. 

On  the  accession  of  queen- Elizabeth  he' returhedi  hbme^ 
liotdnly  confirmed' in  his  aversion  to  the  Habits,  but  wrth  a 
dislike^  it  would  iappear,  to  the  wholeofthe'hierarchy,  and 
refused  tbe  bishopric  of  Norwich  because  disisatislied  with 
the  fiatur6  of  tbi^  dfBce.  He  continued,  however,  to  |)reacfa«. 
particularly  at  Paul's  cross,  wher^  his  wohderfiil  m^inpiy 
and  feloquenice  ^tre  very  much  admired ;  and  in  September 
t5B6  he  was  mkde  a  prebendary  of  Durham'.  In  Micbief* 
toi»'4erm  1561^  be  Was  installed  deaii  of  Christ- church, 
Oxford.  On  this  occa^ioti  sonfe  members  of  that  society, 
wbb'  ribfcommended  bini  fdr  the  situation,  said,  that  ^"^  it 
Wkk  veiry  doubtful,  whether  there  was  a  better  niah,  a 
||^feati§r*lingbist,  a  ibofe  complete  scholar,  or  a  ibore  pro- 
Uiisttid  (tlvineV  and  it  is  certai^i  that  for  some  years  Be  and 
Dr.  Eawrence  Humphrey  were  the  only  protestant  preacher^ 
Kt  Oxford  of  any  celebrity.  In  1 562,  he  resigned  bis  pre- 
l^^d'bf  Dttrham,  and  became  so  open  and  zealous  in  his 
invectives  against  the.  babits^^  that  gf^er  considerably  fpr- 
fiearance,  be  was  cite£f,  with  Dr.  Hurophreyy  before  the 
bigb  commission  court  at  Lambeth,  and    Sampson   was 

^     M  SAM  P  S  O  N. 

deprived  of  his  deanery,  and  for  some  time  imprisonlKl^ 
Notwithstanding  bis  nonconformity,  however,  he  was  pre-r 
sented,  in  1568,  to  th^  mastership  of  Wigston^ho^pital, 
at  Leicester,  and  had  likewise,  according  to  Wood,  a  pre- 
bend in  St.  Paul's.  He  went  to  ^reside  at  Leicester,  and 
continued  ther^  until  his  death,  April  9,  1589.  He  mar,-*- 
ried  bishop  Lattmer*s  niece,  by  whom  h«  had  two  son^y 
John. and  Nathaniel,  who  erected  a  monument  to  his  m^^ 
mory,  with  a  Latin  inscription,  in  the  chapel  of  the  hos^ 
pital  at  Leicester,  where  he  was  buried.  His  works  are 
lew  :  1.  "Letter  to  the  professors  of  Christ's  Gospel,  in  tb^ 
parish  of  AUhallows  in  Breadstreet,''  Strasburgb,1554,  8vo^ 
which  is  reprinted  in  the  appendix  to  StrypeV^' £(;cles4- 
astical  Memorials,"  vol.  III.  2.  ^^  A  Warning  to  take  heed 
of  « Fowler's  Ps^lterV'  Lond,  1576  and  1578,  8vo.  .ThU 
was  a  popish  psalter  published  by  John  Fowler,  on^ce  a 
Fellow  of  New-qoUege,  Oxford,  but  who  went  abroad, 
turned  printer,  and  printed  the  popish  controversial  works 
for  some  years.  .  3^  *^  3rief  Collection  of  th^  Church  and 
Ceremonies  thereof,"  LQnd,.l58l,  8vo,  4.  "  Prayer^  and 
Meditations  Apostolike ;  gathered  and  frained  out  of  the 
Epistles  of  the  Apostles,"  kc  ibid.  159^,  16mo,  He  was 
also  editor  of  two  sermons  of  his  friend  ^ohn  Bradford,  on 
Tepentance  and  the  Lord's-supper,  Lond,  1574,  1581,  and 
1589,  8vo.  Baker  ascribes  to  him,  a  translation  of '^aSjsr- 
mon^  of  John  Chrysostpmey  of  P^cienc^»  of  the  end  of  the 
world,  and  the- last  judgment,'' ,1550,  8 vo;  and  of  "  Arx 
Homelye  of  the.  Resurrection  of  Christ,"  by  John  Brenuus, 
.1550,  8vo.  Other  works,  or  papers  in  which  be  was  con-r 
cerned,  may  be  seen  in  our  authorities^' 
.  S  ANADON  (NoEi^-  Stepren),  a  learned  Jesuit  of  France, 
was  born  f^t  lioueit  in  1^76.  He  taught  polite  literature 
witk  distinguished  reputation  at  Caen,  where  he  contracted 
an  intimate  friendship  with  Huet,  bishop  of  Avranche.;  A 
taste  for  poetry  is  said  to  have  been  the  principal  bond  of 
their  union.  He  afterwards  professed  rhetoric  at  Paris..;  and 
^as  for  some  time  charged  with  the  education  of  the. prince 
of  Conti.  He  was  librarian  to  the  king  when  he  died,  Sepr 
tember  21,  173$,  He  published  separately  various  Latin 
poems,  whicli  are  reckoned  anriong  the  purest  of  modern 
times ;  and  also  published  them  in  a  collected  form,  f^  ,Cajr-^ 

I  Ath.  Ox.  new  edit  vol.  I.  —  Strype*i  AddaI'v -^  Slryoe's  ^iife  Qf  Parker. 
fp.l69,  184,  186,  243,  [448],  468, 

S  A  N  A  D  O  N.  S» 

mintiin  Rbri  quatuor,''  Paris,  1715,  \2tnOy  and  various  tbesea 
and  philological  dissertations ;  but  is  best  known  by  bis 
translation  of  tbe  works  of  Horace  with  notes;  a  work 
which  has  been  very  well  received.  Tbe  satires  and 
epistles  are  -ably  translated ;  but  the  odes  are  rather 
weakened  by  a  languid  paraphrase  than  a  version  answerable 
to  the  original.  His  notes  are  learned,  and  many  of  them 
very  useful  for  understanding  his  author ;  but  there  are  also 
marks  of  a  falsely  delicate  and  fastidious  taste,  not  unconi-p 
mon  among  French  critics.  The  best  editions  of  his  Ho« 
race  are  those  of  Paris,  1728,  2  vols.  4tQ,  aild  1756,  8 
vols,  12mo. '      • 

SANCHES  (Antonio  Nunes  Ribeiro),  a  learned  phy« 

sician,  was  born  March  7,  1766,  at  Penna-Macor,  in  Por<r 

tugaL     His  father,  who  was  an  opulent  merchant,  and  in« 

tended  him  for  tbe  bar,  gave  him  a  liberal  education ; 

but,  bein^  displeased  at  finding  him,  at  the  age  of  eighteen^ 

obstinately  bent  on  the  profession  of  physic,  withdrew  his 

protection,  and  he  was  indebted  to  Dr.  .Nun^s  Hibeiro^ 

his  motber^s  brother,  who  was  sr  physician  of  considerable 

repute  at  Lisbon,  for  tbe  means  of  prosecuting  his  medical 

studies,  which  he  did,  first  at  Coimbra,  and  afterwards  at 

Salamanca, :  where  he  took  the  degree  of  'M.  D.  in  1724; 

and  the  year  following  procured  the  appointment  of  phy-«' 

sician  to  the  town  of  Benevente  in  Portugal ;  for  which, 

as  is  the  Custom  of  that  country,  be  had  a  small  pension. 

His  stay  at  this  place,  however,  was  but  short.     He  was 

desirous  of  seeing  more  of  the  world,  and  of  improving 

himself  in  his  profession.     With  this  view  he  came  and 

passed  two  years  in  London,  and  had  even  {in  intention 

of  fixing  there ;  but  a  bad  state  of  health,  which  he  attri<^ 

"buted  to  the  climate,  induced  him  to  return  to  the  conti^ 

nent     Soon  after,  we  find  him  prosecuting,  his  medical 

studies  at  Leyden,  under  the  celebrated  Boerhaave^  and 

it  will  be  a  sufficient  proof  of  his  diligence:and  merit  .ta 

observe,  that  in  1731,  when  the  Empress,  of  Russia  (Anne) 

requested  Boerhaave  to  recommend  -to  her  three  physt^^ 

cians,  the  f^rofessor  immediately  fixed  upon  Dr.  Sanch^s 

to  be  one  of  the  number.     Just  as  he  was  setting  out  for 

llussia,  be  was  informed  that  his  father  was  lately  dead ; 

and  that  his  mother,  in  an  unsucce^isful  law*auit  with  the 

1  Haries  (who  has  a  high  opiaion  of  jSaoailon)  De  v\iis  ^hj)ofQ^tuof^  ▼^f <iyV 
vrMorerJ.^iFsiDict.  ni»t. 


i€«e  admiraltjr,  had-lbtit  the  gfeater.psrt  'of  ^ber  for^ 
tiine<  He  iminediiitely  ^assigned  orerbb  bwn  little'ctaitns 
find  expectations  in  Portugal  fdr  her  stipporu  Soon  aftfr 
bb  arrival  al8t.  PeiJerfbuiig,  Dr.  Bidloo '(son  ef'ttevfa-* 
moaS'pbjtioian  of  tliat  name),  Who  wtis  at  that  timt  first 
pbyaician  to  the  empress,  gave  bioi  an  appbintdfient  in  the 
hospital  at  Moacow^,  where  be  refii^iined  fill  1734,  when  htf 
«?ia  employed  as  physician  to  the  arnty,  in  which  capacity 
be  was  preseiit  «t  the  siege  ofAsoph,  wherb  be  was  at-> 
tacked  with. a  dangerous  fev^r,  and,  when  be  begMto  re^ 
tover,  Cmhh)  himself  in  a  Vent,  abandoned  by  bis  atten^ 
dants,  and  plundered  of  bis  papers  and  effects.  In  1740^ 
be  was  appointed  one  of  the  physicians  to  the  donrt,  and 
consulted  by  tbeein][)^ess,  iivho  bad  for  eight  years  beeit 
labouring  under  a  disease,  the  cauiTe  of  which  l^d  bevef' 
been  .satisfactorily  ascertained.  Dr.  Sancb^s,  in  a  cbnVer-^ 
sation  with  the  pritfie  minister,  gave  it  as  bis  opinion/ tluct 
the  complaint  originated  from  a  stone  in  ^le  of  the  Ifid- 
fieys,  and  admitted  only  of  paliiatiM.  At  the  end  <H^  six 
months  the  ebpress  died,  and  the  truib  of  his  opinion  waa 
confirmed  by  dissection.  Soon  afteir  the  death  hf  the  ettk* 
press,  Dn  S«incb^s  Wilis  advanced  by  the  I'ej^eht  to  the  of& 
fico  of  first  physician  ;  but  the  revolution  of  1742^  wbteli 
placed  Elizabeth  Peurownid  on  the  throne,  deprived  birt  of 
all  his  appointments.  Hardly  a  day  passed  that  he  did  ti^t 
bear  of  someof  bis  friends  perishing  on*tbe  s^caffold;  iLnd 
it  was  not  without  much  difficulty  that  he  obtained  leave 
to  retire  from  Russia.  His  library,  which  had  cost  bilh 
1.200  pounds  sterling,  he  disposed  of  to  the  adLdetny  of  St* 
Petersburg,  of  which  he  was  ah  honorary  membi^r ;  and} 
in  return,  tikey  agreed  to  give  him  a  pensioh  of  fort^ 
pounds  per  anoom.  During  his  residence  in  Russia,  hi^  - 
iiad  availed  himself  of  bis  situation  ^t  court,  to  establilb  A 
eorrespoudence  with  the  Jesoits  in  China,  wfad,  ih  returfi 
for  books  of  astronomy  and  other  pfie^ents,  sent  biin  seed^ 
br  platits,  together  with  other  articles  of  n^toral  history.  It 
was  from  Dr*  8aiicbi6s  that  the  late  Mr.  Peter  Coilitisim  first 
received  the  seeds  of  the  true  rhubarb,  but  the  plants\4rere 
destroyed  by  some  accident;  and  it  was  not  till  several 
years  afterwai^s  that  rhubarb  was  cultivated  with  soccesk ' 
m  this  cbimtry,  tvom  seeds  sent  over*  by  the  Ifttb  fM 
Mounsey.  In  1747,  he  went  to  reside  at  Paris,  where  he 
remained  till  bis  death.  He  enjoyed  the  friendship  df  the 
most  celebrated  physicians  and  pbilosopbeirs  of  that  capi 

«  A  N  €  H  £  «.  »l 

tB^j  at  the^innkiHtonof  aRoyidMedicfKl  Societjry'lie  was 
choseo  a  foreign  associate*  He  was  likewise  a  ineinber  0f 
,tbe  royal  »cadeiqy  of  Lisbon,  lo  the  establishment  €»f  whioh 
bXs  advice  had  .probably  contributed,  as  be  drew  up,  at 
the  deiiire  of  the  court  of  Portugal,  aeveral  memorials  on 
tbp  plans  nex^e&sary  to  be  adopted  forr  the  eocout^agemeat 
of  science.  Some  of  these  papers,  relative  to  the  esm- 
.blis)in)ent  of  an  university,  were  printed  during  his  life- 
time in,  Portuguese,  find  the  rest  have  been  foand  among 
'his  manuscripts^  .His  services  in  Russia  remained  for  aia* 
teen  years  unnotified;  hilt,  when  the  hite  empress  Catbe« 
rine  ascended  .the  thrpoe,  Or.  Sanch6s  was  net  foi^oitea. 
..He  bad  attended  h^r  in  a  ds^i^rous  illness  wbeu  sfa«was 
very  ypung  ;  and  ^he  now  rewardeid  him  with  a 'pension  ef 
a  thou^nd  roubles,  which  was  punctually  paid  tifU  bis  deatb« 
He  likewise  received  a  pension  from  the  court  of 'Porlugal, 
and  aooU^r  from  prince  GaUitzin.  A  great  part  of  bhts 
income  be  employed  in  acts  of  benevolence.  Of  jthe  libe- 
rality with  w;ith  he  a4ministeced  to  the  wants  of  bis  rela- 
lions  and  friends,  several  striking  instances,  which  our 
limits  vvili  not  permit  us  to  insert,  have  been  relatetl  fay 
lyir.  de  Mag.dlan.  He  was  naturally  of  an  infirm  habit  of 
body,  and,  during  the  sbst  thirty  years  of  his  life,  ire* 
gueo^tly  voided  small  stones  with  his  urine.  The  disposi- 
lion  CO  this  disease  increased  as  he  advanced  in  years,  i^nd 
for  a  considerable  time  before  his  death,  he  was  confined 
to  jtiis  aparUnepts.  The  last  visit  he  made  was,  in  17Sd,  to 
ith^,  grand  duke  of  Russia^  whp  was  then  at  Paris.  In  Sep* 
tember  1733,  he  perceived  that  his  end  was  appvoaebtng, 
an4  be  4ie4  on  the  14th  of  October  following*  His  library, 
.which  was  A:pnsiderable,  he  bequeathed  to  his  brother.  Dr. 
Marcello  Sanch^s,  who  was  likewise  a  pupil  of  Boerbaave, 
apd.wlfo  resided  at  Naples.  His  manuscripts  (among  which, 
,biesid^  a  cQqstderabl^  number  of  papers  on  medical  sub- 
jects^ are  letters  written  by  him  to  Boerbaa%'e,  Van  8wie- 
ten,  Gaubius,  Haller,  Werlbof,  Pringle,  Foihergill^  and 
other  learned  naen).  are  in  the  possession  of  Dr.  Andry, 
His  printed  wprks,  on  the  origin  of  the  venereii  dises^s^ 
and  other  subjects,  are  well  known  to  medical  readers; 
bjit  his  knowledge,  it  seeip^f  was  not  confined  to  his  own 
,pcp£assion ;  be  possessed  a  fund  of  general  learning,  and 
is  said  to  haye  been  profoundly  versed  io  politica.' 

Sop^l^weiit  to  the  edit,  of  Uiis  Diet.  178>,  Uqv^  the  LQadon  M^^icftl  Jouraal. 


«  A  N  CHE  Z. 

an  eminent  classical  scholar  of  the  sixteenth  centurv,  was 
born  at  Las  Brocas^  in  the'  province  of  Cstremaduras  in 
iSpain,  in  1523.  His  principal  residence  appears  to  have 
been  at  Salamanca,  where  he  was  professor  of  rhetoric,  and 
taught  Greet  and  Latin  with  the  highest  reputation,  de- 
rived from  the  originality  of  his  criticisms  and  remarks  oh 

-the  classics.  Justus  Lipisius;  Scioppius,  and  others,  seem 
at  a  loss  for  language  to  express  their  admiration  of  bis  ta- 

•lents  and  learning.  Lipsius  bestows  the  epithets  **  divine** 
and  "  admirable  ;'*^  and  Scioppius  says  he  ought  to  be  con^^* 
eidered  as  ^'communis  literatorum  oninium  pater  et  doc-^ 
tor.*'  Sanchez  died  in  1600,  in  the  seventy-seventh  year 
of  his  age.  He  publisfied  a  great  many  works  on  subjects 
of  classical  criticism,  and  was  the  editor  of  Persius,  Pon)- 
poi^ius  Mela,  Politian's  **  Sylvae,"  Alciat's  emblems,  Vir- 
gil's  Bucolics,  and  Horace's  Art  of  Poetry,  He  published 
also  two  Greek  grammars,  and  some  other  pieces  on  grant- 
mar  and  rhetoric ;  but  the  work  which  has  perpetuated  his 
reputation  is  bis  "  Minerva,  de  causis  linguae  Latinse,"  Sa- 
lamanca, 1587,  8vo,  which  was  often  reprinted.  In  more 
i^odern  times,  an  edition  was  published  at  Amsterdam,  in 

.  1754,  or  1761,  8vo,  with  a  supplement  by  Scioppius,  and 
notes  by  Perizonius.  This  was  reprinted  with  farther  inr^- 
provements  by  Scheidius,  at  Utrecht,  in  1795,  8vo ;  and 

.again  by  Bauer,  at  Leipsic,  in  1804,  2  vols.  8vo.* 

SANCHEZ   (Gaspaji),    a  learned  Jesuit,  was  born  dt 

-Cifuentes,  in  New  Castile,  about  [553.  According  to  tbe 
practice  of  the  society,  with  such  young  men  as  have  distin* 
guished  themselves  in  their  studies,  he  was  appointed  tb 
teach  the  learned  languages  and  the  belles  lettres  in  the 
Jesuits*  colleges  at  Oropesa,  Madrid,  and  other  places,  and 
was  at  last  chosen  professor  of  divinity  at  Alcala.  Here  he 
spent  thirteen  years  in  commenting  on  the  Scriptures,  tba 
result  of  which  h&  published  in  various  volumes  in  folio,  at 
different  times.  It  is  perhaps  no  inconsiderable  proof  df 
their  merit  that  Poole  has  made  frequent  references  to  theih 
in  his  "  Synopsis  Criticorum.'*     He  died  in  1628." 

SANCHEZ  (Peter  Anthony),  a  learned  Spanish  ec- 
clesiastic, was  born  at  Vigo  in  Gallicia  in  1740.  Aft€lr 
the  preparatory  studies  of  divinity,  &c.  he  entered  into  the 
church,  and  obtained  a  tanonry   in  the  cathedral  of  St. 

I  AnL  l^ihl  Hisp.^Siuii  Onomast.  '  Antonio  Btbl.  Hisp.-^Dict.  Hist! 




3^eSy  and  ^aa  likewise  appointed  professor  of  divinity  in 
that  city.  His  fame  procured  him  admission  into  many 
learned  societies,  and  he  became  one  of.  the  most  cele- 
brated preachers  of  the  last  century,  nor  was  he  less  ad-> 
mired  for  his  benevolence.  He  obtained  the  honourable 
title  of  the  father  of  the  unfortunate,  among  whom  he  spent 
the  whole  profits  of  his  c^nonry,  and  at  bis  death  in  1 806, 
left  no  more  than  was  barely  sufficient  to  defray. the  ex- 
pences  of  his  funeral.  The  leisure  be  could  sfpare  from.hi^ 
professional  duties  was  employed  in  the  study  of  the  eccle- 
siastical history  of  his  country,  which  produced  several 
wprks  that  are  highly  esteemed  in  Spain.  Some  of  them 
were  written  in  Latin,  and  some  probably  in  Spanish,  but 
our  authority  does  not  specify  which.     Among  them.are^ 

1.  '^  Summa  theologiae  sacrae/'  Madrid^  1789,  4  vols.  4to. 

2,  «  Annales  sacri,"  ibid.  1784,  2  vols.  8vo.  3,  "  History 
of  the  church  of  Africa/'  ibid.  1784,  Svo,  a  work  aboundr 
ing  in  learned  research.  4.  "  A  treatise  on  Toleration  in 
matters  of  I{ejigion,**  ibid.  1785,  3  vols.  4to,  rather  a  sin* 
gular  subject  for  a  Spanish  divine.  5.  *^  An  essay  on  the 
eloquence  of  the  pulpit  in  Spain,*'  ibid.  1778,  8vo.  7*his 
is.  a  history  of  sacred  oratory  in  that  country  in  various  ages^ 
with  the  names  of  those  who  yvere  th^  best  models  of  iL 
The  restoration  of  a  true  taste  in  thi^  species  of  eloquence 
be  attributes  to  his  countrymen  becoming  acquainted  with 
the  works  of  those  eminent  French  preachers  Bossuet,  Mas- 
sillon^  fioordaloue,  &c.  6.  *^  A  collection  of  )iis  Sermons,'* 
ibid.  3  vols.  4to.  These  were  much  admired  in  Spain,  and 
w^re  the  same  year  translated  into  Italian,  and  printed  at 
Venice  in  4  vols.  4to.  7.  '*  A  paper  read  in  the  Patriotia 
Society  .of  Madrid  in  1782,  on  the  means  of  encouraging 
industry  in  Gal licia,*'  ibid.  1782,  Hvo.  This  being  his  na- 
tive country.  Dr.  Sanchez  had  Iqng  laboured  to  introduce 
kabits  of  industry,  and  had  influence  enough  to  procure  a 
repeal  of  some  oppressive  laws  which  retarded  an  object  of 
iQ  o^ucfa  importance^ 

.SANCHEZ,  SANCTIUS,  or  SANCIO  (Roderigo),  a 
Spanish  prelate,  admired  for  his  writings  in  the  fifteenth 
c<;ntury,  was  born  atJSanta  Maria  de  Nieva,  in  the  diocese 
of  Segovia,  in  1.404..  After  being  instructed  in  classical 
learning,  and  having  studied.  law  for  ten  years  at 
Silamancf,  be  was  honoured  with  the  degree  oT  doctos  in 

*'       •      •  '        •»  Diet.  Wst:  Supptem^nt.     •         •     ' 

94  V        S>ANCttE2. 

that  factiUy;    but  afterwards  embraced  the  ecct^sia^leral  * 
profession,  recmed  priest's  orders^  and  was  mAde  sncces-^  ' 
stveiy  archdeacon  of  Trevino  in  tbediocese  of  Btirgos;  dean 
of  Leon  and  d^an  of  Seville.    Tbe  fir^t  preferment  b4  held  ' 
twetHy  yelkrsi  the  second  seveni'  and  the  third  two  years.  ' 
Abont  1440^  John  II.  king  of  Castille,  appointed  him  en-^ 
Toy  to  the  emperor  Frederick  III.  and  he  was  also  after-  ' 
war<is  employed  in  aimilar  commissions  or  embassies  to  - 
other <rrowned  beads^    When  Caliittus*  III.  became  pope;  * 
Henry  lY.  king  of  Castitle^  sent  him  td  congratoliate  bis  ' 
hirfiness^  which  occasioned  bim  to  take  tip  bis  residence  at' 
Rt>Q)e.     In  all-  his  embassies,  be  ixiade  harangues  to  the  ' 
difleirdfit  princes  ta. whom  be  was  senty  wbicb  areiitiH  pre^ 
served  in  MS.  in  tbe  Vaticati  library;    On  tbe  accession  of  ' 
pope  Patil  IL  be  made  Sanchez  governor  6f  tbe-  castle  of  ^ 
St  Angelo,  and  keeper  of  the  jewels  and  treasures  of  tbe  ^ 
Roman    cfanrchi    and  afterwards^  promoted    him*  to    the 
bisboprics  of  Zamora,  Calaborra^  and  Pdlencia^     Tbeselast 
appointments,  however,  were  little  more  than  aineipures,  a^  " 
he  n^ever  quilted  Rome,  and  employed  what  time  be 'could*' 
spare  from  bis  official  duties  in  that  cortiposing  h 
great  many  works,  of  which  a  list  of  iv^enty-niiie.  may  be^ 
seen  in  oar-aotboritios.     He  died  at  Rome  Oct.  4j'147D'^  ' 
and  was  interred  in  the  church  of  St;  JAmes  of  Sptiin.     AU  . 
though  so  voluminous  a  writer^  by  far  the  greater  part  of ' 
his  works  remain  in  MS.  in  the  VaticaTi  and  other  libraries  ; 
wetknow  of  three  only  which  were  published/  1.  bis  bistory  ' 
of  Spain,  **  Historise  Hispauiie  partes  quatuor."    This  Mar-  * 
chand  seems  to  think  was  published  separately;  but  it  waa ' 
added  to  tbe  *'  Hispania  Illu8trata'*of  Bel  and  Scbott,  pub- 
lished at'Francfort  in  1579,  and  again  in  J  603.     2.  "  Spe- 
culum vita?  butnanae,  in  quo  de  omnibus  omnium  vitsD  or- 
dinom  ae conditionumcommodis ac incommodis  tr^ctatur,^^ 
Rome,  l^SHj  folioj  which,  with  three  subsequent  editions, 
is  accumtely  described  in  tbe'**'Bibliotheca  Spenceriana.**  * 
This  work  contains  so  many  severe  reflections  on  the  clergy  ' 
of  the  autfabr^s  timej  that  some  protestant  writers  have  been 
disposed  to  consider  bim  as  a  brother  in"  disguise*     It  is  ^ 
certainly  singular  that  he  could- hazard  ^^o  much '  poitit^d  ^ ' 
censure  in  such  an  ag^.     3.  ^*  Epistola- de^  expugnatione  ^ 
Nigropontis,"  folio,  without  date,  but  probably  beford'the  * 
attihor'a  lieatb.     A- copy  of  this  likewi^  occurs  in  ttaer"^ 
'^  Bibl.  Spenceriana."     Those  who  are  desirous  of  farther 
information  respecting  Sanchez  or  his  wotks  may  be  amply 

S  A  N  C  R  £  Z.  98' 

grstifted  in  liiarehand,  who  ha*  a  ppolix  article  on  the  sob« 

SANCHEZ  (Thomas  Anthomv),  a  learned  Spaniard, 
and  librarian  ta  the  Iiing^  was  born  in  17^0,  and  dtstin-* 
guished  himself  by  bi$  researcbea  into  the  literary  history 
of  his  country,  aqd^  bysome  editions  of  its  ablest  authors, 
which  be  illustrated  with  very  valuable  notes.    Our  autho- 
rity, however,  conveys  ve^y  little  informauon  respecting  ^ 
bis  personal  history  or  his  works,  and  does  not  even  men- 
tion the.  concern  be  had  in  the  new  and  much  improved ' 
edition,  of^  Antonio^s  <^Bibl.  HispaiMu''     He  died  at  Ma- 
drid ia  1 793^.   Has  most  celebrated  work  'is  bis  ^*  Collection  ' 
of  Castii Han- poetry  anterior  to  the  fifteenth  century,  to 
wfaicb  are  prefixed  menioifs  of  the  first  nisrquis^  off  SaiitiU 
lane,  and. a  letter  addressed  to  the.constable  of  Portugal, 
oO'tfaeorigjn  of  Spanish  poetry/'  Madrid,  1779«-^1 782, 
5-voIsi  8vo.    This  history  is  now.  preferred  to  that  of  father 
San»ie^oto,i   wlucb    formerly    eojoyed  <  such    reputatio.^i. 
Sanchez  also  wrote  ^^  An  Apology  for  Cervantes/*  te  ans- 
wer to  a  letter  published  in  the  Madrid  Courier;  and  *' A  ' 
Letter  to  Don  Joseph  Berni,  oq  his  defence  of  Peter  the 
C^4i«I,"  ibid.  17 7 8,  8to.« 

SANCHO' (Ignatius),   an  ^ctraordinary '  Negro,    was  ^ 
bora,  in  fl^9f  on  board  a  ship  in  tbe  skve^trade,  a  few 
days  after  it  bad  quitted  the  coasts  of  Gkiinea  for  the  Spa«» 
nish  West  Indies  i  and  at  Car^hagena,  received  baptism 
from  tbe<haiid  of  the  bishop,  and  tlie  name  of  Ignatius.  He 
lost, his  parents  in  his  infancy,  a  diseaseof  the  new  climate 
havingiputaffveariy  period  to  his  mother's  esistence;  while 
his  father -defeated  tbe  miseries  of  slavery  by  aa  act  of  * 
suicide*    At  little  rmore  than  two  years  old,  his  master 
broiight  him  to  England^  and  gave  him  to  three  maiden  - 
sisters,  resident  at  Greenwich ;  who  thought^  agceeabJetd 
prejudices  not  uncommon  at  that  time,  that  ignorance  was 
the^nly  security  for  his  obedienee,  and  that  to  enlarge  his 
mind  wodld  go  near  to^mancipate  bis  person;.     By  them 
he  was  sumuned  Sancho,  from  a  fancied  resemblance  to 
th^'lS4|iHre  of  Don  Quixote.     While  in  tbb  aituatiou,  the 
duke  of  Montagu,  who  lived^dn  Blackbeatb,  accidentally  * 
saW9^9>o4  adfuired  in  hiip  a  native  frankness  of  manner,  as 
yet  .untoftykeft  in  servitude,  and  unrefined  by  education  ; 
broughtbimfrei^ently  bom,e  to  the  duchess;  indulged  bis 

•     ,     V.  •  > 

»  Karchaod's  Diet.  Hist.~;^fit<wio  Bibl.  Hf^-  V^^jSj,  new^cjjit. 

»6  S  A  N  C  H  0. 

turn  (or  readiitg'Witb  presents  of  booksi  and  strongly  rcl> 
commended  to  his  mistresses  the  duty  of  cultivating  a  gc* 
nhis  of  such' apparent  fertility.     His  mistresses,  however^ 
i^ere  inflexible^  and  even  threatened  on  angry  occasions 
to  return  Sancho  to  his  African  slavery.     The  love  of  free- 
dom bad  increased  with  years^  and  began  to  beat  hi^h  in  > 
his  bosom«     Indignation^  ami  the   dread  of  constant  re- ' 
proach  arising  from  the  detection  of  an  amour,  finally  de- 
termmed  him  to  abandon  the  family,  and  as  his  noble  pa-> 
tron  was  recently  dead,  he  flew  to  the.  duchess  for  protec- ' 
tion,  who  dismissed  him  with  reproof.-   She  at  length,  bow,-*' 
ever,  consented  to  admit  him  into  her  household,  where  he. 
remained  as  butler  till  her  death,  when  he  found  hioiserf^ 
by  her  grace^s  bequest  and  his  own  ceconomy,  possessed  of 
seventy  pounds  in  money,  and  an  annuity  of  thirty.    Free- 
dom,  riches,    and  leisure^   naturally  led   a  disposition  of « 
African  texture  into  indulgences;  and  that  %vhtch  dissi- . 
pated  the  mind  of  Ignatius  completely  drained  the  purse. 
C^rds  had  formerly  seduced  him ;  but  an  unsuccessful  corv> 
test  at  cribbage  with  a  Jew,  who  won  his  clothes,  had  der' 
termined  him  to  abjure  the  propensity  which  appears  to  be 
innate  among  his  countrymen.     Ignatius  loved  the  theatre^ 
and  had  been  even  induced  to  consider  it  as  a  resource  in 
the  hour  of  adversity^  and  his  complexion  sugg^^ted  an ^ 
offer  to  the  manager  of  attempting  Othello  and  Oroonoko^  > 
but  a  defective  and  incorrigible  articula^on  rendered  this  > 
abortive.     He  turned  his  mind  once  more  to  service^  and 
was  retained  a  few  months  by  the  chaplain  at  Montagu-^ 
house.     That  roof  had  been  ever  auspicious  to  him  ;  and 
the  last  d\ike  soon  placed  him  about  bis  person,  where  ha-^ 
biiual  regularity  of  life  led  him  to  think  of  a  matrimonial 
connexion,  and  he  formed  one  accordingly  with  a  v!ery  de-« 
sQrviog  young  woman  of  West  India  origin.     Towards  the 
cipse  of  1773,  repeated  attacks  of  the  gout  and  a  coostitu^ 
tional  corpulence  rendered  him  incapable  of  farther. attend-' 
ance  in  the  dpke^s  family.     At  this  crisis,  the  wonificence  • 
which  had  protected  him  through  various  yicissitudes  did 
not  Tail  to  e?cert  itself;  with  the.result  of  bis  own  frOgality^ 
it  enabled  him  and  his  wife  to  settle  themselves  in  a  shop 
of  grocery,    where   mutual  and   rigid    jirndustry  dc>;enUy. 
maintained  a  numerous  family  of  childrefi,  and  yvh^ithii  life, 
of  domestic  virtue  engaged  private  patronage,  ?nd  merited 
public  imitation.     He  died  Dec.  15,  1780,'  of  a  series  of 
complicated  disorders. 

S  A  N  C  B  O.  ^t 

Mr  J^^U  remarks  diat,  of  a  negro,  a  batter^  and  a 
grocer,  there  are  but  slender  anecdotes  to  animate' the  page 
of  the  biographeri  yet  it  has  been  held  necessary  to  give 
vome  sketch  of  the  very  singular  man,  whose  letters,  with 
all  their  imperfections  on  their  head,  have  given  such  ge- 
neral satisfaction  to  the  public^.  *  The  display  which  those 
writings  exhibit  of  epistolary  talent,  rapid -and  just  con« 
'ception,  of  mild  patriotism,  and  of  universal  philanthropy, 
attracted'  the  protection  of  the  great,  and  the  friendship  of 
the  learned.  A  commerce  with  the  Muses  was  supported 
amid  the  trivial  and  momentary  interruptions  of  a  shop ; 
the  poets  were  studied,  and  even  imitated  with  some  suc- 
cess ;  two  pieces  were  constructed  for  the  stage ;  the  theory 
bf  music  was  discussed,  published,  and  dedicated  to  the 
Princess  royal';  and  painting  was  so  much  within  the  circle 
of  Ignatius  Sanch'o's  judgment  and  criticism,  that  several 
artists  paid  great  deference  to  his  opihion. 
'  Such  was  the  man  whose  species  philosophers  and  ana- 
t6mist8  have  endeavoiired  to  degrade  as  a  deterioration  of 
the  human ;  and  such  was  the  man  whom  Fuller,  with  a 
benevolence  and  quaintness  of  phrase  peculiarly  his  own^ 
accounted  ^'  God's  image,  though  cut  in  ebqny.'*  To  the 
harsh  definition  of  the  naturalist,  oppressions  political  and 
legislative  were  once  added,  but  the  abolition  of  the  slave 
trade  has  now  swept  away  every  engine  of  that  tyranny. 
Sancho'left  a  widow,  who  is,  we  believe,  since  dead ;  and 
a  son,  who  carried  on  the  business  of  a  bookseller  for  some 
years,  and  died  very  lately.^ 

SANCHONIATHON,  is  the  name  of  a  reputed  Phoe- 
nician author,  as  old  as  the  Trojan  war,  about  1274  B.  C. 

*  Th«  fint  «ditioft  wat  patipnized  ori^iDally  written  with  m  Tiew  to  pabli- 
hj  a  BubtcripUoo  not  known  since  the  cation.  She  declared,  therefore,  *'  that 
days  of  the  Spectator.  T^e  work  was  no  such  id^a  was  ever  expressed  by 
pabiished  Ibr  tbe  benefit  of  the  author*!  Mr.  Sancho ;  and  that  not  a  iiii^e  let^ 
family,  bf  Miss  Crewe,  an  amiable  ter  was. printed  from  any  duplioat* 
young  lady,  to  whom  many  of  the  let-  preserved  by  himself,  but  all  were  col- 
ters are  addressed,  and  who  is  since  lected  from  the  various  friends  to  whom 
married  to  John  Phillipa,  esq.  surgeon  they  were  addressed.*'  Her  reasons 
of  the  household  to  the  Prince  of  Wales,  for  publishing  them  were  •*  the  desire 
Prom  the  profits  of  the  first  edition,  and  of  shewing  that  an  untutored  African 
A  sum  paid  by  the  booksellers  for  li*  may  possess  abilities  equal  to  an  Eu« 
lierty  to. print  a. second  edition,  Mrs,  ropean.;  and  the  still  superior- motive 
Sancho,  we  are  well  assured,  received  of  wishing  to  serve  his  worthy  family . 
more  thaA  500/.  The  editor  did-  not  And  she  was  happy,'*  she  declared; 
featitrsrtd  gire'them  to  the  pobUo  till  **  in  pubUd^  acknowledgiag  she  had 
she  bad  obviated  an  objection  which  not  found  the  world  inattentive  to  the 
kad  been  tnggested,  that  they  were  voice  of  obscure  merit.*' 

'.*       '    1  Letters;  \1Hi  2  vob.  Sto,  with  a  life  by  Joseph  Jekyll,  esq. 

Vol,  XXVIL  H 

98  S  A  N  C  P  O  N  I  A  T  H  O  N. 

and  of  great  reputation  for  diligence  and  faithfulness.  'He 
is  said  to  have  collected  out  of  the  most  authentic  records 
be  could  procure,  the  ^'  Antiquities  o(  Phcenicia^'^  with  the 
help  of  some  memoirs  which  came  from  Hierombaaly  [Hief 
jrobaaly  or  Gideon,]  a  priest  of  the  God  Jeuo  or  Jao.  He 
wrote  several  things  also  relating  to  the  Jews.  Thes^ 
*J  Antiquities  of  the  Phcenicians/'  Philo-Bjblius,  in  the 
same  Phoenicia,  in  the  days  of  Adrian,  translated  inta 
Greek ;  and  Athenseus  soon  afterward  reckoned  him  among 
the  Phoenician  writers.  A  large  and  noble  fragment  of 
this  work,  Eusebius  has  given  us,  verbatim,  in  his  firs); 
book  of  '^  Evangelical  Preparation,^'  cap.  ix.  x.  and  has 
produced  the  strong  attestation  of  Porphjry,  the  most 
learned  heathen  of  that  age,  to  its  authenticity.  Upon 
these  authorities,  many  learned  men  have  concluded  that 
the  genuine  writings  of  Sanchoniathon  were  translated  by 
Pbilo-Byblius,  and  that  Sanchoniathon  derived  a  great 
part  of  his  information  from  the  books  of  Moses,  nay,  some 
have  supposed  that  Thoth^  called  by  the  Greeks,  Hermes^ 
and  by  the  Romans^  Mercury,  was  only  another  name. for 
Moses ;  but  the  inconsistencies,  chiefly  Chronological,  which 
the  learned  have  detected  in  these  accounts,  and  especially 
the  silence  of  the  ancients  concerning  this  historian,  who, 
if  he  bad  deserved  the  character  given  him  by  Porphyry, 
could  not  have  been  entirely  Over«looked,  create  a  just 
ground  of  suspicion,  either  against  Porphyry  or  Pbilor 
Byblius.  It  seems  most  probable,  that  Philo-Byblius  fa« 
bricated  the  work  from  the  ancient  cosmogonies,  pretend* 
ing  to  have  translated  it  from  the  Phcenicianj  in  order  to 
provide  the  Gentiles  with  an  account  of  the  origin  of  th^ 
world,  which  might  be  set  in  opposition  to  that  of  Moses^ 
Eusebius  and  Theodoret,  indeed,  who,  like  the  rest  of  the 
fathers,  were  too  credulous  in  matters  of  this  kind^  and 
after  them  some  eminent  modern  writers,  have  ima-» 
gined,  that  they  have  discovered  a  resemblance  between 
Sanchoniathon^s  account  of  the  formation  of  the  world  and 
that  of  Moses.  But  an  accurate  examination  of  the  doc<* 
trine  of  Sanchoniathon,  as  it  appears  in  the  fragment  pre« 
served  by  Eusebius,  will  convince  the  unprejudiced  reader, 
that  the  Phoenician  philosophy,  if  indeed  it  be  Phoenician, 
is  directly  opposite  to  the  Mosaic.  Sanchoniathon  teaches^ 
that,  from  the  necessary  energy  of  an  eternal  principle, 
active  but  without  intelligence,  upon  an  eternal  passive 
chaotic  masSy  or  Mot^  arose  the  visible  world  -,  a  doctrine, 


9  A  i^.C  H  O  N;I  A  T  H  O  N.  9> 

^f  which  there  are .  sopad' ajipearatices  in 'the  aiKsieilt  ^os* 
mogonieS)  and  which  was  not  without  its  patrons  among 
the  Greeks. .  It  is  therefore  not  unreasonable  to  conjec-» 
tare,  that  tbd  work  wds  forged  iil  opposition  to  the  Jewish 
Cosmogony^  and  that  tbiswas  the  circumstance  which' ren-* 
dered  it  so  acceptable  to  Porphyry.  Such  is  the  opiaioii 
ofBrucker  on  this  history;  and  Bod  well  and  Dupin,  th6 
former. in  an  express  treatisci  have  also  endeavoured  to 
invalidate  its  authenticity.^ 

SANCROFT  (Dr.  Willum)>  an  eminent  English  pre- 
late, was  borii  at  Fresingfield^  in  Suffolk,  Jan.  30,  1616, 
tad  educated  in.grammar^learningat  St.  Edmund's  Bury^ 
where  he  was  equally  remarkable  for  diligent  application 
to  bis  studies,  and  a  piou»  disposition  ^.  In  July  1634,  he 
was  sent  to  EmanUel  college  in  Cambridge,^  where  he  be- 
came very  accomplished  in  all  branches  of  literature,  took 
his  degree  of  B.  A.  in  1637,  and  that  of  M.  A.  in  1641,  and 
was  in  1642  chosen  fellow  of  his  college.  His  favourite 
studies  were  theology,  criticism,  history,  and  poetry  ft  but 
in  all  hi&  acquirements  he  was  bumble  and  unostentatious. 
In  I64d  he  took  the  degree  of  B.  D.  It  is  supposed  he  neyec 
sabscribed  the  covenant^  and  that  this  was  connived  at,  he^^ 
cause  be  continued  unmolested  in  his  fellowship  till  1649  i> 
at  which  time,  refusing  the  engagement^  be  was  ejected. 
Upon  this  he  went  abroad,  and  became  acquainted  with  the 
most  considerable  of  the  loyal  English  exiles;  and^  it  i» 

*  Among  bishop  l^aoner^s  MSSi  in  bnt  chiefly  retigions,  exactly  and  e1«t 

the  Bodlieian  library  id  the  following:  gantly  transcribed  with  his  own  hand, 

letter  from  him  to  his  father,  dated  while  a  fellow  of  Emanuel.    Some  ot 

Sept.  10,  1^1.     **  T  have  lately  of-  these  are  from  the  first  edition  of  MiU 

fered  up  to  God  the  first  fruits  of  that  tbn^s  lesser  poems,  which  Mr.  Warton 

csllingr  which  t  intend,  baring  com-  ebserres  is  perhaps  the  only  instance 

moD-placed  twice  in  the  chapel  ;  and  on  record  of  their  having  received  for 

if  through    your  prayers  and   God's  almost  seventy  years,  any  slight  mark 

blessing  upon  my  endeavours,  1  may  of  attention  or  notice.     Sancroft,  adds 

become  an  inittrament  in  any  measure  Mr.  Warton,  even  to  his  matureryean, 

fitted  to  bear  his  name  before  his  peo-  retained  his  strong  early  predilection 

pie,  it  shall  be  my  joy,  and  the  crown  to  poUte  literature,  which  he  still  con- 

of  my  rejoicing  in  the  Lord.     I  am  tinued   to  cultivate ;  and  from  these ' 

persuaded  that  for  tl^i»  end  I  was  sent  and  other  remains  of  his  studies  in  that, 

into  the  world,  and  therefore,  if  God  pursuit,  now  preserved  in  the  Bodleian 

lends  me  life  and  abilities,'!  shall  be  library,  it  appears  that  he  was  a  dili** 

villing  to  spend  myself  and  to  be  spent  gent  reader  of  the  poetry  of  his  timea^' 

upon  the  work."  both  in  English  and  Latin.—- Warton't 

f  Among  his  papers  at  Oxford  is  a  edftion  of  Milton  s  Poems,  1785,  pre» . 

ttry  coasiflerable  collection  of  poetry,  face,  p.  v.  ,  .    •        / 

>  Vosstus  de  Hist.  Grsec.— Moreri. — Brucker.-*Dod well's  ^*  Disoonrse  eoflh* ' 
eeraing  the  Phoniciaa  History  of  Sant'honiathon/*,  add<:d  to  the  second  edition > 
of  bis  «'Two  Letters  of  Advice,*' 1681. —Gebelin'i  «*  AUegori^i  OnenUlfa^"' 
Fftria,  1779,  4to»-^omberlaiid't  *<  Sanchoniatl|0B.»  .        ^ 



said,  be  was  at  Rome  when  Charles  II.  was  restored.     Ht 
immediately  returned  to  England,  and  was  made  chaplain 
to  Cosin,  bishop  of  Durham,  who  collated  him  to  the  rec<* 
tory  of  Houghton-ie-Spring,   and  to  the  ninth  prebeiid 
of  Durham  in  March  1661.     In  the  same  year  he  assisted 
in  reviewing  the 'Liturgy,  particularly  in  rectifying  the 
Kalendar  and  Rubric.    In  1662  he  was  created,  by  mafi« 
damus,  D.  D.  at  Cambridge,  and  elected  master  of  Ema« 
nuel  college,  which  he  governed  with  great  prudence.     Iii 
1^64  he  was  promoted  to  the  deanery  of  York,  which  aU 
thdugh  he  held  but  a  few  months,  he  expended  on  the 
buildings,  about  200/.  more  than  he  had  received.     Upon 
the  ddath  of  Dr.  John  Barwick  he  was  removed  to  the 
deanery  of  St*  Paul-s ;  soon  after  which,  he  resigned  the 
mastership  of  Emanuel  college,  and  the  rectory  of  Hough- 
ton.    On' his  coming  to  St.  PauPs  he  set  himself  most  di* 
ligently  to  repair  that  cathedral,  which  had  suffered  greatly 
from  the  savage  zeal  of  the  republican  fanatics  in  the  civil 
wars,  till  the  dreadful  fire  in  1666  suggested  the  more  noble 
undertaking  of  rebuilding  it.     Towards  this  he  gave  1400if. 
besides  what  he  procured  by  his  interest  and  solicitations 
Among  his  private  friends,   and   in  parliament,  where  he 
obtained  the  act  for  laying  a  duty  on  coals  for  the  rebuild- 
ing of  the  cathedral.     He  also  rebuilt  the  ^eanery,  and 
improved  the  revenues  of  it.     In  Oct.  1668,  he  was  ad- 
Kiitted  archdeacon  of  Canterbury,  on  the  king's  presenta* 
tion,  which  be  resigned  in  1670.     He  was  also  prolocutor 
of  the  lower  house  of  convocation  ;  and  was  in  t,hat  station 
when  Charles  II.  in  1677,  advanced   him,  contrary  to  his 
knowledge  or  inclination,  to  the  arcKiepiscopal  see  of  Can- 
terbury,   In  1678  he  p^ibtisbed  some  useful  directions  con- 
cerning letters  testimonial  to  candidates  for  holy  orders. 
He  was  himself  very  conscientious  in  the  admission  ta  or- 
ders or  the  disposal  of  livings,  always  preferring  men  of 
approved  abilities,  great  learning,  and  exemplary  life.    He 
attended  king  Charles  upon  his  death-bed,  and  made  a  very 
weighty  exhortation  to  him,  in  which  he  is  said  to  hav^ 
used  a  good  deal  of  freedom.     In  1686  he  was  named  the 
first  in  JaimesII.^s  commission  for  ecclesiastical  affairs;  but 
he  refused  to  act  in  it.    About  the  same  time  he  suspended 
Wood,  bishop  of  Lichfield  and  Coventry,  for  residing  out 
of  and  neglecting  his  diocese.     As  one  of  the  governors  of 
the  Charter-house,  he  refused  to  admit  as  pensioner  in 
'tkat  hospital  Andrew  Popham,  a  papist,  althougli  he  came . 

S  A  N  C  R  O.  F  T;  101 

^itfaa  nomination  Ironi  th^  court.  In  Jagie  1 6&8|  be  joineil^ 
with  sisc  of  his  brethren  the  bishops  in  the  famous  petition 
lo  king  James,  in  which  they  gave  their  reasons  why  they 
could  not  cause  his  declaration  for  liberty  of  conscience  to 
be  read  in  churches.     For  this  petition,  which  the  court 
called  a  libel,  they  were  committed  to  the  Tower ;  and, 
bejng  tried  for  a  misdemeanor  on  the  29th,  were  acquitted, 
to  the  great  joy  of  the  nation.     This  year  the  archbishop 
projected,  the  vain  expedient  of  a  comprehension  with  the 
protestant  dissenters.     We  have  the  following  account  of 
this  in  the  speech  of  Dr.  W,  Wake,  bishop  of  Lincoln,  in 
the  house  of  lords,  March  17, 1710,  at  the  opening  of  the 
tkcond  article  of  the  impeachment  against  Dr.  Sacheverell: 
'*  The  person,^'  says  he,  *'  who  first  concerted  this  design 
was  the  late  most  reverend  Dr.  Sancroft,  then  archbishop 
of  Canterbtu*y.     The  time  was  towards  the  end  of  that  un*^ 
happy  reign  /of  king  James  II.     Then,  when  we  were  in 
the  height  of  our  labours,  defending  the  Church  of  Eng- 
land against  the  assaults  of  popery,  and  thought  of  nothing 
else,  that  wise  prelate  foreseeing  some  such  revolution  as 
soon  after  was  happily  brought  about,  began  to  consider 
how  utterly  unprepared  they  had  been  at  the  restoration  of 
king  Charles  II.  to  settle  many  things  to  the  advantage  of 
the  Church,  and  what  happy  opportunity  had  been  lost  for 
want  of  such  a  previous  care,  as  he  was  therefore  desirous 
should  now  be  taken,  for  the  better  and  itiore  perfect  esta« 
blishment  of  it.     It  was  visible  to  all  the  ilation,  that  the 
more  moderate  dissenters  were  generally,  so  well  satisfied 
with  that  stand  which  our  divines  h&d  made  against  popery, 
and  the  many  unanswerable  treatises  they  had  published  iu 
eonfutation  of  it,  as  to  express  an  unuisual  readinessto 
come  in  to  us.     And  it  was  therefore  thought  worth  the 
while,  when  they  were  deliberating  about  those  other  mat-/ 
ters,  to  consider  at  the  saqie  tioke  what  might  be  done  to 
gain,  them  without  doing  any  prejudice  to' ourselves.     Tho 
scheme. was  laid  oqt,  ^nd  the  several  pans  of  it  were  com- 
giittfid,  .not  only  with  the  approbation,  but  by  the   direc- 
tion  of  that  great  prelate,  to  such  of  our  divines,  as  were 
thought  the  most  proper  to  be  intrusted  with  it.     His  grace 
tcK^  one  part  to  himself ;  another  was  committed  to  a  then 
pious  and  reverend  dean  (Dr.  Patrick),  afterwards  a  bishop 
of  oiy  church.     The  reviewing  of  the  daily  service  of  our 
Liturgy,  and  the  Communion  Book,  was  referred  to  a  select 
number  of  excellent  persons,  two  of  which  (archbishop^ 


S  A  N  C  K  O  E  T. 

Sbarp;  and  Dr.  Moore)  are  at  this  time  upon  oar  beneb  f 
and  I  am  sure  will  bear  witness  to  the  truth  of  my  relatiQUi. 
The  design  was  in  short  this:  to  improve,  and,  if  possible^ 
to  inforce  our  discipline ;  to  review  and  enlarge  our  Li^ 
turgy,  by  correcting  of  some  things,  by  adding  of  others  ; 
s^nd  if  it  shodid  be  thought  adviseable  by  authority,  when 
this  matter  should  come  to  be  legally  considered,  first  in 
convocation,  then  in  parliament,  by  leaving  some  few  cere-r 
monies,  confessed  to  be  indifferent  in  their  natures  as  in.<<^ 
different  in  their  usage,  so  as  not  to  be  nece8sarily>ob8erve4 
by  those  who  made  a  scruple  of  them,  till  they  should  be 
able  to  overcome  either  their  weaknesses  or  prejudices 
and  be  willing  to  comply  with  them/*     In  October,  ac« 
companiied  with  eight  of  his, brethren  the  bishops,  Sancroft 
waited  ^pon  the  king,  who.  Lad  desired'  the  assistance  of 
their  counsels ;  and  advised  him,  among  other  things,  to 
annul  the  ecclesiastical  commission,  to  desist  from  the  ex<fr 
ercise  of  a  dispensing  power,  and  to  call  a  free  and  regular 
parlian^ent.     A  few  days  after,  though  earnestly  pressed 
by  his  majesty,  he  refused  to  sign  a  (kclaration  of  abhor «» 
rence  of  the  prince  of  Grangers  invasion.     In  December, 
on  king  James's  withdrawing  himself,  he  is  said  to  hava 
signed,  and  concurred  with  the  lords  spiritual  and  temporal, 
in  a  declaration  to  the  prince  of  Orange,  for  a  free  par* 
liamenty  security  of  our  laws,  liberties,  properties,  and  of 
tjie  church  of  England  in  particular,  with  a  due  indulgence 
to  protestant  dissenters.     Bui  in  a  declaration  signed  by 
him  Nov.  3, 1688,  he  says  that  "he  never  gave  the  prince 
any  invitation  by  word,  writing,  or  otherwise;"   it  mus| 
therefore  have  been  in  consequence  of  the  abdication  that 
be  joined  with  the  lords  in  the  above  declaration.    Yet 
when  the  prince  came  to  St.  James's,  the  archbishop  n^her 
went  to  wait  on  him,  though  he  had  once  agreed  to  it,  nof 
did  he  even  send  any  message^.    He  absented  himself 
likewise  from  the  convention,  for  which  he  is  severely  cen« 
sured  by  Burnet,  who  calls  him  ^^  a  poor-spirited  and  fear* 
f  ul  man,  that  acted  a  very  mean  part  in  all  this  great  trans* 

*  Bishop  NicolsoD,  in  one  of  his 
letters  lately  published,  seems  to  hint 
that  Sancroft  ^as  more  active  in  pro- 
moting the  revolution  than  has  been 
supposed.  After  ceosuring  him  for  not 
paying  his'  respects  to  the  new  king, 
Iilicolson  says,  **  I  should  rather  choose 
to  follow  him  in  the  more  frank  and 
•pen  passages  of  his  life>  than  in  this 

unaccountably  dark  and  mysterious 
instance ;  especially,  since  I  had  ta- 
citly consented  to  his  seizing  the  Tower 
tif  Londom,  and  his  address  to  the  prioM 
of  Orange  to  accept  the  government.*^ 
— NicoUon*s  Epistolary  Corr^pond* 
ence,  by  Mr.  NichoUyS  vols.  8yo»  1809* 
vol,  I.  p.  U. 


attioir.    'H«*nesolved,"  says  he,  ^'neidier  to  ECtfbr/nor 
against,  the  king's  interest;  which,  considering  his  high- 
post,  was  thought  very  unbecoming.     For,  if  be  tbocight, 
sffi  by  his  behavionr  afterwards  it  seems  he  did,  that  the^ 
nation  was  running  into  treason,  rebellion,  and  perjury,  it 
was  a  strange  thing  to  see  one  who.  was  at  the  head  of  the* 
ohttrch  to  sit  silent  all  the  while  that  this  was  in  debate, 
and  not  once  so  much  as  declare  his  opinion,  by  speaking, 
noting,  or  protesting,  not  to  mention  the  other  ecclesiastic*- 
cal  methods  that  certainly  became  his  character.^' 

After  William  and  Mary  were  settled  on  the  throne,  he 
and  seven  other  bishops  refused  to  own  the  established  go«< 
vemmept,  from  a  conscientious  regard  to  the  allegiance 
they  Had  sworn  to  king  James.  Refusing  likewise  to  take 
the  oaths  appointed  by  act  of  paiiiament,  he  and  they 
were  suspended  Aug.  1,  1689,  and  deprived  the  1st  of 
l^eb.  following.  On  the  nomination  of  Dr.  Tillotson  to^ 
this  see,  April  23,  1691,  our  archbishop  received  an  order 
from  the  then  queen  Mary,  May  20,  to  leave  Lambeth* 
bouse  within  ten  days.  But  he,  resolving  not  to  stir  till 
ejected  by  law,  was  cited  to  appear  before  the  barons  of 
the  exchequer  on  the  first  day  of  Trinity-term,  June  12,, 
1691,  to  answer  a  writ  of  intrusion ;  when  he  appeared  by 
his  attorney;  but,  avoiding  to  put  in  any  plea,  as  the  case 
stood,  judgment  passed  a^inst  him,  in  the  form  of  law, 
Jane  23,  and  the  same  evening  he  took  boat  in  Lambeth- 
bridge,  and  went  to  a  private  house  in  Palsgrave-head* 
court,  near  the  Temple.  Thence,  on  Aug.  5,  1691,  he 
letired  to  Fresingfield  (the  place  of  his  birth,  and  the  estate 
[50/.  a  year]  and  residence  of  his  ancestors  above  tbre^ 
hundred  years),  where  he  lived  in  a  very  private  manner^ 
^ill,  being  seized  with  an  intermitting  fever,  Aug.  26, 1693, 
be  died  on  Friday  morning,  Nov.  24,  and  was  buried  very 
privately,  as  he  himself  bad  ordered,  in  Fresingfield  cburch-*> 
yard.  '  Soon  after,  a  tomb  was  erected  over  his  grave,  with 
an  inscription  composed  by  himself;  on  the  right  side  of 
which  there  is  an  account  of  his  age  and  dying-day  in  La* 
tin;  on  the  left,  the  following  E-nglish  :  <*' William  San- 
croft,  born  in  this  parish,  afterwards  by  the  providence  of 
God  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  at  last  deprived  of  all, 
which  he  could  not  keep  with  a  good  conscience,  returned 
hither  to  end  his  life,  and  professeth  here  at  the  foot  of  his 
tomb,  that,  as  naked  he  came  forth,  so  naked  he  must  re- 
ti^Hi :  the  Lord  gave>  and  the  Lord  bath  f^al^en  away  (as  the 


SAN  CT  O  R  I  U  S. 

sensible  secretions  and  discharges^  he  was  enabled  to  de^' 
termine  with  wonderful  exactness  the  weight  or  quantity 
of  insensible  perspiration,  as  well  as  what  kind  of  food  or* 
drink  increased  and  diminished  it.  On  these  experiments^ 
he  erected  a  curious  system,  which  was  long  admired  by 
the  faculty.  It  was  divulged  first  at  Venice-in  1614,  under* 
the  title  of  ^^  Ars  de  Statica  Medicina/*  comprehended  in 
seven  sections  of  aphorisms ;  .and  was  often  reprinted  at  dif^- 
ferent  places,  with  corrections  and  additions  by  th^  author. 
It  was  translated  into  French,  and  published  at  Paris  1722  ; 
and  we  had  next  an  English  version  of  it,  with  large  ex- 
planations, by  Dr.  Quincy;  to  the  third  edition  of  which' 
in  1723,  and  perhaps  to  the  former,  is  added,  ^*  Dr.  James^- 
Keil's  Medicina  Statica  Britannica,  with  comparative  re- 
'  marks  and  explanations ;  as  also  physico-medical  essays  on 
agues,  fevers,  on  elastic  fibre,  the  gout,  the  leprosy,  king^s-> 
evil,  venereal  diseases,  by  Dr.  Qumcy.'* 

Sanctorius  published  other  works ;  as,  **  Method!  vitan« 
dorum  errorum  omnium,  qui  in  Arte  Medica  contingunt, 
libri  quindecim,*'  1602  ;  **  Commentaria  in  primam  sectio* 
Item  Aphorismorum  Hippocratis,'*  1609  ;  ^^  Commentaria 
in  Artem  Medicinalem  Galeni,"  1612  ;  ^^  Commentaria  in- 
primam  partem  primi  libri  Canonis  Avicenne,''  1625; 
*f  De  Lithotomia,  seu  Calculi  vesicae  sectione,  Consulta- 
tio,*'  1638.  All  these,  which  raised  his  character  very 
greatly  among  his  own  {Profession,  were  in  1660  printed 
there  together  in  4  vols.  4to. 

Sanctorius  unquestionably  conferred  a  benefit  on  medical 
science,  by  directing  the  observation  6f  medical  men  to 
the  functions  of  the  skin ;  but  unfortunately,  the  doctrines 
were  extended  much  too  far ;  and,  coinciding  with  the  me^ 
^Aaniitrii/ principles,  which  were  coming  into  vogue  after 
the  discovery  of  the  circulation,  as  well  as  with  the  cA^mt* 
eal  notions,*which  were  not  yet  exploded,  they  contributed 
to  complete  the  establishment  of  the  humoral  pathology^ 
under  the  shackles  of  which  the  practice  of  medicine  con- 
tinued almost  to  our  own  times.  Sanctorius  was  also  the 
author  of  severd  inventions.  Besides  bis  statical  chair,  he 
invented  an  instrument  for  measuring  the  force  of  the 
pulse ;  and  several  new  instruments  of  surgery.  He  was 
the  first  physician  who  attempted  to  measure  the  heat  of 
the  skin  by  a  thermometer,  in  different  diseases,  and  at 
different  periods  of  the  .same  disease;  and  it  is  to  his  credit 

S  A  N  C  T  O  R  I  U  S,  107 

diat  he  was  an  airowed  enenj  to  empiridft  and  empirical 
postrums^  as  well  as  to  all  occult  remedies.  ^ 

SANDBY  (Paul),  an  ingenious  artist,  descended  from 
ar  branch  of  the  family  of  Saunby,  of  Bab  worth  in  Notting*- 
hamsbire,  was  born  at  Nottingham  in  17S2.     In  1746  he 
jcame  to  London,  and  having  an  early  predilection;  for  the 
mrts,  .procured  admission  to  the  drawing  room  in  thie  Towef^ 
where  be  first  studied.     In  17.4$,  William  dukeof  Cum^ 
berland,  wishing  to  have  a  survey  of  the  Highlands  of  Scot- 
land, which  Was  the  scene  of  his  memorable' campaign  in 
1745-6,  Mr.  Sandby  was  appointed  draugbuman,   undet 
jthe  inspection  of  general  David  Watson,  with  whom  h6 
travelled  through  the  North  and  Western  parts  of  that 
most  romantic  country,  and  made  many  sketches.     During 
bis  ^ay  at  Edinburgh  he  made  a  number  of  small  etchings 
from  these  designs ;  which  on  his  return  to  London  wer6 
published  in  a  folio  volume.     But  drawing  of  plans  abound- 
ing ia  straight  lines  being  neither  congenial  to  his  taste  nor 
worthy  of  his  talents,  be  in  1752  quitted  the  service  of  the 
survey,  afid  resided  with  bis  brother,  Mr.  Thomas  Saadby, 
at  Windsor,  and  during  bis  continuance  there  took  more 
iban  seventy  views  of  Windsor  and  Eton.    The  accuracy; 
taste,  and  spirit  with  which  they  were  in  an  eminent  degree 
marked,  so  forcibly  struck  sir  Joseph  Banks,  that  he  pur- 
chased them  all,  and  at  a  very  liberal  price.     Mr<  Sandby 
liad  soon,  afterwards  the  honour  ef  being  one  of  this  gen- 
tleman's party  in  a  tour  through  North  and  South  Wales^ 
and  made  a  great  number  of  sketches  from  remarkable 
scenes,  castles,  seats,  &c.     Under  the  patronage  of  the  late 
sir  Watkin  Williams  Wynne,  he  afterwards  took  many  more 
views  from  scenes  in  the  same  country,  which  with  those 
before  mentioned  he  transferred  to  copper^plales,  and  madil 
several  sets  of  prints  in  imitation  of  drawings^  in  bister  or 
Indian  ink.     The  first  hint  of  the  process  by  which  thii 
effect  is  given  to  an  engraving,  Mr.  Sandby  is  said  to  have 
received  from  the  hon.  Charles  Greville,  a  gentleman  •  of 
acknowledged  taste  and  judgment  in  every  branch  of  polite 
art.     Profiting  by  this  hint,  Mr.  Sandby  so  far  improved 
upon  it  as  to  bring  the  captivating  art  of  Aquatinta  to  a 
degree  of  perfection  never  before  known  in  this  country. 

About  1753  Mr.  Sandby,  and  several  members  of  aii 
acaidemy  who  met  at  what  had  previously  been  RoubiUiac*]i 

1  Elojy  Diet.  Hut  de  Medicint.— Btes'a  Cyclopsdii 

•  ( 

lOS  8. A  N  D  BT.      > 

ivorksfaoqp,:  in  St  Ma^in^s^lftiie,  i^khiog-  lo:  ejet^pd.  tbeir 
plan^  and  establish  a  society  on  a  brqader  basis^  held  sever 
jral  tastings  for  the ,  purpose  of  makhig  new .  regulations, 
^c.    .Concerning  these .  r^ulations  it  may  naturally  be 
suppojsed  there  were  variety,  of  opinionsy  but  Hogarth,  who 
waspoe.of  ^he  members,  aqd  who  dasenredly  held  a^ery 
high  rank  in  the  arts,  disapproved  of  the  jwhole  scheme,  and 
wished  the  society  to  j^main  as  it  then  was.     He  tbpugbt 
that  enlarging  the  number  of  $tudents  would  induce  a^rowd 
of  young  men  to  quit  more  profitable  .  pursuits,  neglei^t 
what  might  be.  more,  suitable  tO;  their  talents^  and.intrc^.upe 
to  the  practice , of  the.  arts  more  professors  than  the  arts 
would  support.'    This  na^turally  involved. him  in  many  dis** 
putes, with. his  brother  artists,  and  as  these  disputes  were 
not  always  conducted  with,  philosophic  calmness,  the  sa» 
tirist  sometimes  said  things  that,  his  opponents  deemed,  ra-* 
ther  too  severe  for  the  occasipn.    On. the  publication.. of 
bis  ^^Analysis  of  Beauty V  tbey  recriminated^  ^  with  interest, 
Among  the  prints  which  were  then  published  to  ridicule 
his, system,    Ijne.  of  beauty,  ,&c.    are  six  or. eight,. that 
from,  the  manner  in  which  they  are  conceived,  and  the  no- 
con^mon  .  spirit  ,^ith  which  they  are  etched,,  carry.,  more 
than  probable  marks  of  the  burin  of  Mr*  .Sandby,  jvvbo  was 
then  a  very  young  man,  but  afterwards  declared,  that  if, be 
had  been  more  intimatjeiy  acquainted  with  Mr.  Hogvtb!s 
merit,  he  would  on  no  account  have  drawti  a  hue  which 
plight  tend  to  his  dispr^ise^  .       j 

.  On  the  institution  of  the  Royal  Academy^  Mr.  Sandby 
was  elated ja  royal  academician.  By  the  recommendation 
of  the  duke  of  Grafton,  the, marquis  of  Granby  in  176S 
apppint^d  bim  chief  drawing-master  of  the  Royal  Academy 
atWoolwicbf  which  office  be  held  with. gres^t.  honour. |q 
himself  and ,  advantage,  to.  the  institutiojn ;  and  saw.  many 
able  and  distinguished  dra^jghtsmen  among  the. ofQcefs  of 
artillery^  and  corps  of  Engineers,  formed  under  bis  instruc? 
^ions,.       .   ,   •    ;  ,  ,.^      •  .  .    .i.  .   I 

Mr.  .Sapdby  died  at  his  house  at  Paddiugton  Nov.  7» 
1 809,  in  .the  seventy rseventh  year  of  his  age.  .  He.  contrir. 
buted.niucb  to  the.  reputation  of  the  Eqgliah  school  ,ol 
landi|icape  p^iiHing,  and.  in  many  of  his  exquisite  ydj&hne:^ 
ations,  uniting  .fidelity  with,  taste,  the.  bpautif ill. scenery 
for  which  thi^  .island  is  so.  eminently  distinguished,  is.  <li§£ 
played  as  in  a  mirror.  For  force,  clearness,  and  transpa- 
rency, it  may  very  truly  be  said  that  his  paintings  in  water 

S  A  N  D  B  Yi  100 

^ouf^  httre  not  yet  been  equalled ;  the  views  of  castle^^ 
-ruins,  bridges,  &c.  which  are  frequently  introduced,  will 
^remain  monuments  tathe  honour  of  the  arts,  the  artists, 
and  the  country,  when  the  originals  from  which  they  are 
designed  are  mouldered  into  dust^  *    - 

:    SANDEMAN  (Robert),  from  whom  a  reHgious  sect  is 
generally  named,  was  born  at  Perth  in  Scotland  in  i  723. 
Being  intended  for  one  of  .the  learned  professions,  he 
atndied  for  two  years  at  the  university  of  Edinburgh,  but 
at  the  expiration  of  that  time  manned,  and  his  fortune 
being  sdiall,  entered  into  the  linen  trade  at  Perth,  lyhehce 
he  removed  to  Dundee,  and  afterwards  to  Edinburgh.  *  The 
lady  he  inarried  was  the  daughter  of  the  rev.  John  Olaiss 
(See  Glass),   who  founded  the  sect,  at -that  time  called 
from  him  Glassitts ;  and  Mr.  Sandeman,  who  was'  now  an 
elder  in  one  of  Glass's  churches,  or  congregations,  and 
bad  imbibed  all  his  opinions,  published  a  series  of  letters 
addressed   to   Mr.  Hervey,    occasioned  by  that  author's 
^  Tberon  and  Aspasio,"  in  which  he  endeavours  to  shew, 
that  his  notion  of  faith  is' contradictory  to  the  scripture  ac** 
count  of  it,  aiid  could  only  serve  to  lead  men,  professedly 
holding  the  doctrines   commonly  called   Calvinisticj    to 
establish  their  own  righteousness  upon  their  frames,  in«- 
ward  feelings,  and  various  acts  of  faith.     In  these  letters 
Mr.  Sandeman  attempts  to  prove,  that  faith  is  neither  more 
nor  less  than  a  simple  assent  to  the  divine  testimony  con* 
cerning  Jesus  Christ,  recorded  in  the  New  Testament ;  and 
he  maintains^  that  the  word  faith,  or  belief,  is  constaritly 
used  by  the  apostles  to  signify)  what  is  denoted  by  it  in 
common  discourse,  \xt,  a  persuasion  of  the  truth  of  any 
proposition,  and  that  there  is>no  differenc^e  between  be* 
Keving  any  common  testimony,  and  believing  the  apostolic 
testimony,  except  that  which  results  itom,  the  nature  of 
the  testimony  itself.     This  led  the  way  to  a  controversyy 
among  Calvinists  in  Scotland,^  concerning  the  nature  of 
justifying  faith ;  and  those  who  adopted  Mr.  Sandemah's 
notion  of  it,  and  who  took  the  denomination  of  Sandemani'* 
anSf  formed  themselves  into  church  order,  in  strict  fellow- 
ship wtthithie  church  of  Scotland,*  but  holding  no  kind  of 
communion  with  other  churches.     The  chief  opinions  and 
practices  in  which  this  sect  differs  from  others,  are,  their 
fleekly  administration  of  the  Lord's  Supper ;  their  lovev 

^  £ai«]).  Mag.  for  1796.— Gent.  Mag.  tcI.  UCXII^* 

110  j^ANDKMAk 


feasts,  of  wbicb  every  metnber  is  not  oirly  tillowed  but  re^^ 
quired  to  partake,  and  wfaioh  eonsist  of  their  dining  togetf 
tber  «t  each  other^s  booses  in  the  interval  between  the 
SQoming  and  afternoon  service :  their  kiss  of  cbarity  nsedoR 
this  occasion,  at  the  admission  of  a  new  member^  and  at 
other  times^  when  they  deem  it  to  be  tietessary  or  prdper ; 
theiR  weekly  collection  before  the  LcMrd's  Snpper  for  tbtl 
support  of  the  poor,  a;nd  defraying  other  expenoes;  mu« 
tual  exhortation ;  abstinence  from  blood  and  thmgs  strange 
led;  wasfaiiig  each  other's  feet,  the  preeept  concerning 
which,  as  well  as  other  precepts,  they  understand  literally  ^ 
community  of  goods  so  far  as  that  every  one  is  to  consider 
all  that  lie- has  in  his  possession  and  power  as  liable  to  tbe 
calls  of  tbe  poor  and  church,  and  the  unlawfulness  of  lay* 
ing  up  treasures  on  earth,  by  setting  tbem  apart  for  any 
distant,  future,  and  uncertain  use.  They  allow  of  public 
andv private  diversions  so  far  as  they  are  not  connected  with 
circumstances  really  sinful ;  but  apprehending  a  lot  to  be 
sacred>  disapprove  of  playing  at  Cards,  dice,  &c«  They 
maintain  a  plurality  of  elders,  pastors,  or  bishops,  in  each 
church,  and  the  necessity  of  the  presence  of  two  elders  in 
every  act  of  discipline,  and  at  the  administration  of  the 
Lord's  Supper.  In  the  choice  of  these  elders,  want  of 
learning,  and  engagements  in  trade,  &£.  are  no  sufficient 
objection ;  but  second  marriages  disqualify  for  the  office  ; 
and  they  are  ordained  by  prayer  and  fasting,  imposition  of 
hands,  and  giving  the  right  hand  of  fellowship.  In  their 
discipline  they  are  strict  and  severe,  and  think  themselves 
obliged  to  separate  from  the  communion  and*  worship  of 
all  such  .religious  societies  as  appear  to  them  not  to  profess 
the  simple  troth  for  their  only  ground  of  hope,,  and  who 
do  not  walk  in  obedience  to  it.  We  shall  otily  add,  that 
in  every  church  transaction,  they  esteem  unanimity  to  be 
absolutely  necessary. 

In  nss  -Mr.  San deman  commenced  a  correspondence 
with  Mr.  Samuel  Pike  of  London,  an  independent  minis-^ 
ter;  and  in  1760  cameiiimself  to  London,  and  preached 
in  various  places,,  attracting  the  crowds  that  usually  follow* 
novelties.  While  here  be  received  an  invitation  to  go  tot^ 
America,  with  which  he  complied  in  1764,  and  continued 
there  propagating  bis  doctrines  and  discipline  in  various 
places,  particularly  in  New-England,  until  the  politici^l 
disputes  arose  between  Great  Britain  and  the  colonies, 
when  he  became  very  obnoxious  by  taking  the  part  of  th^ 

'  S.A.N  D  E\M  A  N.  Ul 

fbrmer;  He  did  not  livei  howlsreri  to  witness  the  unluippy 
cooaequences  of  that  coutent,'  but  died  at  Danbury^  April 
2|  177  i 9  aged  fifty-* three.  His  sect^  altbougb^  not  Diiinet* 
rou8»  s$ill  exists,  batundeiTarious  modidcations,  in  Scot- 
land; and  there  are  a  few  branches  of  it  in  i^^ngland,  and 
one  in  PauPs  Ailey»  Barbican,  London,  Mr.  Sandeman^ 
besides  bis  ^^  Letters  on  Theron  and  Aspasio,''  published 
his  correspondence  with'  Mr.  Pike;  ^'  Thoughts  on  Chris* 
tianity  ;*'  <*  The  sign  of  the  prophet  Jonah ;''  "  The  honour 
of  marriage,  opposed  to  all  Impurities;"  and  ^<  On  So1q« 
snon's  Song.'*  * 

6ANDEKS  (Nicholas),  a  Roman  catholic  writer  of  con- 
siderable fame,  and  one  of  the  principal  championa  of 
popery  in  the  sixteenth  century,  was  born  about  1527,  at 
Charlewood  in  Surrey,  and  educated  at  Winchester  school, 
whence  he  removed  to  New  college,  Oxford.  Here  he 
studied  chiefly  canon  law,  and  was  made  fellow  of  hiseoi- 
lege  in  1548,  and.  in  1550,  or  1551,  took  the  degree  of 
bachelor  of  laws.  When  queen  Mary  came  to  the  throne, 
be  had  the  offer  of  being  Latin  secretary  to  her  majesty^ 
which  he  declined  for  the  sake  of  a  studious,  academical 
life,  and  remained  at  Oxford  during  the  whole  of  her  reign. 
In  15 57. he  was  one  of  the  professons  of  canon  law,  .and 
I'ead  what  were  called  the  "  shaggling  lectures,"  i*  e.  lee** 
tures  not  endowed,  until  the  accession  of  queen  Elizabeth, 
when  his  principles  induced  hifti  to  quit  England.  He  ar- 
rived at  Rome  about  the  latter  end  of  1560,  and  studying 
divinity,  became  doctor  in  that  faculty,  and  was  ordained 
priest  by  Dr.  Thomas  Goldwell,  bishop  of  St.  Asaph,  who 
at  that  time  resided  in  the  English  hospital  at  Rome.  Soon 
after,  cardinal  Hosius,  president  of  the  council  of  Trent, 
hearing  of  his  abilities,  took  him  into  his  family^  andmade 
Use  of  him,  as  his  theologal,  in  the  council.  When  the 
couficil  broke  up.  Dr.  Sanders  accompanied  the  cardinal 
to  Poland,  Prussia,  and  Lithuania,  where  he  was  instru* 
mental  in  settling  the  discipline  of  the. Romish  church;  but 
his  zeal  disposing  him  to  think  most  of  his  native  country, 
he  returned  to  Flanders,  and  was  kindly  entertained  by  siif 
Francis  Englefield,  formf>rly  privy.-counsellor  to  queen 
Mury,  and  then  in  great  favour  with  the  court  of  Spain; 

*  Wil»on'«  His*,  of  Dissenting  Chnrhes— Encyclop.  Brit9nutca«— 'The  teoeti 
•f  the  »ect  were  first  pablnhed  by  thf^m*  Ives  in  a  tracs  :•  \h  f  •'  An  account  tf 
UejCtvaman  practices  obsi'rVtd  bf  Um  CoUrch  in  St.  M^rtiA's-le-Ckaii^/'  HStSy 
^here  ihev  Ihcii  atiembled. 


Ua  .  SAND  E  R  a 

through  whose  hands  a  great  part  of  those  chitAtabieoof^ 
JectioDs  passed,  which  his  catholic  majesty-ordered  for  the 
-subsistence  of  the  EogUsh  popish  exiles.  Sanders  was<ap-* 
.pointed  bis  assistant,  and  .being  settled  at  Louvaine,  toge^. 
;ther,with  bis  motfaeJr  and  sister^  be  ii^  there  twelve  yeais^ 
juid  perfofmed  many  charitable  offices  to  bis  indigent  coun^ 
:tryjnen.  Much'of  this  ;tiine  lie  eiripleyed  in-  writing  in 
•defence  of  popery  against  Jewdl^  Nowell,  and  other  emi* 
iient  pro testant  divines. 

* .  Some  year^after^  having  nscetved  an  iitvitatioii  froortbe 
pope,  betook  ajourney  to  Rome,  whence  he  was  sent  as 
nuncio  'to  the  popish  ^bisfaops^ abd  clergy  in  Ireland,  and 
landed  there  in  1579.    At  this  ttmeOerald-Fit^geraid^^earl 
j^  DesaiondyNwas  in  arms,  as  be:  pretended,  in  defence  of 
j:be  irberties  and  religion  of  his  coumr}^ ;.  bat  in  13U  bis 
fyarty  wsas  routed  and  himself  killed.     The  part  Sanders 
took  in  this  rebellion  is  variousiy  represeiTted.     Camden 
says  that  be; was  sent  over  purpo^ly  to  encourage*  Des* 
jmond,  and  that  several  companies  of  Spanisb  soldiers  went 
over  wttll  liim,  and  that  when  their  army  wassrouted^  be 
fled  to  the  woods,  and  died  of  hunger.     All  that  the  ca- 
tholics deny*  in   this  account,    is,  that  Sanders  was-  sent 
purposely  i  but  this  they  deny  very  feebly.     With,  regard 
to  the  manner  of  Sanders's  death,  Dodd  seems  inclined  to 
prefer  Wood^s  account,  who  says  that  be  died  of  a  dysen«> 
tery,  and  Dodd  likewise  adopts  tbe  report  of  Rushton  and 
Pits,  who  say  that  he  died  at  the  latter  end  of  1580,  or  the 
beginning  of  1581,  because  this  was  long  before  Desmond*s 
defeat,  and  consequently  dissolves  in  *some  measure  the 
supposed  connection  between  him  and  Sanders.  '  Dodd^ 
bowever,  who  is  generally  impartial,  allows  that  several 
catholics,  his  contemporaries,  were  pf^ opinion  that  be  was 
engaged  in  the  Spanish  interest  against  queen  Elizabeth  ; 
knd  his  writings  prove  that  he  maintained  a  deposing  power 
both  in  tbe  church  and  people,  where  religion  was  in  dan- 
ger.    He  was,  according  to  all  accounts,  a  man  of  abilities, 
and  was  -considered  as  the  most  acute  adversary  for  tbe 
re^establbhment  of  popery  in   England,^  which  his  party 
CQuid  boast  of.     He  bad,  however,  to  contend  with  men  of 
equal  ability,  who  exposed  his  want  of  veracity  as  well  as 
of  argument,  and  few  of  his  works  have  survived  the  times 
in  which  they  were  written.     Among  them  are,  1.  "The. 
3ufip^r,of  our  Lord,'  &c."  a. defence. of  tbe  real  presence, 
being  what  he  calls  ^' A  confutation  of  Jewers  Apoldgy,  a^' 

Sanders.  ns 

i>st)of  Alexander  Nowel's  challenge,'*  Louvain,  in  1566, 
1567,  4to.  f2.  «  Treatise  of  the  Images  of  Christ  and  bis 
Saints ;  being  a  confutation  of  Mr.  JewePs  reply  upon  that 
subject,"  ibid.  1 567,  8vo.  3.  «  Tlje  Rock  of  the  Church," 
concerning  the  pritnacy  of  St.  Peter,  ibid:  1566,  1567,  St 
'  Omer's,  1 624,  8vo.  4.  "  A  brief  treatise  on  Usury,**  ibid. 
i566.  5.  "De  Visibili  nionarchia  Ecclesiw,*'  ibid.  1571, 
folio,  Antwerp,  1581,  Wiceburg,  1592.  6.  "  De  origitie 
etpYogressu  Schismatis  Anglicani,"  Colon.  1585,  Svoj  fe- 
ptinted  at  other  places  in  1586,  1588,  and  1590,  andtrans^ 
laced  into.  French  in  1673,  with  some  tracts  on  the  tentts 
bf  his  church,  which  seem  not  of  the  controversial  kind. 
Mo^  of  the  former  were  answered  by  English  divines  of 
^^:..A^i^    :j  -i^j.jy  jjjg  large  volume  "  ^      '  *'  "* 

)y  Bering,  Clerk,  anc 
may  be  seen  in  Stryp< 
That  on  the  English  schism  is  refuted,  as  to  bis  more  im- 
portant assertions,  in  the  appendix  to  Burnet's  History  of 
the  BMbrmatibn,  vol.  IL* 

SANDERS  (RpBERTJ,  an  English  writer^  wH^se  ^istory 
maj^  liot  be  unuseful,  was  a  native  of  Scotlandf,  and  born  in, 
or  neafy  Breadalbane,  about  1727.  He  was  by  business  a 
comb-maker;  but  not  hewing  successful  in  trader  and- hav- 
ing some  taletits,  some  education,  and  a  good  memory,  he 
commencisd  a  hackney  writer^  and  in  that  capacity  pro- 
duced some  works  which  have  been  relished  by  the  lower 
"blass  of  readers.  When  he  came  to  London  is  uncertain  ; 
but,  having  travelled  over  most  of  the  northern  parts  of 
these  kingdoms,  he  compiled,  from  his  own  survey  and  the 
information  of  books,  an  itinerary,  entitled  ''  The  Com- 
plete English  Traveller,**  folio.  It  was  published  in  num- 
bers, with  th^  fictitious  naihe  of  Spencer,  professedly  on 
the  plan  oif  Fuller*s  Worthies^  with  biographical  notices  of 
the  most  eminent  men  of  each  county.  As  the  dealers  in 
this  kind  of  publications  thought  it  too  good  a  thing  to  be 
lost,  it  has  been  republished,  depriving  Mr.  Speticer  of  his 
rights,  and  giving  them  to  three  fictitious  gentlemen,  Mr. 
JSurlingion  for  England,  Mr.  Murray  for  Scotland,  and 
Mr.  Llewellyn  for  Wales.  He  also  compiled,  about,  1764, 
a  work  in  5  or  6  voU.  8vo,  with  cuts,  entitled  ^'  The  New- 
gate Calendar,  or  Memoirs  of  those  unfortunate  cttlpritt 

1  AUi.  Ok.  vol.  L^lMd^  €h.  Hitt.— Strype's  Parker,  p.  377  and  911—* 
feumefs  tteforinttion.^^'-CoUier'i  ficcleiiaiticai  l2tfiory« 


114  SANDERS. 

who  fall  a  sacrifice  to  the  injured  laws  of  their  cQuntry,  and 
thereby  make  their  exit  at  Tyburn."     He  was  some  time 
engaged  with  lord   Lyttelton,  in  assisting  his  lordship  to 
compile  his  **  History  of  Henry  H. ;"  and  Dr.  Johnson,  in 
his  life  of  that -poetical  nobleman,  introduces  this  circum- 
stance in  no  very  honourable  manner.    "When  time,"  says 
he,  "brought  the  history  to  a  third  edition,  Reid  (the  for- 
mer ct)rret;tor)  was  either  dead  or  discharged  ;  and  the  su- 
per'mtendence  of  typography  and  punctuation  was  com- 
mitted tTt  a  man  originally  a  comb-maker,  but  then  known 
by  the  style  6i  Doctor  Sanders,     Something  uncommon  was 
probably  expected,  and  something  uncommon  was  at  last 
done ;  for  to  the  doctor'* s  edition   is  appended,  what  the 
world  had  hardly  seen  b'efore,  a  list  of  errors  of  nineteen 
pages.*'      His  most   considerable  work   was   his  "  Gaffer 
Greybeard,"  an  illiberal  piece,  in  4  vols.  l2mo,  in  which 
the  characters  of  the  most  eminent  dissenting  divines,  his 
contemporaries,  are  very  freely  handled.    *He  had,  perhaps 
suffered  either  by  the  contempt  or  the  refproof  of  some  of 
that  persuasion,    and  therefore  endeavoured  to    revenge 
himself  on  the    whole,  ridiculing,  in  particular,  Dr.  Gill 
under  the  name  of  Dr.  Half-pint,  and  Dr.  Gibbons  under 
that  of  Dr.  Hyitin-maktr,     He  was  also  the  author  of  the 
notes  to  a  Bible  published  weekly  under  the  name  of  the 
rev.  Henry  Southwell :  for  this  he  received  about  twenty- 
five  or  twenty -six  shillings  per  Week,  while  Dr.  Southwell, 
the  pseudo-commentator,    received  one  htindred  guineas 
for  the  use  of  his  name,  he  having  no  other  recommenda- 
tion to  the  public,  b)  which  he  might  merit  a  posthumous 
memory,    than    his  livings*.      Dr.  Sanders  also  compiled 
'*  Letter- writers,"  "  Histories  of  England,"  and  other  works 
of  the  paste  and  scissors  kind ;  but  his  "  Roman  History," 
written  in  a  series  of  letters  from  a  nobleman  to  his  son,  in 
2  vols.  12mo,  has  some  merit.     Towards  the  latter  end  of 
his  days  he  projected  a  general  chronology  of  all  nations, 
and  had  already  printed  some  sheets  of  the  work,  under 
the  patronage  of  lord  Hawke,  when  a  disorder  upon  his 
longs  put  a  period  to  his  existence,  March  19, 1783.     He 
'  was  much  indebted  to  the  munificence  of  Mr.  Granville 

*  Dr.  Henry  Southwell,  who  died  in  rectory  of  Asterby  in  Lincolnshire,  bnt 

3779,  was  of  a  good  family  in  Cam-  no  one  that  knew  him  ever  suspected 

bri(fgc6hire,  was  eduQjited  at  Magda-  hifflof  writing  a  book. 
7en  college,  Cambridge,  and  had  the 

SANDERS.  115 


Sh&rpk  More  piartictilars  of  this  man^s  history  and  of  the 
secrets  of  Bibk-niaking  may  be  seen  in  our  authority.' 


SANDERSON  (Dr.  Robert),  an  eminent  English 
bishop,  was  descended  from  an  ancient  family,  and  was 
the  yoiuigeftt  son  of  Robert  Sanderson,  of  Gilthwaite-hall, 
Yorkshire,  by  Elizabeth,  one  of  the  daughters  of  Richard 
Carr,  of  Batterthwaite-hali,  in  the  parish  of  Ecclesfield. 
He  was  born  at  Rotherham,  in  Yorkshire,  Sept.  19,  1587, 
and  educated  in  the  grammar-school  there,  where  he  made 
so  uncommon  a  progress  in  the  languages,  that,  at  thirteen, 
he  was  sent  to  Lincoln  college  in  Oxford.  Soon  after 
taking  iAi  degree  of  B.  A.  his  tutor  told  Dr.  Kiibie,  the 
rector,  that  his  **  pupil  Sanderson  had  a  metaphysical 
brain,  and  a  matchless  memory,  and  that  he  thought  he 
had  improved  or  made  the  last  so  by  an  art  of  his  own  in- 
vention." While  at  college,  he  generally  spent  eleven 
hours  a  day  in  study,  chiefly  of^  philosophy  and  the  clas- 
sics. In  1606  he  was  chosen  fellow,  and  in  July  1608, 
completed  his  degree  of  M.  A.  In  November  of  the  same 
year,  he  was  elected  logic  reader,  and  re-elected  in  Nov. 
1609.  His  lectures  on  this  subject  were  published  in  161 5^ 
and  ran  through  several  editions.  In  1613,  1614,  and 
1616,  he  served  the  office  of  sub-rector,  and  in  the  latter 
of  those  years,  that  of  proctor.  In  1611,  he  was  ordained 
deacon  and  priest  by  Dr.  King,  bishop  of  London,  and  took 
the  degree  of  bachelor  of  divinity  in  1617.  In  1618,  he 
was  presented  by  his  cousin  sir  Nicolas  Sanderson,  lord 
viscount  Castleton,  to  the  rectory  of  Wybberton,  near 
Boston,  in  Lincolnshire,  but  resigned  it  the  year  following 
on  account  of  the  unhealtbiness  of  its  situation  }  and  about 
the  same  time  was  collated  to  the  rectory  of  Boothby-Pan- 
nell,  or  Paynel,  in  the  same  county,  which  he  enjoyed 
above  forty  years.  Having  now  quitted  his  fellowship,  h^ 
married  Anne,  the  daughter  of  Henry  Nelson,  B.  D.  rec- 
tor of  Haugham  in  the  county  of  Lincoln  ;  and  soon  after 
was  made  a  prebendary  of  Southwell,  as  he  was  also  of 
Lincoln  in  1629.  He  continued  to  attend  to  his  parochial 
duties  in  a  very  exemplary  manner,  and  particularly  la- 
boured much  to  reconcile  differences,  and  prevent  law-suits 
both  in  his  parish,  and  in  the  neighbourhood.  He  also 
often  visited  sick  and  disconsolate  families,  giving  advice 

1  Gent.  M»g.  vol.  LIIL  p.  400,  482. 

I   2 


and  often  pecuniary  assistance^  or  obtaSning  tbe  latter  by 
applications  to  persons  of  opulence.  He  was  often  called 
upon  to  preach  at  assizes  and  visitations  ;  but  bis  practice 
of  reading  his  sermons^  as  it  Was  then  not  very  comnion» 
raised  some  prejudice  against  him.  Walton  observes,  that 
notwithstanding  he  had  an  extraordinary  memory,  he  had 
such  an  innate  bashfulness  and  sense  of  fear,  as  to  render 
it  of  little  use  in  the  delivery  of  his  sermons.  It  was  re* 
marked,  when  his  sermons  were  printed  in  1632,  that  ^^  the 
best  sermons  that  were  ever  read,  were  never  preached.** 
At  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  Charles  I.  he  was  chosen 
otie  of  the  clerks  in  convocation  for  the  diocese  of  Lincoln  ; 
and  Laud,  then  bishop. of  London,  having  recommended 
him  to  that  king  as  a  man  excellently  skilled  in  casuistical 
learnings  he  was  appointed  chaplain  to  his  majesty  in  1631* 
When  he  became  known  to  the  king,  his  majesty  put  many 
cases  of  conscience  tb^him^  and  received  from  him  solutions 
which  gave  him  so  great  satisfaction)  that  at  the  end  of  bis 
month's  attendance,  which  was  in  November,  the  king  told 
him,  that  "  he  should  long  for  next  November ;  for  he  re- 
solved to  have  more  inward  acquaintance  with  him,  when 
the  month  and  he  returned."  The  king  indeed  was  never 
absent  from  his  sermons,  and  used  to  say,  that  *'  be  carried 
his  ears  to  hear  pther  preachers,  but  bis  conscience  to  hear 
Mr.  Sanderson^''  In  1633  he  obtained,  through  the  earl 
of  Rutland's  interest,  the  rectory  of  Muston,  in  Leicester- 
shire, which  he  held  eight  years.  In  Aug.  1636,  when  the 
court  was  entertained  at  Oxford^  he  was,  among  others,^ 
created  D.  D.  In  1642,  he  was  proposed  by  both  Houses 
of  parliament  to  king  Charles,  who  was  then  at  Oxford,  tD 
be  one  of  their  trustees  for  the  settling  of  church  affairs^ 
and  approved  by  the  king:  but  that  treaty  came  to  no- 
thing. The  same  yean  his  majesty  appointed  him  regius 
professor  of  divinity  at  Oxford,  with  the  canonry  of  Christ 
church  annexed  :  but  the  national  calamities  hindered  him 
from  entering  on  it  till  1646,  and  then  he  did  not  hold  it 
undisturbed  much  more  than  a  year.  In  1643,  he  was  no«* 
minated  by  the  parliament  one  of  the  assembly  of  divines, 
but  never  sat  among  them  :  neither  did  he  take  the  cavenani 
or  engage^venty  so  that  his  living  was  sequestered  ;  but,  so 
great  was  his  reputation  for  piety  and  learning,  that  he  was 
not  deprived  of  it.  He  had  the  chief  hand  in  drawing  up 
^*  The  Reasons  of  the  university  of  Oxford  against  the  so- 
lemn League  and  Covenant^  the  Negative  Oath>  and  lh# 


Ordinances  concerning  Discipline  and  Worship  :**  and, 
when  the  parliament  had  sent  proposals  to  the  king  for  a 
peace  in  church  and  state,  his  majesty  desired,  that  Dr. 
Sanderson,  with  the  doctors  Hammond,  Sheldon,  and  Mor- 
ley^  should  attend  him,  and  advise  him  how  far  he  might 
with  A  good  conscience  eomply  with  those  proposals.  This 
request  was  rejected  by  the  presbyterian  party ;  but,  it  be* 
log  complied  with  afterwards  by  the  independents,  when 
his  majesty  was  at  Hampton-court,  and  in-the  isle  of  Wight, 
in  .1647  and  1648,  those  divines  attended  him  there.  Dr. 
Sanderson  often  preached  before  him,  and  had  many  public 
and  private  conferences  with  him,  to  his  majesty's  great 
satisfaction.  The  king  also  desired  him,  at  Hampton-court, 
since  the  parliament  had  proposed  the  abolishing  of  episi- 
copal  government  as  inconsistent  with  monarchy,  that  he 
would  consider  of  it,  and  declare  his  judgment;  and  what 
be  wrote  upon  that  subject  was  afterwards  printed  in  1661, 
§vo,  under  this  title,  '^  Episcopacy,  as  established  by  law 
in  England,  not  prejudicial  to  Regal  power."  At  Sander^ 
son's  taking  leave  of  his  majesty  in  this  his  last  attendance 
on  him,  the  king  requested  him  to  apply  himself  to  the 
writing  of  *^  Cases  of  Conscience ;"  to  which  his  answer 
was,  that  ^'  he  was  now  grown  old,  and  unfit  to  write  cases 
of  conscience."  But  the  king  told  him  plainly,  *^  it  was 
the  simplest  thing  he  ever  heard  from  him  ;  for,  no  young 
man  was  fit  to  be  a  judge,  or  write  cases  of  conscience."-^ 
Upon  this  occasion,  Walton  relates  the  following  anecdote  : 
that  in  one  of  these  conferences  the  king  told  Sanderson, 
or  one  of  them  that  then  waited  with  him,  that  '^  the  re- 
membrance of  two  errors  did  much  afflict  him,  which  were, 
bis  assent  to  the  earl  of  Strafford's  death,  and  the  abolish-- 
ing  of  episcopacy  in  Scotland ;  and  that,  if  God  ever  re- 
stored him  to  the  peaceable  possession  of  his  crown,  he 
would  demonstrate  his  repentance  by  a  public  confession 
and  a  voluntary  penance,  by  walking  barefoot  from  the 
Tower  of  London,  or  Whitehall,  to  St.  Paul's  church,  and 
would  desire  the  people  to  intercede  with  God  for  his  par- 
don." In  1643,  Dr.  Sanderson  was  ejected  from  his  pro- 
fessorship and  canonry  in  Oxford  by  the  parliamentary  vi- 
sitors, and  retired  to  his  living  of  Boochby-Pannel.  Soon 
.after>  he.  was  taken  prisoner,  and  carried  to  Lincoln,  to  be 
exchanged  for  one  Clarkes  a  puritan  divine,  and  minister 
of  Alington,  who  had  been  made  prisoner  by  the  king'^ 
D^rty.     He  was,  however^  soon  released  upon  articles,  one 



of  which  was,  that  the  sequestradon  of  bis  living  shoiild  be 
recalled  ;  by  which  means  he  enjoyed  a  moderate  subsist*' 
ence  for  himself,  wife,  and  children,  till  the  restoration. 
But,  though  the  articles  imported  also,  that  he  should  Vive 
undisturbed,  yet  he  was  far  from  being  either  qdiet  or  safe^ 
being  once  wounded,  and  several  times  plundered ;  and 
the  outrage  of  the  soldiers  was  ^ucb,  that  they  not  only 
came  into  his  church,  and  disturbed  him  when  reading 
prayers,  but  even  forced  the  common  prayer  book  froiii 
bim,  and  tore  it  to  pieces.  During  this  retirement,  be  re- 
ceived a  visit  from  Dr.  Hammond,  who  wanted  to  discourse 
with  him  upon  some  points  disputed  between  the  Calvinists 
and  Arminians  ;  and  he  was  often  applied  to  for  resolution 
in  cases  of  conscience,  several  letters  upon  which  subjects 
were  afterwards  printed*.  In  1658,  the  hon.  Robert  Boyle 
sent  him  a  present  of  50/. ;  his  circumstances,  as  of  most  of 
the  royalists  at  that  time,  being  very  low.  Boyle  had  read 
bis  lectures  "  De  juramenti  obligatione,'*  published  the 
preceding  year,  with  great  satisfaction  ;  and  asked  Barlow, 
afterwards  bishop  of  Lincoln,  if  he  thought  Sanderson 
could  be  induced  to  write  cases  of  conscience,  provided  he 
had  an  honornry  pension  all6wed,  to  supply  him  with  books 
and  an,  amanuensis  ?  But  Sanderson  told  Barlow,  ^<  that,  if 
any  future  tract  of  his  could  bring  any  benefit  to  mankiitd, 
be  would  readily  set  about  it  without  a  peinsion.*'  Upon 
this,  Boyle  sent  the  above  present  by  the  hands  of  Barlow ; 
and  Sanderson  presently  revised,  finished,  and  published, 
bis  book  ^^  De  obligatione  conscientis,"  which,  as  well  as 

'  *  While  Dr,  Hammond  was  at  San- 
dersiOD's  house,  he  laboured  to  per- 
suade him  to  trust  to  bis  excellent 
memory,  and  not  to  read  his  sermons. 
Dr.  Sanderson  promised  to  try  the  ex- 
periment, and  having  on  the  Sunday 
following,  exchanged  pulpits  with  a 
neighbouriog  clergyman,  be  gave  Dr. 
Hammond  his  sermon,  which  was  a 
very  short  one,  intending  to  preach  it 
as  it  was  written,  but  before  he  bad 
gone  through  a  third  part,  he  became 
disordered,  incoherent,  and  almost 
incapable  of  finishing.     Ou  ^heir  re- 

iocn  Dr.  Sanderson  s^id  with  much 
earnestness,  '*  Good  doctor,  give  nie 
jhy  sermon,  and  know,  tiiat  neither 
you,  nor  any  man  liTing,  shall  ever 
persuade  me  to  preach  again  without 
book.*^  Ha'mmond  replied,  '*  6ood 
doctor,  be  not  angry ;  for  if  I  ev«r 
persuade  you  to  preach  again  without 
book,  I  will  give  you  leave  to  tiutu  all 
those  that  1  am  master  off.*'  Dr. 
Sanderson  on  some  occasions  expresfsed 
his  sense  of  the  great  timidity  and 
bashfnieess  of  his  temper,  and  thought 
it  bad  been  injurious  to  him. 


f  Aubrey  says,  <*  When  I  was  a  fresh- 
man and  heard  him  read  his  first  lec- 
ture, he  was  out  in  the  Lord's  prayer.'^ 
Letters  written  by  Eminent  Persons, 
|8i3,  3  Tols.  Svo.  £vcn  when  *<  Pr. 
Sanderson  was  preparing  his  lectures^ 

he  hesitated  so  nnch,  and  repeated  00 
often,  that  at  the  time  of  reading,  h« 
was  often  forced  to  produce,  not  what 
was  best,  but  what  happened  tpt  be 
at  hand."    RM&bler,  No.  19. 



that  '*  De  jurajpa^nti  obligatione/'  were  the  substaace  of 
part  of  his  divinity  lectures. 

lu  Aug.  1660,  upon  the  restoration^  he  was  restored  to 
bis  profei>sorship  and  canonry  ;  and  soon  after,  at  the  re- 
commendation of  Sheldon,  raised  to  the  bishopric  of  Lin* 
coin,  and  consecrated  Oct,  28.  He  enjoyed  his  new  dig- 
nity but  about  two  years  and  a  quarter  :  during  which  time 
he  did  all  the  good  in  his  power,  by  repairing  tbexpalace  at 
Bugden,  augmenting  poor  vicarages,  &c.  notwithstanding 
he  was  old,  and  had  a  family ;  and  when  hjs  friends  sug- 
gested a  little  more  attention  to  them,  he  replied,  tha^  he 
Wft  them  to  God,  yet  hoped  he  should  be  able  at  l\\$  d^atb 
tp  give  them  a  competency.  He  died  Jan.  29,  1662-3,  in 
bis  seventy-sixth  year ;  and  was  buried  in  the  chancel  at 
Bugden,  in  the  plainest  and  least  expensive  manner,  ac- 
cording to  his  own  directions.  Dr.  Sanderson  was  in  his 
person  moderately  tall,  of  a  healthy  constitution,  of  a 
mild,  cheerful,  and  even  temper,  and  very  abstemious.  In 
his  behaviour,  he  was  affable,  civil,  and  obliging,  but  not 
ceremonious.  He  was  a  man  of  great  piety,  modest}^  learn- 
ing and  abilities,  but  not  of  such  universal  reading^s  might 
be  supposed.  Being  asked  by  a  friend,  what  boo^he  stu- 
died most,  when  he  laid  the  fouiidatiou  of  his  great  learn- 
ing, he  answered,  that  *^  he  declined  to  read  many  books, 
but  what  be  did  read  were  well  chosen,  and  read  often ; 
and  added,  that  they  were  chiefly  three,  Aristotle's  ^  Rhe- 
toric,' Aquinas's  *  Secunda  Secundae,"  and  TuUy,  but  espe- 
cially his  f  Offices,'  which  he  had  not  fead  over  less  than 
twenty  times,  and  could  even  in  his  old  age  recite  without  ^ 

book." .    He  ^old  him  also,  the  learned  civilian  Dr.  Zouch  ^^ 

had  written  ^^Elementa  JurisprudentisB,"  which  he  thought 
he  could  also  say  w^thqut  book,  and  that  no  vyise  man  could 
read  it  too  often^gpfeides  his  great  knowledge  in  the  fa- 
thers, schoiikliK^iKi  casuistical  and  controversial  divi- 
nity,  JJi^Rs  eK^Ctlj^  vefsed  in  ancient  and  modem  history, 
was  a  good  9<tvtiquary,  and  indefipLtig^ble  searcher  into  re- 
.cprds,  and  well  acquainted  with  heraldry  and  gen/ealogies;  ,  ■., 

of  which  last  subject  be  left  20  vols,  in  MS.  now  in  the 
library  of  '^ir  Joseph  Banks.  The  vorthiest<''and  most 
learned  of  l]is  contefpporaries  speak  of  him  in  the  most  re- 
spectful terms :  "  That  stai/J  and  well-weighed  noan  Dr. 
Sanderson," .  says  tfamm.Qnd,  ^^  .conceives  all  things  deli- 
berately, dwells  upon  them  discretely,  discerns  things  that 
differ  exactly,  passeth  bis  judgment  rationally,  and  ex- 
presses it  aptly,  clearly,  and  honestly." 


The  morial  character  of  this  great  and  good  man^  Mc, 
Granger  observes,  has  lately  been,  rashly  aod  feebly  at- 
tacked by  the  author  of  the  '*  Confes^ionaJ,"  and  as  ably 
defended  by  the  author  of  "A  Dialogue  between  *  Isaac 
Walton  and  Homologistes,"  1768.  Cyery  enemy  to  church 
government  has  been,  for  the  same  reason^  an  enemy  to 
bishop  Sanderson  and  every  other  prelate ;  but  the  upright- 
ness and  integrity  of  his  heart,  as  a  casuist,  was  never  be- 
fore called  in  question  by  any  man  who  was  not  an  entir^i 
stranger  to  his  character.  He  saw  and  deplored,  and  did 
bis  utmost,  honestly  and  rationally,  to  remedy  the  com^ 
plicated  ills  of  anarchy  in  church  and  state ;  when  *'  every 
man  projected  and  reformed,  and  did  what  was  right  in  his, 
own  eyes.  No  image  can  better  express  such  a  condition, 
thau  that  of  a  dead  animal  in  a  state  of  putrefaction,  when, 
instead  of  one  noble  creature,  as  it  was,  when  life  held  it 
together,  there  are  ten  thousand  little  nauseous  reptiles 
growing  out  of  it,  eyery  one  crawling  in  a  path  of  its  own.'** 

We  shall  now  give  some  account  of  his  writings,  which, 
for  good  sense,  clear  reasoning,  and  manly  style,  have 
always  been  much  esteemed.  In  1615,  he  published,  i. 
*'  Logicae  Artis  Compendium,''  ^s  we  have  already  men- 
tioned. In  1671  appeared,  as  a  posthumous  work,  hi$ 
'^  PhysicsB  scienties  compendium,"  printed  at  Oxford.  2. 
'^  Sermons,'*  preached  and  printed  at  different  times, 
amounting  to  the  number  of  thirty-six,  1681,  folio;  with 
the  author's  life  by  Walton  prefixed.  3.  ^<  Nine  Cases  of 
Conscience  resolved;"  published  at  different  times,  but 
first  collected  in  1678,  8vo.  The  last  of  these  nine  cases 
is  "  Of  the  use  of  the  Liturgy,"  the  very  same  tract  which 
was  published  by  Walton  in  his  Life  of  Sanderson,  167S, 
under  the  title  of  ^'Bishop  Sanderson's  judgment  concern- 
ing submission  to  Usurpers."  In  this  tract  is  given  a  full 
account  of  the  manner  in  which  Dr.  Sanderson  conducted 
himself,  in  performing  the  service  of  the  church,  in  the 
times  of  the  usurpation.  4.  ^'  De  Juramenti  Obligatione," 
1647,  8vo;  reprinted  several  times  since,  with,  5.  **  De 
Obligatione  Conscientiae."  This  last  was  f^rst  printed,  as 
we  have  said,'  at  the  request  of  Mr.  Boyle,  and  dedicated 
to  him;  the  former,  viz.  <' De  Juramenti  Obligatione,'^' 
was  translated  into  English  by  Charles  L,  during  his  con- 
finement in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  printed  at  London  \i\ 

^  Madia's  Sermons,  ScmiOD  on  the  evils  of  Anarchy,  p.  8^ 

».     .  .1  ■  • 


l!SBS,  8to;  and  of  both  there  is  an  English  translation 
entitled  <<  ^Prelections  on  the  Nature  and  Obligation  of  pro- 
missory oaths  and  of  conscience/'  London^  1722^  3  vols. 
Sro.     6.  *<  Censure  of  Mr.  Antony  Ascham  bis  book  of  the 
Confusions  and  Revolution?  of  Government,'*   1649,  8vo, 
This  Ascbam  was  the  rump  parliament's  agent  at  Madrid^ 
and  was  murdered  there  by  some  English  royalists.    7. 
^  Episcopacy,  as  established  by  Law  in  England,  not  pre- 
judicial to  the  Regal  Power,"  1661,  mentioned  before.     8. 
"Pax  Ecclesifie ;  about  Predestination,  or  the  Five  Points;** 
printed  at  the  end  of  his  Life  by  Walton,  8vo.     Our  bishop 
iseems  at  first  to  have  been  a  strict  Cal/mist  in  those  points: 
for  in  1632,  when  twelve  of  his  sermons  were  printed  tOr 
gether,  the  reader  may  observe  in  the  margin  scrme  accu<« 
sationd  of  Arminius  for  false  doctrine;  but  in  consequence 
of  his  conferences  with  Dr.  Hammond,  he  relaxed  ffom  the 
rigid  sense,  as  appears  by  some  letters  that  passed  between 
them,  and   which   are  printed  in  Hammond^s   works.     d« 
**  Discourse  concerning  the  Church  in  these  particulars : 
first,  concerning  the  visibility  of  the  true  Church;  second- 
ly, concerning  the  Church  of  Rome,*'  &c.  1688  ;  published 
by  Dr.  William  Ashetoo,  from  a  MS  copy,  which  he  had 
from  Mr.  Pullen,  the  bishop*8  domestic  chaplain.     10.  A 
large   preface  to  a  book  of  Usher's,  written  at  the  special 
fcommand  of  Charles  L  and  entitled,  '^The  Power  commu- 
nicated by  God  to  the  Prince,  and  the  Obedience  required 
of  the  Subject,*^  &c.  1661,  4to,  and  1683,  8vo.     11.  A 
prefatory  Discourse,  in  defence  of  Usher  and  his  writings^ 
prefixed  to  a  collection  of  learned  treatises,  Entitled,  '*  Clavi 
Trabales ;  or,  nails  fastened  by  some  great  masters  of  at- 
Ijemblies,  confirming  the  king's  supremacy,  the  subjects* 
duty,  and  church  government  by  bishops,"  1661,  4to.     12. 
f*  Prophecies  concerning  the  return  of  Popery,'*  inserted 
111  a  book  entitled  *'  F^ir  Warning,  the  second  pietrt,"  Lon- 
don,   1663.     This  volume  contains  also  several  extracts 
from  the  writings  of  Whitgift  and  Hooker,  and  was  publish- 
ed with  a  view  to  oppose  the  sectaries,  who  were  said  to  be 
opening  a  door  at  which  popery  would  certainly  enter.    13. 
**  The  preface  to  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer,*'  beginning 
with  these  words,  **  It  hath  been  the  wisdom  of  the  church.** 
14.  ^^  BrtK>/hu;,  sen  Explanatio  Juramenti,"  &c.  inserted  in 
the  *^  Excerpta  e  corpore  statutorum  Univ.  Oxon.'*  p.  194. 
It  was  written  to  explain  the  oath  of  obligation  to  observe 
^tke  penal  statute^.     15,  f^  Articles  of  Visitation  and  In* 



qairy  concerning  matters  ecclesiastical/^  &a  Lond.  1662^ 
4to.  Dr.  Sanderson  and  Dr.  Haniaiond  were  jointly  con- 
cerned in  a  work  entitled  ^^  A  pacific  discourse  of  God^s 
frace  and  decrees/'  and  published  by  the  latter  in  1660. 
n  the  preface  to  the  Polyglott,  Dr.  Bryan  Walton  has 
classed  Dr.  Sanderson  among  those  of  his  much  honoured 
friends  who  assisted  him  in  that  noble  work.  Peck,  io  the 
second  volume  of  his  ^^  Desiderata  Curiosa/'  has  published 
the  *'  History  and  Antiquities  of  the  Cathedral  Church  of 
the  Blessed  Virgin  St.  Mary  at  Lincoln  :  containing  au  ex*- 
act  copy  of  all  the  ancient  monumental  inscriptions  there, 
in  number  163,  as  they  stood  in  1641,  most  of  which  were 
soon  after  torn  up,  or  otherways  defaced.  Collected  by 
Robert  Sanderson,  S.T.  P.  afterwards  lord  bishop  of  that 
church,  and  compared  with  and  corrected  by  sir  Willtam 
Dugdale's  MS  survey."* 

SANDERSON  (Robert),  an  antiquary  of  considerable 
]iote>  was  a  younger  son  of  Christopher  Sanderson,  ^jus-» 
tice  of  the  peace  for  the  county  palatine  of  Durham,  who 
had  suffered  for  his  attachment  to  the  Stuart  family  during 
the  civil  war.  He  was  born  July  27,  1660,  at  Eggleston- 
ball,  in  that  county,  and  entered  a  student  of  St.  Jpbn^$ 
college,  Cambridge,  under  the  tuition  of  Dr.  Baker,  April 
7,  1683.  He  remained  in  the  university  several  years,  aq4 
'  was  contemporary  with  the  celebrated  Matthew  Prior.  Re- 
moving to  London,  lie  afterwards  turned  his  attention  to 
the  law,  and  was  appointed  clerk  of  the  rolls,  in  the  Rolls 
chapel.  He  contributed  largely  to  the  compilation  of  Ry* 
mer^s  Foedera,  ^nd  was  exclusively  concerned  in  arranging 
thQ  three  concluding  volume^,  from  IB  to  20,  whiph  he 
successively  dedicated  to  kings  George  I.^nd  II.  (See 

In  1704  he  published  a  translation  of  ^^  Original  Letj^ers 
frgm  William  III.  whilst  Prince  of  Orange,  to  Charles  II., 
!|Lord  Arlington,  and  otb^ers,  with  an  Accoiupt  of  the  Prince's 
Reception  at  Middleburgh,  and  his  Spepcb  on  tfoat  ppca* 
sionV  dedicating  the  book  to  lord  WoqctsjtQpk.  Ha  9I10 
wrote  "  A  History  of  Henry  V."  in  the  vf^y  of  anuaU,  it| 
nip^  volumes,  of  which  tbp  first  four  have  been  Ipst,  and 
the  others  still  remain  in  ipanijfscript  amongst  his  p^p(erv 
Ip  1714  be  became  ac^ndidat^  for  the  plaqe  of  hi«toriQ-» 

'  Life  by  Wa^Uon,  with  tracts,  1678,  Svo.— Walton's  Lives  by  Zouch.— nio». 
.  Brit. — Atb.  Ox.  vol.  n.-~Bishop  Barlow's  Remains,  p.  333  and  634.— Words- 
wprtl^'s  l^GpL  BiQ|;r^p^y.-^Gen{.  Mag.  vol.  LXXl. . 


grapber  to  queen  Anne,  and  received  a  very  handsome  offer 
of  assistance  from  Matthew  Prior,  at  that  time  ambassador 
to  the  court  of  France.  His  success,  however,  was  pre-* 
vented  by  the  change  of  ministry  which  succeeded  on  the 
queen's  death.  On  the  2dth  of  November,  1726,  he  was 
appointed  usher  of  the  high  court  of  chancery,  by  sir  Jo^ 
seph  Jekyll,  the  master  of  the  rolls.  He  succeeded,  in 
1727,  by  the  death  of  an  elder  brother,  to  a  considerable 
landed  property  in  Cumberland,  the  north  riding  of  Yorlc- 
shire,  and  Durham.  After  this^  though  he  continued 
chiefly  to  reside  in  London,  he  occasionally  visited  his 
country  seat  at  Armatbwaite  castle,  a  mansion  pleasantly 
situated  on  the  bank^  of  the  Eden,  about  ten  miles  from 
Carlisle.  He  was  married  four  times ;  for  the  last  time  to 
Elizabeth  Hickes  of  London,  when  he  had  completed  bis 
70th  year.  He  died  Dec.  25,  1741,  at  his  house  in  Chan^ 
eery-lane,  in  the  79th  year  of  his  age,  and  was  buried  in 
Red- Lion- Fields.  He  was  a  devout  man,  well  read  in  di« 
vinity,  attached  to  the  forms  of  the  church  of  England,  and 
very  regular  in  his  attention  to  public  and  private  worship. 
He  was  slightly  acquainted  with  the  Hebrew  language,  and 
conversant  in  the  Greek,  Latin,*  Spanish,  Italian,  and 
French.  He  made  a  choice  collection  of  books  in  various 
languages,  and  left  behind  him  several  volumes  of  MSS, 
relating  chiefly  to  history,  and  the  court  of  chancery,  and 
including  a  transcript  of  Thurloe^s  State  Papers.  He  kept 
a  diary,  in  which  be  noted  down,  with  minute  attention* 
the*  slightest  occurrences  of  his  life.  As  be  left  no  issue, 
his  estates  descen.ded,  on  the  death  of  his  last  wife,  in 
175-3,  to  the  family  of  Margaret,  his  eldest  sister,  oiarried 
to  Henry  Milboiu*ne,  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne ;  whose 
great  grandson,  William  Henry  Milbourne,  was  high  she- 
riff of  Cumberland  in  1794.^ 


SANDERUS  (Anthony),  an  eminent  topographer  and 
antiquary,  was  born  at  Antwerp,  in  Sept.  15S6.  He  was 
first  taught  Latin  at  Oudenarde,  and  pursued  his  cl  issical 
studies  at  the  Jesuits'  college  in  Ghent.  He  then  studied 
philosophy  at  Doua^,  and  in  1609  obtained  the  degree  of 
master  of  arts.  A^ter  pome  stay  in  his  native  country,  he 
entered  on  a  course  of  theology  at  Louvain,  which  be 
eompleted  at  Douay,   and  in  1619,    or    1621,    took   th^ 

'  Ni\hols*8  Buwyer.-^Rees's  Cyclop^dui, 

124  S  A  N  D  E  R  U  S. 

degree  of  docror  in  that  faculty.  Being  ordained  priest, 
officiated  for  several  years  in  various  churches  in  the  diocesar 
of  Ghent,  was  remarkably  zealous  in  the  conversion  of  A^- 
reticSf  i.  e.  protestants,  and  particularly  contended  much 
with  the  anabaptists,  who  were  numerous  in  that  quarter. 
Having,  however,  rendered  himself  obnoxious  to^  the  Hol^ 
landers,  by  some  services  in  which  he  was  employed  by  the 
king  of  Spain,  their  resentment  made  him  glad  to  enter  into 
the  service  of  cardinal  Alphonso  de  la  Cueva,  who  was  then 
in  the  Netherlands,  and  made  him  his  almoner  and  secre-^ 
tary.  Some  time  after,  by  the  cardinal's  interest,  he  was 
made  canon  of  Ipres  (not  of  Tournay,  as  father  Labbe  as* 
»erts)  and  finally  theologal  of  Terouanne.  He  died  in  1664, 
in  the  seventy-eighth  year  of  his  age,  at  AfHingham,  an 
abbey  of  Brabant  in  thei  diocese  of  Mechlin,  and  was  inter- 
red there,  with  a  pious  inscription  over  his  grave,  written 
by  himself. 

The  long  list  of  bis  works  shews  that  his  life  was  not 
spent  in  indolenpe.  Some  of  these  of  the  religious  kind 
we  shall  omit.  The  principal,  which  respected  literature, 
or  the  biography  and '  history  of  the  Netherlands,  were,  1 . 
*'  Dissertatio  parsenetica  pro  instituto  bibliothecee  publicae 
Gandavensis,'*  Ghent,  1619,  4to.  2.  **  Poematum  libri 
tres,"  ibid.  1621,  8vo.  3.  **  Panfegyricus  in  kudem  B. 
TbomaB  de  Villanova,"  ibid.  1623,  4to.  4.  *' Encomium 
S.  Isidori,"  Antwerp,  1623,  8vo.  5.  *^  De  Scriptoribu^ 
Flandriae,  libri  tres,''  ibid.  1624,  4to.  6.  *^  De  Ganda* 
▼eMsibus  eruditionis  fama  claris,*'  -ibid.  1624,  4to.  7.  '^De 
Brugensibus  eruditionis  fama  ciaris,''  ibid.  1624,  4to.  8. 
"  Hagiologium  FlandriaB,"  &c.  ibid.  1625,  4to,  and  with 
additions,  at  Lisle,  1639.  9.  ^^  Elogia  Cardinalium  sanc« 
titate,  doctrina,  et  armis  illustrium,''  Louvain,  1625,  4to« 
10.  **  Gandavium,  sive  rerum  Gandavensium  libri  sex,*^ 
Brussels,  1627,  4to.  11.  '^De  Claris  sanctitate  et  erudi« 
tione  Antoniis,"  Louvain,  1627,  4to.  12.  ^*  Bibliotheca 
Belgica  mauuscripta,'*  2  parts  or  volumes,  Lisle,  1641  and 

1643,  4to.     13.  "  Flandria  lllustrata,"  Cologne,  1641  and 

1644,  2  vols.  fol.  a  most  superb  book,  well  known  to  the 
collectors  of  foreign  history  and  topography.  There  is  an 
edition  published  at  the  Hague  in  1730,  3  vols.  fol.  but  tb6 
original  is  preferred  on  account  of  th^  superior  beauty  of 
the  engravings.  14,  '^  Chorographia  sacra  Brabantia,  sive 
celebrium  aliquot  in  ea  provincia  ecclesi^ruip  et  ccenobio- 
rum  descriptio,*'  Brussels  and  Antwerp,  1659,  2  vols.  fo(^ 


1669.  This  is  a  still  more  splendid  work  than  the  former, 
v^nd  of  much  more  rare  occurrence  in  a  complete  state,  very 
few  copies  of  the  second  volume  being  in  existence.  The 
reason  assigned  is,  that  the  entire  impression  of  the  second 
volume  was  suppressed  as  soon  as  completed,  and  remained 
in  the  warehouse  of  a  bookseller  at  Brussels  until  1695,  in 
which  year  that  city  was  bombarded  by  the  French,  and  all 
the  copies,  except  a  few  in  the  possession  of  the  author's 
friends,  perished  by  fire.  This  likewise  was  reprinted  at 
the  Hague  in  3  vols.  foL  1726 — 27,  but  with  different  plates, 
and  of  course  this  edition  is  not  so  highly  esteemed.  San- 
ders wrote  other  topographical  works,  which  appear  to  re- 
main in  MS.^ 

SANDFORD  (Francis),  a  herald  and  heraldic  writer, 
descended  from  a  very  ancient  and  respectable  family,  still 
seated  at  Sandford,  in  the  county  of  Salop,  was  the  third 
ton  of  Francis  Sandford,  of  that  place,  esq.  by  Elizabeth, 
daughter  of  Calcot  Chambre,  of  WiJliamscot  in  Oxford- 
«bire,  and  of  Carnow  in  Wicklow  in  Ireland.  He  was  bora 
in  1630,  in  the  castle  of  Carnow  in  the  province  of  Wick- 
low, part  of  the  half  barony  of  Shelelak,  purchased  of 
James  I.,  by  his  maternal  grandfather,  Chalcot  Chambre. 
He  partook  in  an  eminent  degree  the  miseries  of  the  period 
which  marked  his.youth.  At  eleven  years  of  age  he  sought 
ftn  asylum  in  Sandford,  being  driven  by  the  rebellion  from 
Ireland.  No  sooner  had  his  pitying  relatives  determined  to 
educate  htm  to  some  profession,  than  they  were  proscribed 
for  adhering  to  the  cause  of  their  sovereign ;  he  received, 
'therefore,  only  that  learning  which  a  grammar  school  could 
give.  As  some  recom pence  for  the  hardships  be  and  his 
faoiily  had  experienced,  he  was  admitted,  at  the  restora- 
tion, as  pursuivant  in  the  college  of  arms^  but  conscien- 
tiously attached  to  James  II.,  he  obtained  leave  to  resign 
his  tabard  to  Mr.  King,  rougedragon,  who  paid  him  220/. 
for  his  office.  He  retired  to  Bloomsbury,  or  its  vicinity^ 
where  he  died,  January  16,  1693,  and  was  buried  in  St. 
Bride^s  upper  church  yard.  The  last  daya  of  this  valuable 
man  corresponded  too  unhappily  with  the  first,  for  he  died 
*<  advanced  in  years,  neglected,  and  poor.'*  He  married 
Jtfargaret,  daughter  of  William  Jokes,  of  Bottington,  in 
the  county  of  Montgomery,  relict  of  William  Kerry,  by 
whom  he  bad  issue.     His  literary  works  are,  1.  '^  A  genea* 

*  Fo|>peiiBibkBel{^.— Moreri«-^LoBgt&aa'i  Catalog ae  for  18 lO, 

12«  S  A  N  D  P  O  R  D. 

logical  History  of  the  Kings  of  Portugal,"  &c.  London, 
\664fy  fol.  partly  a  translation,  published  in  complimetit  lo 
Catherine  of  Braganza,  consort  to  Chai*les  IL  It  is  become 
scarce.  2. .  "  The  Orch?r  and  Ceremonies  used  at  the  Fu- 
neral of  his  Grace,  George  Duke  of  Albemarle,'*  Savo}*, 
16?0..  This  is  a  thin  folio,  the  whole  represented  in  en* 
graving.  3.  **  A  genealogical  History  of  the  Kings  of 
England,  and  M'onarchs  of  Great  Britain,  from  th^-Nordian 
Conquest,  Anno  1066,  to  the  year  1677,  in  seven  Part* 
or  Books,  containing  a  Drscourse  of  their  several  Lives,  Mar- 
liagesj  ancl  Issues,  Times  of  Birib,  Death,  Places  of  Bu- 
rialj  and  monumental  Inscriptions,  with  their  Effigies,  Sfeals, 
Tombsj  Cenotaphs,  Devices,  Arms,"  &c.  Savoy,  167^, 
fol.  dedicated  to  Charles  IL,  by  whose  command  the  wtjrk 
was  undertaken.  It  is  his  best  and  most  estimable  perform- 
ance. The  plan  is  excellent,  the  fineness  of  the  no'meronis 
engravings  greatly  enrich  and  adorn  it :  many  are  by  Hoi'** 
lar,  others  by  the  best  artists  of  thnt  period,  inferior  to 
him,  but  not  contemptible,  even  when  seen  at  this  age  of 
improvement  in  graphic  art.  The  original  notes  are  not 
the  least  valuable  part  of  the  work,  conveying  great  in- 
formation, relative  to  the  heraldic  history  of  our  monarch^, 
princes, 'and  nobility.  Mr.  Stebbinjx»  Somerset  herald, 
reprinted  it  in  1707,  continuing  it  until  that  year,  giving 
some  additional  information  to  the  original  works;  but  the 
plates  being  worn  out,  or  ill  touched,  this  edition  is  far  iih- 
ferior  to  the  first.  "  The  Coronation  of  K.  James  11.  and 
Q  Mary,'*  &c.*iilustrated  with  sculptures.  Savoy,  1687,  a 
most  superb  work.  When  James  declared  he  would  have 
the  a-ccount  of  his  coronation  printed,  Mr.  Sandford  and 
Mr.  King,  then  rouge-dragon,  obtained  the  earl  n^arshaPs 
consent  to  execute  it ;  the  lattqr  says,  the  greatest  part 
passed  through  his  hands,  as  well  as  the  whole  management 
and  economy  of  it,  though  he  declined  having  his  name 
appear  in  the  title-page,  contenting  himself  with  one  third 
part  of  the  property,  leaving  the  honour,  and  twoTemain- 
ing  shares  of  it,  to  Mr.  Sandford ;  well  foreseeing,  he  says^ 
that  they  would  be  maligned  for  it  by  others  of  their  office ; 
and  he  was  not  mistaken,  for  Sandford,  with  all  the  honour, 
had  all  the  malice,  for  having  opposed  the  earl  marshaP^ 
appointing  Mr.  Burghill  to  be  receiver  of  fees  of  honoiif 
for  the  heralds,  and  endeavouring  to  vest  it  in  the  king;  so 
that  the  affair  was  taken  and  argued  at  the  council  table. 
The  earl  marshal,  at  the  insinuation  of  some  of  th6  be- 

8  A  N  D  F  O  R  D.  127 

raids,  suspended  him,  tinder  pretence  that  he  had  not 
finished  the  history  of  the  coronation  ;  but  he  submitting, 
the  suspension  was  soon  taken  off.  The  book  at  last  was 
not  successful,  for  the  publication  being  delayed  until 
1687,  and  the  revolution  following,  which  threw  a  damp 
on  such  an  undertaking,  Messrs.  Sand  ford  and  King  gained 
no  more  than  their  expen'ces,  amounting  to  600/.* 

SANDINI  (Anthony),  an  Italian  ecclesiastical  historian, 
was  bom  June  31,  1692,  and  became,  by  the  interest  of 
his  bishop,  cardinal  Rezzonico,  who  was  afterwards  pope 
Clement  XI 11.  librarian  and  professor  of  ecclesiasticcil  his- 
tory ^t  Padua,  where  he  died,  Feb.  23,  1751,  in  the  fifty- 
ninth  year  of  his  age.  He  is  known  principally  by  his 
**  Vitae  Pontificum  Romanorum,"  Ferrara,  1748,  reprinted 
under  the  title  of  "  Basis  Historiae  Ecclesiasticae.'*  He  also 
wrote  "  Historian  Familias  Sacr®  ;*'  **  Historia  S.  S.  Apos- 
tolorum  ;*'  **  Disputationes  XX  ex  Historia  Ecclesiastica 
ad  Vitas  Pontificum  Romanorum,"  and  "  Dissertations,'* 
in  defence  of  tiie  "  Historian  Familiae  Sacrae,"  which  fathei* 
Serry  had  attacked.* 

SANDIUS  (Christopher),  or.  Van  Den  Sand,  a  So- 
cinian  writer,  was  born  at  Konigsburg  in  the  year  1644. 
After  becoming  an  ecclesiastic,  he  went  to  Amsterdam, 
where  lie  died  in  1680,  aged  only  thirty-six.  He  published 
various  works,  among  which  are,  1.  "  Nucleus  Historiaf; 
Eeciesiastics,"  1669,  in  2  vols.  8vo,  reprinted  at  Cologne, 
in  1676  :  and  in  London  in  1681.  2.  "  Tractatus  de  Ori- 
'gine  Animae,  1671."  3.  *<  Notae  et  Observationes  in  G.J, 
Vossium  de  Historicis  Latinis,"  1677,  a  work  of  consider- 
able learning.  4.  "  Centuria  Epigrammatum ;"  5.  "  In- 
terpretationes  paradoxae  IV.  Evangeliorum ;"  6.  "  Confes- 
aio  Fidei  de  Deo  Patre,  Filio,  et  Spiritu  Sancto,  secuhdum 
Scripturam;"  '*  Scriptura  SacraD  TTrinitatis  RevelatrixJ' 
But  the  only  work  now  much  known,  which  was  published 
after  his  death,  is  his  *^  Bibliotheca  Anti-Trinitariorum,^* 
Freistadt,  1684,  12mo,  containing  an  account  of  the  lives 
and  writings  of  Socioian  authors,  and  some  tracts  giving 
many  particulars  of  the  history  of  the  Polish  Socinians.' 

SAN DR ART  (Joachim),  a  German  painter,  was  born 
at  Francfortin  1606.  He  was  sent  by  his  father  to  a  gram- 
mar school;   his  inclination  to   engraving   and  designing 

*  Atb.  Ox.  vol.  II. — Harris**  edition  of  Ware. — Noble's  CoHeje  of  Arms. — 
Gent  Mag.  voK  LXIU. 

«  Diet  Hist.  >  Moreri.— Diet.  Hi.t. 

125  8  A  N  D  R  A  R  T. 

being  irresistiblci  he  was  sufFered  to  indulge  it,  and  tir^nt 
on  foot  to  Prague,  where  he  put  himself  under  Giles  Sade- 
ler,  the  famous  engraver,  who  persuaded  him  to  apply  bi^ 
genius  to  painting.     He  accordingly  went  to  Utrecht,  and 
was  some  time  under  Gerard  Honthrost,  who  took  him  inlor 
England  with  him;  where  be  stayed  till  1627,  the  year  in 
which  the  duke  of  Buckingham,  who  was  the  patron  of 
painting  and  painters,  was  assassinated  by  Fehon  at  Ports- 
mouth.    He  went  afterwards  to  Venice,  where  he  copied 
the  finest  pictures  of  Titian  and  taul  Veronese;  and  from 
Venice  to  Rome,  where  he  became  one  of  the  most  consi- 
derable painters  of  his  time.     The  king  of  Spain  sending 
to  Rome  for  twelve  pictures  of  the  most  skilful  hands  then 
in  that  city,  twelve  painters  were  set  to  work^  one  of  wfaomi 
was  Sandrart.     After  a  long  stay  in  Rome,  he  went  to  N»« 
pies,  thence  to  Sicily  and  Malta,  and  at  length  returned 
through  Lombardy  to  Francfort^   where  he    married.     A 
great  famine  happening  about  that  time,  he  removed  to 
Amsterdam;    but  returned  to  Francfort  lapon  the  cessit« 
tion  of  that  grievance.     Not  long  after,  he  took  possession 
of  the  manor  of  Stokau,  in  the  duchy  of  Neuburg,  which 
was  fallen  to  him ;  and,  finding  it  much  in  decay,  sold  all 
his  pictures,    designs,  and  other  curiosities,  in   order  ^a 
y^ise  money  for  repairs.     He  had  but  just  completed  these, 
when,  the  war  breaking  out  between  tbe  Germans  and  the 
French,  it  was  burned  by  the  latter  to  the  ground.     He 
then  rebuilt  ic  in  a  better  style;  but,  fearing  a  second  in-* 
vasion,  sold  it,  and  settled  at  Augsburgh,  where  he  exe- 
cuted  many  fine  pictures.     His  wife  dying,  he  left.Augs- 
burgh,.  and  went  to  Nuremberg,  where  he  established  ait 
academy  of  painting.     Here  he  published  his  '^  Academia. 
artis  pictorias,*'   1683,  fol.  being »an  abridgrtient  of  Vasari 
a4)d  Ridolfi  for  what  concerns  the  Italian  painters,  and  of 
Charles  Van  Mander  for  the  Flemings,  of  the  seventeenth 
century.  He  died  at  Nuremberg,  in  1688.    His  work  above 
mentioned,  which  some  have  called  superficial,  is  but  a 
part  of  a  larger  work,  which  he  published  before  under  the 
title  of  *' Academia  Todesca  della  architettura,  scultura,  e 
pittura,  oderTeutsche  academic  der  edlen  banbild-mahle- 
Ten-kunste,"  Nuremberg,  1675 — 79,  2  vols.  fol.     He  pub* 
lished  also,  *'  Iconologia  Deorum,  qui  ab  antiquis  coleban- 
lur  (Germanice),  ibid.  1680,  fol.     "  Admiranda  Sculpturaei 
Teteris,  sive  delineatio  vera  perfectissima  statuarum,"  ibid- 
1680,  fol.     ^*  Romse  aniiquss  et  novae  theatrum,^'  i6S^,  foK 

^  A  N  D  R  A  R  t.  i2Sl 

^'^  l^bHUKNTttin  Fotttinalia/'  ibid.  1685,  fol.  A  German 
^ditioD  of  all  bis  works  was  published  by  Volkmann,  at 
Nuremberg,  in  1669 — 75,  8  vols,  fol.' 

SANDYS  (Edwin),  a  very  eminent  English  prelate,  thct. 
third  son  of  Wil(iam  Sandys,  esq.  and  Margaret  his  wife^ 
descended  from  the  ancient  barons  of  Kendal,  was  bora 
near  Hawksbead,  in  Furness  Fells,  Lancashire,  in  1519* 
The  same  neigbbourbood^  and  almost  the  same  year,  gave 
birth  to  two  other  luminaries  of  the  reformation,  Edmund 
Grindal  and  Bernard  Gilpin*  Mr.  Sandys*s  late  biographer 
conjectures,  that  be  was  educated  at  the  school  of  Furness 
Abbey,  whence  be  was  removed  to  St.  John^s-coliege,, 
Cambridge^  in  1532  or  1533,  where  be  had  for  his  con- 
temporaries Redmayn  and  Lever,  both  great  lights  of  tha 
reformation,  beside  othets  of  inferior  name,  who  continued 
in  the  hour  of  trial  so  true  to  their  principles,  that,  accord- 
ing to  Mri  Baker,  the  learned  historian  pf  that  bousef 
^*  probably  more  fellows  were,  in  queen  Mary's  reign, 
ejected  from  St.  John's  than  from  any  other  society  in  either 
tiniversityt"  Several  years  now  elapsed  of  Saudys's  life^ 
during  which  in  matters  of  religion  men  knew  not  how  to 
act  or  what  to  believe ;  but,  though  the  nation  was  at  this 
time  under  severe  restraints  with  respect  to  external  con-» 
duct,  inquiry  was  still  at  work  in  secret :  the  corruption^ 
of  the  old  religion  became  better  understood, , the  Scrip- 
tures wete  universally  studied,  and  every  impediment  being 
removed  with  the  capricious  tyranny  of  Henry  VIII.,  pro- 
testantism, with  little  variation  from  its  present  establish- 
ment in  England,  became  the  religion  of  the  state.  > 

During  this  interval  Sandys^  who,  from  the  independence 
bf  bis  fortune,  or  some  other  cause,  had  never  been  scbo* 
iar  or  fellow  of  bis  college,  though  he  had  served  the 
bffice  of  proctor  for  the  university,  was  in  1547  elected 
master  of  Catherine-ball.  He  was  probably  at  this  tima 
vicar  of  Haversham,  in  Bucks,  his  first  considerable  pre-* 
ferment,  to  which,  in  1548,  was.added  a  prebend  of. Peter- 
borough, and  in  1552,  the  second  stall  at  Carlisle.  \}^ith- 
out  the  last  of  these  preferments  he  was  enabled  to  marry^  ^ 
end  chose  a  lady  of  his  own  name,  the  daughtei'of  a  branch 
unnoticed  by  the  genealogists,  a  beautiful  and  pious  wo-* 
man.  The  next  year,  which  was  that  of  his  vice-cban« 
cellorship,    rendered  bim  unhappily  conspicuous  by  his 

<  PilkingtoD.-ii^Strtttt* 


13d  S-  A  N  0  Y  S. 

yielding  to  the  command  or  request  of  Dudley,  duke  d 
Nortliumberland,  and  preaching  a  sermon  in  support  of 
lady  Jane  Gray's  pretensions  to  the  crown,  after  the  death 
of  Edward  VI.  The  designs  of  Dudley's  party  having  been 
almost  immediately  defeated,  Sandys  was  marked  out  for 
vengeance ;  and  the  popish  party  in  the  university,  as  the 
first  step  towards  regaining  an  ascendant,  resolved  to  de- 
pose the  vice-chancellor,  which  was  performed  in  a  man- 
ner very  characteristic  of  the  tumultuous  spirit  of  the 
times.  From  this  time,  in  July  1553,  he  ceased  to  reside 
in  college,  or  to  take  any  part  in  the  administration  of  its 

He  then  left  the  universitv,  amidst  the  insults  of  his 
enemies,  and  the  tears  of  bis  friends,  -^ho  reasonably  an- 
ticipated a  worse  fate  than  that  which  befel  him.  On  his 
arrival  in  London,  he  was  ordered  to  be  confined  in  the 
Tower,  -  where  the  yeomen  of  the  guard  took  from  him 
every  thing  which  he  had  been  permitted  to  bring  froni 
Cambridge;  but  his  faithful  servant,  Quintiq  Swainton, 
brought  after  him  a  Bible,  some  shirts  and  other  necessa- 
ries. The  Bible  being  no  prize  for  plunderers,  was  sent 
in,  but  every  thing  else  was  stolen  by  the  warders.  Here, 
after  remaining  three  weeks,  solitary  and  ill  accommo- 
dated in  a  vile  lodging,  he  was  removed  to  a  better  apart- 
ment, call/ed  the  Nun's  Bower  (a  name  now  forgotten  in 
ihat  gloomy  mansion),  where  he  bad  the  comfort  of  Mr. 
John  Bradford's  company.  In  this  apartment '  they  re- 
mained twenty-^nine  weeks,  during  which  time  the  mildness 
yet  earnestnessof  tfaeirpersuasions  wroughton  their  keeper, 
a  bigoted  catholic,  till  he  became  a  sincere  protestant, 
''  a  son  begotten  in  bonds^"  so  that  when  mass  was  cele- 
brated in  the  chapel  of  the  Tower,  instead  of  compelling 
his  prisoners  to  attend,  the  converted  gaoler  frequently 
.  brought  up  a  service-book  of  Edward  VI.  with  bread  and 
wine,  and  Sandys  administered  the  sacrament  in  both  kinds 
to  himself  and  the  other  two. 

Here  they  continued  until  their  apartments  being  wanted 
for  the  persons  concerned  in  Wyat's  conspiracy,  they  were 
removed  to  the  Marshalsea.  On  their  way  there  they  found 
the  people's  minds  greatly  changed.  Popery,  unmasked 
and  triumphant,  had  already  shewn  its  nature  again,-  and 
general  disgust  had  followed  the  short  burst  of  joy  which 
had  attended  the  queen's  accession.  .  Sandys  walked  along 
the  streets  attended  by  bis  keeper :  and  as  he  was  generally 

B  A  K  D  V  S.  131 

ktoo«!il,  the  people  prayed  that  God  would  eomfort  him^ 
and  strengthen  him  io  the  mitb*  Struck  with  these  ap- 
pearances of  popularityi  the  keeper  of  the  Marshalsea  saidj 
<<  These  vain  peo|^  would  set  you  forward  to  the  fire : 
but  you  are  as  Tain  as  they^  if  you^  being  a  young  mao^ 
will  prefer  your  own  conceit  before  the  judgoient  of  so  many 
worthy  prellUes^  and  so  many  grave  and  leamed^nen  as  are 
ia  this  realm.  If  you  persist,  you  shall  find  me  as  strict  a 
keeper,  aa  one  that  utterly  misliketh  your  religion."  Dr« 
Sandys  nobly  replied^  "  My  years,  indeed,  are  few,  and 
tny  learning  is  small ;  but  it  is  enough  to  know  Christ 
crucified  ;  and  who  seeth  not  the  blasphemies  of  popery 
bath  learned  nothing.  I  have  read  in  Scripture  of  godly 
and  courteous  keepers,  God  make  you  like  one  of  them ; 
if  not,.  I  trust  he  will  give  me  strength  and  patience  to  b^ajr 
your  bard  dealing'  with  me."  The  keeper  then  asked^ 
"  Are  you  resolved  to  stand  to  your  religion  ?"  *<  Yes,'* 
^aid  Dr.  Sandys,  "  by  God's  grace."  « 1  love  you  the 
-better,  therefore,"  said  the  keeper,  « I  did  but  tempt  youj 
every  favour  which  I  can  show,  you  shall  be  sure  of :  nay^ 
if  you  die  at  a  stake,  I  shall  be  happy  to  die  with  you.'* 
:And  from  that  day  such  was  the  confidence  which  this  good 
•man  reposed  in  Sandys,  that  many  times  he  permitted  him 
,to  walk  alone  io  the  fields  j  nor  would  he  ever  suffer  him 
to  be  fettered>  like  the  other'  prisoners.  He  lodged  him 
also  in  the  best  chamber  of  the  house,  and  often  permitted 
his  wife  to  visit  him.  Great  resort  was  here  made  to  Dr. 
Sandys  for  his  edifying  discourses,  and  much  money  was 
oflFered  him,  but  he  would  accept  of  none.  Here  too  the 
communion  was  celebrated  three  ^r  four  times  by  himself 
and  his  companions,  of  whom  Saunders,  afterwards  the  mar- 
tyr, was  one,  to  many  communicants. 

After  nine  weeks  confinement  in  the  Marshalsea,  he  was 
set  at  liberty,  by  the  intercession  of  sir  Thomas  Holcroft 
knigbt-marsbal.  This,  however,  was  not  accomplished 
without  much  difficulty,  and  so  intent  was  Gardiner,  bishop 
of  Winchester,  on  bringing  Sandys  to  the  stake,  that  it 
required  ^ome  management  on  the  part  of  sir  Thomas 
before  he  could  succeed ;  and  no  sooner  Was  Sandys  libe- 
rated than  Gardiner,  being  told  that  he  had  set  at  liberty 
one  of  the  greatest  heretics  in  the  kingdom,  procured  or-  be  issued  to  all  the  constables  of  London  to  search 
for,  and  apprehend  hipa.  In  Sandys's.  final  escape,  as  re- 
iatedby  his  late  biographer,  the  hand  of  Providence  wi*s 

132  SANDYS. 

Strikingly  visible.  While  he  was  in  the  Tower,  tranting  si 
pair  of  new  hose,  a  tailor  was  sent  for,  who,  not  bein^ 
permitted  to  measure  him,  had  made  them  too  long,  anA 
while  he  was  now  concealed  at  the  house  of  one  Hurleston, 
a  skinner  in  Cornhill,  he  sent  them,  as  Hnrleston's  own^ 
to  a  tailor  to  be  shortened.  This  happened  to  be  honest 
Benjamin  the  maker,  a  good  protestant|  who  immediately 
recognized  his  own  bandy  work,  and  required  to  be  shown 
to  the  house  where  Dr.  Sandys  was,  that  he  might  speak 
with  him  for  bis  good.  At  midnight  he  was  admitted,  and 
informed  Dr.  Sandys,  that  all  the  constables  of  the  city^ 
of  whom  he  himself  was  one,  were  employed  to  apprehend 
him,  that  it  was  well  known  that  bis  servant  had  provided 
two  geldings,  and  that  he  meant  to  ride  out  at  Aldgate  to- 
morrow. "  But,"  said  he,  •*  follow  my  advice,  and,  by- 
God's  grace,  you  shall  escape.  Let  your  man  walk  all  the 
day  to-morrow  in  the  street  where  your  horses  are  stabled^ 
booted  and  prepared  for  a  journey.  The  servant  of  the 
man  of  the  house  shall  -take  the  horses  to  Betbna]«> 
green.  The  man  himself  shall  follow,  and  be  booted  as  if 
h6  meant  to  ride.  About  eight  in  the  morning  I  will  be 
with  you,  and  here  we  will  break  our  fast.  It  is  both  term 
and  parliament  time,  and  the  street  by  that  hour  will  be 
full  of  people;  we  will  then  go  forth*— look  wildly,  and, 
if  you  meet  your  own  brother  in  the  street,  do  not  shun, 
but  outface  him,  and  assure  him  that  you  know  him  not.*' 
Dr.  Sandys  accordingly  complied,  and  came  out  at  the  ap- 
pointed hour,  clothed  in  all  respects  as  a  layman  and  a 
gentleman.  Benjamin  carried  him  through  bye^lan^es  to 
Moorgate,  where  the  horses  were  ready,  and  Hurleston  as 
his  man.  That  night  he  rode  to  his  father-in-law's  house, 
but  had  not  been  there  two  hours,  when  intelligence 
was  brought,  that  two  of  the  guard  had  been  dispatched 
^o  apprehend  him,  and  would  be  there  that  night.  He  was 
then  immediately  conducted  to  the  house  of  a  farmer  near 
the  sea-side,  where  he  remained  two  days  and  two  nights 
in  a  solitary  chamber.  Afterwards  he  removed  to  the  house 
of  one  James  Mower,  a  ship-master,  near  Milton-shore, 
where  was  a  fleet  of  merchant-men  awaiting  a  wind  for 
Flanders.  While  he  was  there.  Mower  gathered  a  con- 
gregation of  forty  or  fifty  seamen,  to  whom  he  gave  an  ex^* 
hortation,  with  which  they  were  so  much  delighted^  that 
they  promised  to  defend  him  at  the  expence  of  their  lives. 
On  Sunday  May  6,  be  embs^rked  in  the  asune  vessel  with 


Or.  Coxe,  afterwards  bishop  of  Ely,  and  the  ship  was  yet 
in  sight,  when  two  of  the  guard  arrived  on  the  shore  to  ap- 
prehend Dr.  Sandys. 

t  His  danger  was  not  even  yet  entirely  over,  for  on  his 
arrival  at  Antwerp,  he  received  intelligence  that  king 
Philip  of  Spain  had  sent  to  apprehend  him,  on  which  h« 
escaped  to  the  territory  of  Clev^,  from  thence  to  Augs- 
jburgh,  where  he  remained  fourteen  days,  and  then  re- 
moved to  Strasburgh.  Here  he  took  up  his  abode  for  the 
present,  and  here  unquestionably  spent  the  mo^t  gloomy 
portion  of  his  life.  His  own  health  was  at  this  time  deeply 
injured;  he  fell  sick  of  a  flux  (the  usual  concomitant  of 
hardships  and  afflictions),  which  continued  without  abate** 
nieat  for  nine  months ;  his  only  child  died  of  the  plague; 
and  iiis  beloved  wife,  who  had  found  means  to  follow^  him 
about  a  year  after  bis  flight  from  England,  expired  of  a 
consumption,  in  his  afms.  In  addition  to  his  sorrows,  the 
disputes  concerning  church  discipline  broke  out  among  th^ 
English  exiles,  on  which  several  of  his  friends  left  the 
place.  After  his  wife's  deattf,  he  went  to  Zurich,,  where 
be  was  entertained  by  Peter  Martyr,  but,  his  biographer 
thinks,  the  time  did  not  permit  him  to  receive  any  deep 
tincture  either  as  to  doctrine  or  discipline  from  Geneva  or 
its  neighbours.;  Within  five  weeks  the  news  of  queen 
Mary's  death  arrived ;  and  after  being  joyfully  feasted  by 
BuUinger,  and  the  other  ministers  of  the  Swiss  churches, 
he  returned  to  Strasburgh,  where  hie  preached ;  after 
which  Grindal  and  he  set  out  for  their  native  country  to- 
gether, and  arrived  in  London  on  the  day  of  queen  Eliza- 
beth's coronation. 

Dr.  Sandys  was  now  somewhat  less  than  forty  years  old, 
in  the  vigour  of  his  mental  faculties  and  with  recruited 
bodily  strength.  The  first  public  scene  on  which  he  ap- 
peared was  the  great  disputation  between  the  leading  di- 
vines of  the  protestant  and  popish  side,  in  which,  if  his 
talent  for  debate  bore  any  proportion  to  his  faculty  of 
preaching,  he  must  have  borne  a  very  conspicuous  part. 
On  the  21st  of  December,  1559,  he  was  consecrated  by 
archbishop  Parker  to  the  see  of  Worcester.  Browne  Willis 
bas  roost  unjustly  accused  our  prelate  of  having  enriched 
bis  faipily  out  of  the  lands  of  this  see  ;  on  the  contrary,  he 
traosmitted  it  to  his  successor,  exactly  as  be  found  it,  that 
^  saddled  with  the  conditions  of  an  exchange  which  the 
CfowQ  had  by  statute  a  right  to  make.     He  accepted  it  oa 

134  8  A  N  I>  Y  », 

these  conditions,  and  what  he  was  never  seized  of,  il  wa« 
impossible  for  him  to  alienate.  After  all,  this  was  scarcely 
a  matter  sufficient  to  excite  Browne  Willis's  superstition^ 
reverence^  for  the  rental  of  the  manors  taken  away  was.  no 
more  than  ]9S/.  12^.  S^d.  per  ann.  and  that  of  the  spiritu*^ 
alities  given  in  exchange  1 94/. 

^  At  Worcester  began  the  inquietudes  and  vexations  which 
pursued  bishop  Sandys  through  his  latter  days.  The  papists 
in  his  diocese  hated  him,  and  he  was  at  no  pains  to  cpnciliate 
them.  At  Hartlebury,  in  particular,  it  was  his  misfortone 
to  have  for  his  neighbour  sir  John  Browne,  a  bigoted  pa* 
pist,  who  took  every  opportunity  to  insult  the  bishop,  and 
to  deride  his  wife  (for  he  had  by  this  time  married  Cecily^ 
sister  of  sir  Thomas  Wilford),  by  calling  her  **  My  Lady,*» 
a  style  which  in  the  novelty  of  their  situation,  some  of  the 
bishop- s  wives  really  pretended  to ;  so  that  in  conclusioti  « 
great  affray  took  place  between  the  bishop's  servants  and 
those  of  the  knight,  in  which  several  were  wounded  on 
both  sides.  At  Worcester  Dr.  Sandys  remained  till  1570^ 
when  on  the  translation  of  bis  friend  Grindal  to  York,  he 
succeeded  him  in  the  see  of  London,  a  station  for  which 
he  .was  eminently  qualified  by  his  talents  as  a  preacher,  and 
as  a  governor.  During  this  period,  he  had  interest  to  pro^ 
cure  for  his  kinsman  Gilpin,  a  nomination  to  the  bishoprio 
of  Carlisle,  but  Gilpin  refused  it.  At  London,  Dr.  Sandys 
sat  six  years,  when  be  was  translated  to  York,  on  the  re- 
moval of  Grindal  to  Canterbury. 

Years  were  now  coming  upon  him,  and  a' numerous  fa- 
mily demanded  a  provision ;  but  as  it  was  a  new  and  un« 
popular  thing  to  see  the  prelates  of  the  church  abandon-* 
ing  their  cathedrals  and  palaces,  and  retiring  to  obscure 
manor-houses  on  their  estates,  in  order  to  accumulate  for-f 
tunes  for  their  children,  an  abundant  portion  of  abloquy 
fell  upon  Sandys,  who  seldom  lived  at  York,  and  not  very 
magnificently  at  Southwell.  Yet  he  visited  his  diocese 
regularly,  and  preached  occasionally  in  his  cathedral  with 
great  energy  and  effect.  In  1577,  during  a  metropolitical 
visitation,  he  came  in  his  progress  to  Durham,  the  bishoprio 
of  which  was  then  vacant,  but  was  refused  admittance  by 
Whittingham,  the  puritan  dean.  The  archbishop,  however, 
with  his  wonted  firmness  proceeded  to  excommqnication. 
The  issue  of  this  contest  will  come  to  be  noticed  in  our 
account  of  Whittingham.  In  the  month  of  May  1582^ 
being  ooc^  mor^  i^  a  pro^recis  through  bis  diocese,  a  di$^T 

8  A  N  D  Y  &  US 

bolical  atteospt  wa>  mada  to  blast  bis  cbaracter.  He  bap? 
peoed  to  lie  at  an  infi  in  Doncaster  j  wberei  through  the 
contrivance  of  sir  Robert  Stapleton,  and  other  enemiets, 
the  inn-keeper's  wife  was  put  to  bed  to  bioi  at  midnight 
when  be  was  asleep.  On  this^  according  to  agreement, 
the  inn-keeper  rushed  into  the  room,  waked  the  archbishop 
with  his  noise,  and  offered  a  drawn  dagger  to  his  breast, 
pretending  to'  avenge  the  injury*.  Immediately  sir.Robert 
Stapleton  came  in,  as  if  called  from  his  chamber  by  the 
inn-keeper;  and  putting  on  the  appearance  of  a  friend,  as 
indeed  he  had  formerly  been,  and  as  the  archbishop  theii 
thought  him,  advised  his  grace  to  make  the  matter  up^ 
laying  before  him  many  perils  and  dangers  to  his  name 
and  the  credit  of  reUgion  that  might  ensue,  if,  being  one 
gainst  so  many,  he  should  offer  to  stir  in  such  a  cause ; 
^d  persuading  him,  that,  qotwithstanding  his  innocency^ 
which  the  archbishop  earnestly  protested,  and  StapletoQ 
then  acknowledged,  it  were  better  to  stop  the  mouths  of 
needy  persons  than  to  bring  his  name  into  doubtful  quesr 
tion.  With  this  advice,  Sandys  unwarily  complied;  but, 
afterwards  discovering  sir  Robert's  malice  and  treacherous 
dissimulation,  he  ventured,  in  confidence  of  bis  own  inno- 
eency,  to  be  the  means  himself  of  bringing  the  whole 
cause  to  examination  before  the  council  in  the  star-cham- 
ber. The  result  of  this  was,  that  he  was  declared  entirely 
innocent  of  the  wicked  slanders  and  imputations  .Taise4 
against  him  ;  and  that  sir  Robert  Stapleton  and  his  accom- 
plices were  first  imprisoned,  and  then  fined  in  a  most  ser 
vere  manner.  This  affair  is  related  at  large  by  sir  John 
jHarrington,  a  contemporary  writer;  suid  by  Le  Neve,  who 
gives  a  fuller  account  of  it,  from  an  exemplification  of  the 
decree,  made  in  the  star-chamber,  8  May,  25  Eliz.  pre- 
served  in  the  Harleian  library. 

The  last  act  of  the  archbishop^s  life  seems  to  hs^ve  been 
the  resistance  he  made  against  the  earl  of  Leicester,  who 
wanted  to  wrest  from  the  see  a  valuable  estate.  It  is  to  be 
regretted  that  after  having  made  this  noble  stand,  our  pre- 
late should  have  granted  a  long  lease  of  the  manor  of 
Scroby  to  his  own  family. 

Of  the  decline  of  archbishop  Sandys^s  age,  and  of  the 
particular  disorder  which  brought  him  to  his  grave,  no 
circumstances  are  recorded.     He  died  at  Southwell,  July. 
10,:- 1588,  in  the  sixty-ninth  year  of  his  age,  and  was  bu« 
ried  in  the  collegiate  church  o(  that  places     He  was  the 

136  SANDYS. 

first  English  bishop  who,  by  his  prudence  or  parsimony^ 
laid  the  foundation  of  a  fortune  in  his  family,  which  has 
justified  their  subsequent  advancement  to  a  peerage.  With 
his  father's  savings,  the  manor  of  Ombersley,  in  Worcester-r 
shire,  was  purchased  by  sir  Samuel  Sandys,  the  eldest  son, 
whose  descendants,  since  ennobled  by  the  family  name,  still 
remain  in  possession  of  that  fair  and  ample  domain.  There 
also  the  archbishop's  portrait,  together  with  that  of  Cicely 
his  second  wife,  is  still  preserved.  She  survived  to  1610, 
and  has  a  monument  at  Woodham  Ferrers,  iq  Essex,  where 
she  died. 

Dr.  Whitaker,  whose  late  life  of  archbishop  Sandys  we 
have  in  general  followed,  as  the  result  of  much  research 
find  reflection,  observes  that  after  all  the  deductions  which 
truth  and  impartiality  require,  it  will  still  remfiin  incon- 
testable, that  Sandys  was  a  man  of  a  clear  and  vigorous 
understanding,  of  a  taste,  in  comparison,  above  that  of  the 
former  age  or  the  next,  and,  what  is  more,  of  bis  own : 
that  he  was  a  sincere  Christian,  a  patient  sufferer,  an  in- 
defatigable preacher,  an  intrepid  and  active  ecclesiastical 
magistrate.  What  w^s  his  deportment  in  private  life,  we 
are  ho  where  told,  On  the  other  hand,  it  cannot  be  de- 
nied, that  the  man  who  after  his  advancement  to  the  epis- 
copal order,  in  three  successive  stations,  either  kindled 
the  flames  of  discord^  or  never  extinguished  them,  who 
quarrelled  alike  with  prptestants  and  papists,  with  his  suc- 
cessor in  one  see,  (Aylmer)  and  with  his  dean  in  another, 
who  in  his  first  two  dioceses  treated  the  clergy  with  a 
harshness  which  called  for  the  interposition  of  the  metro- 
politan, and  who  drew  upon  himself  from  two  gentlemen 
of  the  country,  the  extremity  of  violence  and  outrage,  must 
have  been  lamentably  defective  in  Christian  meekness  and 
forbearance  ^.  In  every  instance,  indeed,  he  had  met  witlr 
^reat  provocation,  i^nd  in  the  last  the  treatment  he  received 
was  atrocious ;  but  such  wounds  are  never  gratuitously- in- 
flicted, and  rarely  till  after  a  series  of  irritations  on  both 
liides.  In.  doctrinal  points  his  biographer  attempts,  by 
various  extracts  from  his  sermons,  to  prove  archbishop 
jSandys  less  inclined  to  Calvinism  than  some  of  his  contem- 

*  We  know  not  if  Mr.  Lodge  has  be.  easy  aleganoe  of^  a  courtier  with  af 

ftowcd  the  same  attention  ou  the  con-  muchfplety,  meekness,  and  benevolence, 

duot  of  archbishop  Sandys,  but  his  in*  as  ever  ornamented  the  clerical  cha- 

ference  is  somewhat  different.    <*  This  racter.**    Lodge's  Ktustrai^OQ^n  voV  1^ 

pr^faite>  conduct  happily  united  Uie  p.  2S2, 

SANDYS.  187 


poraries.  On  the  oth6r  hand  Dr.  Wbitaker  asserts  the 
dear,  systematic,  and  purely  evangelical  thread  of  doc* 
trine  which  runs  through  the  whole  of  bis  sermons,  namely, 
salvation  through  Christ  alone,  justification  by  faith  in  him, 
sanctification  through  his  holy  Spirit,  and  lastly,  the  fruits 
of  faith,  produced  through  the  agency  of  th&same  Spirit, 
and  exemplified  in  every  branch  of  duty  to  God,  our  neigh*- 
bour  and  ourselves.  These  "  Sermons'*  were  first  printed 
i&lmost  immediately  after  the  archbishop's  decease,  and 
again  in  1613,  in  a  quarto  volume,  containing  twenty-two, 
but  have  lately  become  so  scarce  that  Dr.  Wbitaker  un« 
dertook  a  hew  edition,  with  a  life  prefixed,  which  was  pub-* 
lished  in  1812,  8vo.  The  archbishop  was  also  concerned 
in  the  translation  of  the  Bible  begun  in  1565,  and  the  por^ 
tion  which  fell  to  his  lot  was  the  books  of  Kings  and  Chro- 
nicles. Several  of  his  letters  and  other  papers  are  in<- 
serted  in  Strype's  Annals  and  Lives  of  Parker  and  Whit- 
gift,  ^nd  in  Burnet's  History  of  the  Reformation,  Fox*s 
Acts,  &c.^ 

SANDYS  (Sir  Edwin),  second  son  of  the  preceding, 
was  born  in  Worcestershire  about  1561,  and  admitted  of 
Corpus-Christi-coUege,  Oxford,  at  sixteen,  under  the  ce- 
lebrated Hooker.  After  taking  his  degree  of  B.  A.  he  was 
made  probationer-fellow  in  1579,  and  was  collated  in  1581 
to  a  prebend  in  the  church  of  York.  He  then  completed 
bis  degree  of  M.  A.  and  travelled  into  foreign  countries, 
and  at  his  return  was  esteemed  for  learning,  virtue,  and 
prudence.  He  af>pears  afterwards  to  have  studied  the  law. 
While  he  was  at  Paris,  he  drew  up  a  tract,  under  the  title 
of  ^' £urop8B  Speculum,"  which  he  finished  in  \5S9;  an 
imperfect  copy  of  which  was  published  without  the  au- 
thor's name  or  consent,  in  1605,  and  was  soon  followed  by 
another  impression.  But  the  author,  after  he  had  used 
all  means  to  suppress  these  erroneous  copies,  and  to 
punish  the  printers  of  them,  at  length  caused  a  true  copy 
to  be  published,  a  little  before  his  death,  in  1629,  4to^ 
under  this  title :  ^'  Europae  Speculum  ;  'or  a  view  or  survey 
of  the  state  of  religion  in  the  western  parts  of  the  world. 
Wherein  the  Romane  religion,  and  the  pregnant  policies 
of  the  church  of  Rome  to  support  the  same,  are  notably 

1  Life  by  Dr.  Wbitaker.— Biog.  Brit.r-Strype's  Craomer,  p.  314.  40^^ 
Strype's  Parker,  p.  66,  78,  103,  208,  296,  333,  357,  438.— Strype'g  Grindal, 
p.  S.  19^,  228,  245.— Strype's  Whitgiffc.  p.  283.— Harringtoo'g  Brief  View.— 
Le  Kerf's  ^rcbbishops,  ?•!•  ll.«*-f ox's  Acts  antl  Moum4eiits, 


displayed ;  with  some  other  memorable,  discoveries  and 
memorations.  Never  before  till  now  published  according 
to  the  author's  original  copie.  Multum  diuque  desidera«* 
turn."  Hagae  Comiiis,  1629.  To  this  edition  was  a  pre- 
face, which  has  been  omitted  in  the  latter  editions ;  thoogh 
some  passages  of  it  were  printed  in  that  of  1637^  4to*  It 
was  also  reprinted  in  1673,  and  translated  both  into  Italiaa 
and  French. 

In  May  1602,  he  resigned  bis  prebend,  and  in  May 
1603,  received  the  honour  of  knighthood  Arom  James  I.; 
who  afterwards  employed  him  in  several  affairs  of  great 
trust  and  importance.  Fuller  tells  us,  that  he  was  dex- 
trous in  the  management  of  such  things,  constant  in  par* 
liament  as  the  speaker  himself,  and  esteemed  by  all  as  an 
excellent  patriot,  ^*  faithful  to  his  country,''  says  Wood, 
^*  without  any  falseness  to  his  prince/'  It  appears^  bow-» 
ever^  that  for  some  opposition  to  the  court  in  the  parliar 
ment  of  1621,  he  was  committed  with  Seldento  thec\istody 
of  the  sheriff  of  London  in  June  that  year,  and. detained 
above  a  month ;  which  was  highly  resented  by  the  House 
of  Commons,  as  a.  breach  of  their  privileges;  but,  sir 
George  Calvert,  secreury  of  state,  declaring,  that  neither 
Sandys  nor  Selden  had  been  imprisoned  for  any  pariiar 
mentary  matter,  a  stop  was  put  to  the  dispute.  Sir  Edwin 
was  treasurer  to  the  undertakers  of  the  western  plantatio.ns. 
He  died  in  October  1629,  and  was  interred  at  Nortbborne  in 
Kent ;  where  he  bad  a  seat  and  estate,  granted  him  by 
James  I.  for  some  services  done  at  that  king's  accession  to 
the  throne.  A  monument,  now  in  a  mutilated  state,  was 
erected  to  his  memory,  but  without  any  inscription.  He 
bequeathed  1500/.  to  the  university  of  Oxford,  for  the  en* 
dowment  of  a  metaphysical  lecture.  He  left  five  sons,  all 
of  whom,  except  one,  adhered  to  the  parliament  during 
the  civil  wars.  Henry,  the  eldest,  died  without  issue.. 
£dwin,  the  second,  was  the  well  known  parliamentary 
colonel,  of  whose  outrages.much  may  be  read  in  the  pub- 
lications of  the  times,  and  who,  receiving  a  mortal  wound 
at  the  battle  of  Worcester,  in  1642,  retired  to  Northborn^ 
to  die,  leaving  the  estate  to  bis  son  sir  Richard,  who  was 
killed  by  the  accidental  explosion  of  bis  fowling-piece  iiji 
1663.  His  son,  sir  Richard,  was  created  a  baronet  in  16^4, 
and  dying  in  1726,  without  male  issue,  was  the  last  of  the 
family  who  lived  at  Nortbborne,  where  the  mansion  re- 
mained many  years  deserted^  and  at  4ength  was  palled 

9  A  N  D  Y  S(  in 

.  There  was  one  sir  Edwin  Sandys,  who  publisbed,  a$ 
Wood  informs  us,  ^*  Sacred  Hymns,  pousisting  of  fifty  se^r 
iect  Psalms  of  David,''  set  to  be  sun^  in  five  parts  by  Ro^ 
bert  Taylor,  and  printed  at  London,  1615,  in  4to;  but 
whether  this  version  was  done  by  our  author,  or  by  another^ 
of  both  his  names,  of  Latimers  io  Bupkingbamsbire,  is  un- 
certain^ ' 

SANDYS  (GEOaaE),  brother  of  the  preceding,  was  the 
seventh  and  youngest  son  of  the  archbishop  of  York,  and 
was  born  at  the  archiepiscopal  palace  of  Bishoptborp  ia 
1577.     In  1588  he  was  sent  to  Oxford,  and  matriculated 
of  St.  Mary  Hall.     Wood  is  of  opinion,  that  he  afterwards 
removed  to  Corpus-i-Christi-college.     How  long  he  resided 
in  the  university,  or  whether  he  iook  a  degree,  does  not 
appear.     In  August  1610,  remarkable  for  the  murder  of 
king  Henry  IV.  of  France,  Mr.  Sandys  set  out  on  bis  tra* 
vels,  and,  in  the  course  of  two  years,  made  an  extensive 
tour,  having  visited  seyeral  parts  of  Europe,  and  many 
pities  and  countries  of  the  East,  as  Constantinople,  Greece, 
Egyp^9  ^^^  the  Holy  Land ;  after  which,  taking  a  view  of 
the  remote  parts  of  Italy,  he  went  to  Rome  and  Venice, 
and,  on  his  return,  after  properly  digesting  the  observations 
be  bad  made,  published,  in  1615,  his  welUkuown  folio,  the 
title  of  the  7th  edition  of  which,  in  }673,  is,  **  Sandys* 
Travels,  contaaoing  an  history  of  the  original  and  present 
atateoftbe  Turkish  empire;  their  laws,  government,  policy, 
military  force,  courts  of  justice,  and  commerce.    The  Ma^ 
hometan  religion  and  ceremoniest     A  description  of  Con- 
stantinople, (he  grand  signior^s  seraglio,  and  bis  manner  of 
living :  also  of  Greece,  with  the  religion  and  customs  of  the 
Grecians.     Of  Egypt;  the  antiquity,  hieroglyphics,  rites, 
customs,  discipline,  and   religion,  of  the  Egyptians.     A 
voyage  on   the  river  Nilus*    Of  Armenia,  Grand  Cairo, 
Rhodes,  the  Pyramides,  Colossus :  the  former  flourishing 
and  present  state  of  Alei^andria-     A  description  of  the 
Holy  Land,  of  the  Jews,  and  several  sects  of  Christians 
living  there;  of  Jerusaleip,  Sepulchre  of  Christ,  Temple 
of  Solomon,  and  what  else,  either  of  iintiquity  or  worth  ob- 
servation.    Lastly,  Italy  described,  and   the   islands  ad^ 
joining;  as  Cyprus,  Crete,  Malta,  Sicilia,  the  Eolian  islands; 
of  Rome,  Venice^  Naples,  Syracusa,  Mesena,  iEtna,  Scylla,; 
iind' Chary bdis;  and  other  places  of  note»    Illustrated  with 

>  Atb.  Oz.  vol  |,-^Qep.  piet.— Fnller's  Wonliies.— C«p;i.  Lit, 

140  SAND'YS: 

fifty  maps  and  figures."  Most  of  the  plates',  especially 
those  relating  to  Jerusalem  and  the  Holy  Land,  are  copied 
from  the  "  Devotissimo  Viaggio  di  Zuallardo,  Roma," 
15S7,  4to.  Of  these  travels  there  have  been  eight  or  ten 
editions  published,  and  it  still  bears  its  reputation,  his  ac« 
counts  having  been  verified  by  subsequent  travellers.  Mr. 
Markiand  has  a  copy  of  this  work,  edit.  1637,  with  a  M& 
copy  of  verses  by  the  author,  which  may  be  seen  in  the 
^*  Censura  Literaria,^*  but  was  first  published  at  the  end  of 
bis  <*  Psalms,"  1640,  8vo. 

Sandys  distinguished  himself  also  as  a  poet;  and  bis 
productions  in  that  way  were  greatly  admired  in  the  times 
they  were  written.  In  1632  he  published  *^  Ovid's  Meta-' 
morphoses  Englished,  mythologized,  and  represented  in 
figures,"  Oxford,  in  folio.  Francis  CJeyn  was  the  inven- 
tor of  the  figures,  and  Solomon  Savary  tLe  engraver.  He 
bad  before  published  part  of  this  translation ;  and^  in  the 
preface  to  this  second  edition,  he  tells  us,  that  he  has  at- 
tempted to  collect  out  of  sundry  authors  the  philosophical 
sense  of  the  fables  of  Ovid.  To  this  work,  which  is  dedi- 
cated to  Charles  I.  is  subjoined  ^*  An  Essay  to  the  transla- 
tion of  the  i£neis."  It  was  reprinted  in  1640.  In  1636, 
he  published,  in  8vo,  *' A  Paraphrase  on  the  Psalms  of 
David,  and  upon  the  Hymns  dispersed  throughout  the  Old 
and  New  Testament,"' 1636,  8vo,  reprinted  in  163S,  folio; 
with  a  title  somewhat  varied,  -  This  was  a  book  which, 
.  Wood  tells  us,  Charles  I.  delighted  to  read,  when  a  pri-^ 
soner  in  Carisbrooke  castle.  There  was  an  edition  of  1 640, 
with  the  Psalms  set  to  music,  by  Lawes.  In  this  last  year 
be  published,  in  12mo,  a  sacred  drama,  written  originally 
by  Grotius,  under  the  title  of  '<  Christus  Patient,"  and 
which  Mr.  Sandys,  in  his  translation,  has  called  "  Christus 
Passion^,"  on  which,  and  ^^AdamusExuV*  and  Masenius, 
is  founded  Lauder^s  impudent  charge  of  plagiarism  against 
Milton.  This  translation  was  reprinted,  with  cuts,  in  1688, 
8vo.  The  subject  of  it  wics  treated  before  in  Greek  by 
Apollinariifs  bishop  of  Hierapolis,.  and  after  him  by  Gre- 
gory Nazianzen ;  but,  according  to  Sandys,  Grotius  ex^ 
celled  all  others.  Langbaine  tells  us,  with  regard  to  San-« 
dys'  translation,  that  ^*  he  will  be  allowed  an  excellent 
artist  in  it  by  learned  judges ;  and  he  has  followed  Horace's 
advice  of  avoiding  a  servile  translation, •> — ^  nee  verbum 
verbo  curabis  reddere  fidus  interpres' — so  he  comes  so 
near  the  sense  of  his  author,  that  nothing  is  lost ;  no  spirits 


evaporate  \a  the  decanting  of  it  into  Ehglish ;  and,  if  there 
be  any  sediment^  it  is  left  behind.''  He  published  'also  a 
metrical  paraphrase  of  '^  The  Song  of  Solomon/'  London, 
164iy  4to,  dedicated  to  the  King,  and  reprinted  in  1648 
wi^h  jiis  ".Psalms."  There  are  but  few  incidents  known 
concerning  our  author.  AH  who.mentbn  him  agree  in  be- 
stowing on  him  the  character,  not  only  of  a  man  of  genius, 
but  of  singular  worth  and  piety.  For  the  most  part  of  his 
latter  days  he  lived  with  sir  Francis  Wenman,  of  Caswell^ 
pear  Witney  in  Oxfordshire,  to  whom  his  sister  was  mar» 
xied ;  probably  chusing  that  situation  in  some  measure  on 
account  of  its  proximity  to  Burford,  the  retirement  of  his 
intimate  acquaintance  and  valuable  friend  Lucius  lord  vis« 
count  Falkland,  who  addressed  some  elegant  poems  to  him^ 
preserved  in  Nichols's  ''  Select  Collection,"  with  several 
by  Mr.  Sandysy  who  died  at  the  hoi>se  of  bis  nephew,  sir 
Fraiicis  Wyat,at  Boxley  in  Kent,  in  1643;  and  was  in« 
terred  in  the  chancel  of  that  parish-chureh,  without  any 
inscription;  but  in  the  parish  register  is  this  entry: 
"  Georgius  Sandys  poetarum  Anglorum  sUi  ssbcuU  facilv 
princeps,  ^epultus  fuit  Martii  7,  Stiio  Anglise,  anq.  Donr« 
1 64S."  His  memory  has  also  been  handed  down  by  various 
writers,  with. the  respect  thought  due  to  his  great  worth 
and  abilities.  Mr.  Dryden  pronounced  him  the  best  ver- 
sifier of  the  age,  but  objects  to  bis  **  Ovid,"  as  too  close 
aoid  literal ;  and  Mr,  Pope  declared,  in  his  notes  to  the 
Iliad,  that  English  poetry  owed  much  of  its  present  beauty 
to  his  translations.  Dr.  Warton  thinks  that  Sandys  did 
more  tp  polish  and.  tune  the  English  versification  than  Den- 
.ham.  or.WaUery  who  are  usually  applauded  on  this  subject; 
jet  his  poems  are  not  now  much  read.  The  late  bio- 
grapher of  his- father  observes^  that  ^^  the  expressive  energy 
of  his  prose  will  entitle  him.  to  a  place  among  English  clasr- 
i^cs,  when  his  verses,  some  of  \%bich  are  beautiful,  shall  be 
forgotten.  Of  the  exc^lleni?e  of  bis  style,  the  dedication 
jof  hi«  travels  to  prince  Henry,  will  afford  a  short  and  very 
conspicuous  example."! 

SANNAZARIUS  (James),  vernacularly  Giacomo  San* 
KAZABQ)  a  celebrated  Italian  and  Latin  poet,  was  born  at 
KapJes,  J.uly  28,  ^458.  His  fan^ily  is  said  to  have  been 
■«;rigiually  of  Spanish  extraction,  but  settled  at  an  early 

*  Aih.  Ox.  vol.  IT.— Cibber's  Lives. — Fuller's  Worthies. — Censura  Lit.  voU, 
••IV.  and  V. — ElUi's  Sp^cimeiw,  vol.  II K  p.  24.— Bowles's  editiou  of  Pope.-r^ 
JKIcboU'f  Foeins.-r Wbiuker'fl  l^ife  of  Abp.  Safutys,  p.  y) vij. 

H2  S  A  N  JJ  A  ^.A  11  1  U  S. 

period  at  S^nto  l>ft(zafd,  iiilotirishiiigtbwfl  sittiat^d  betweefl 
tbe  Tcf^sino  and  the  Po,  where  it  was  IdDg  conspicuous  for 
nobility  and  opulence^  Reduced  at  length  by  the  calami*^ 
ties  of  war,  the  more  iminediate  progetiitors  of  otir  poet 
removed  to  Naples.  His  father  dying  while  this  son  wad 
very  youngs  his  mother,  unable  from  her  poverty,  to  keep 
up  her  former  rank^  retired  with  her  family  to  Nocerm  di 
Paganii  in  Umbria^  where  Sannazarius  pressed  a  consider- 
able portion  of  his  youths  He  had  previously  to  his  re- 
moval from  Naples  acquired  the  elements  of  the  Greek  and 
Latin  languages,  under  the  tuition  of  Junianus  Maius,  who 
conceiving  a  high  opinion  of  his  talents,  prevailed  on  his 
mother  to  return  again  to  Naples,  where  he  might  continue 
b'is  education.  Here  he  was  admitted  a  member  of  the 
Academia  Pontana,  and  took  the  name  of  Actius  Syncerus. 
'He  had  formed  an  early  attachment  of  the  most  tendet 
kind  to  Carmosina  Bonifacia,  a  young  Neapolitan  lady, 
but  not  being  a  favoured  lover,  uttered  his  disappointment 
in  many  of  those  querulous  sonnets  and  canzoui  which  are 
«till  extant.  In  compositions  of  this  kind  Sannazarius  is 
considered  as  having  surpassed  every  other  poet  from  the 
days  of  Petrarch.  To  dissipate  his  Uneasiness,  he  tried  the 
effect  of  travelling ;  but  on  his  return,  bis  grief  was 
heightened  by  the  report  of  the  death  of  his  mistress.  She 
is  understood  to  be  the  lamented  Phyllis  of  his  Italian  and 
Latin  poems. 

The  increasing  celebrity  of  Sannazarius^  as  a  scholar 
and  poet^  having  attracted  the  notice  of  Ferdinand  king  of 
Naples,  that  monarch's  younger  son,  Frederick,  who  was 
greatly  attached  to  poetry,  invited  him  to  coUrt,  and  be- 
came his  patron ;  he  also  grew  into  favour  with  Alphonsus^ 
duke  of  Calabria,  the  next  heir  to  tbe  crown,  and  under 
him  embraced  a  military  life,  and  served  in  the  Etruscan 
war.  During  his  campaigns,  Sannazarius  continued  to 
cultivate  his  poetical  talent,  and  when  in  consequence  of 
the  series  of  misfortunes  and  deaths  in  the  royal  family,  his 
patron  Frederick  came  to  the  crown,  he  conceived  the  hope 
.of  very  high  honours,  but  obtained  only  a  moderate  annual 
pension,  and  a  subyrban  villa,  called  Mergillina,  to  which^ 
.although  at  first  he  was  chagrined,  he  became  reconciled^ 
and  this  villa  was  afterwards  the  delight  of  his  muse.  In 
about  four  years,  Frederick  was  dethroned  by  the  combioed 
powers  of  France  and  Spain,  ,and  now  experienced  the  dis- 
interested fidelity  of  our  poet,  who  sold  bis  possessions  to 

S  A  N  N  A  2  A  R  I  d  S.  143 

assist  tbe  f^illen  monarch,  attended  him  to  France,  and 
continued  firmly  attached  to  him  as  long  as  he  lived. 

In  1503,  he  again  returned  to  Naples,  was^ replaced  in 
his  favourite  villa,  once  more  frequented  the  court,  and 
obtained  the  favour  of  tbe  reigning  queen.  Here  he  found 
another  mistress  in  Cassandra  Marchesia,  one  of  the  ladies 
of  honour,  whom  he  describes  as  very  beautiful  and  very 
learned,  but  as  he  was  now  too  far  advanced  in  years  for  a 
passioq  such  as  he  formerly  felt,  Cassandra  is  to  be  con- 
sidered merely  as  his  poetical  mistress,  and  the  chaste  ob- 
ject of  bis  Platonic  attachment.  The  attachment,  it  is 
said,  was  muiuaf,  and  a  confidential  intercourse  continued 
to  subsist  between  them  till  the  poet's  decease,  nor  does  it 
appear  that  Cassandra  ever  formed  any  matrimonial  con- 
nection. Sannazarius,  however,  has  been  numbered  by 
some  amopg  the  votaries  of  pleasure,  and  they  tell  lis  he 
affected  the  levity  and  gallantry  of  youth  when  in  his  old 
age.  In  his  friendships  he  is  said  to  have  been  uniformly 
ardent  and  sincere.  In  gratitude  to  the  memory  of  Pon- 
tanusy  who  had  given  a  powerful  impulse  to  his  youthful 
studies,  he  became  the  editor  of  his  works.  He  is  also  ' 
connneuded  for  his  probity,  his  love  of  justice,  and  abhor- 
rence of  litigation. 

Tbe  indisposition  which  terminated  his  life  was  brought 
on  by  grief  and  chagrin,  on  account  of  the  demolition  of 
part  o(  his  delightful  villa  of  Mergillina,  in  decorating 
which  be  had  taken  peculiar  delight.  Philibert  de  Nassau, 
prince  of  Orange,  and  general  of  the  emperor's  forces,  was 
the  author  of  this  outrage  on 'taste  and  the  muses.  He  ex- 
pired soon  afterwards  at  Naples,  and,  it  is  said,  in  the  house 
of  Cassandra,  in  1530,  in  the  seventy-second  year  of  his 
age.  The  tomb  of  Sannazarius,  in  a  church  near  his  villa, 
which  he  built,  is  still- to  be  seen,  and  has  the  same  mix- 
ture of  heathen  and  Christian  ornaments  which  are  so  fre- 
quently to  be  found  in  his  poems. 

His  principal  Latin  poem,  **  De  Partu  Virginis,"  took  up 
his  attention,  in  composition,  revisals,  and  corrections, 
about  twenty  years;  obtained  him  the  highest  compliment^ 
from  the  learned  of  his  age,  and  two  honorary  briefs  from 
two  popes  ;  and  certainly  contains  many  brilliant  and  highly 
finished  passages,  but  it  brought  his  religion  into  some 
su^iqioD.  In  a  po^m  on  the  miraculous  conception,  that 
great  mystery  of  the  Christian  church,  we  find  the  agency 
of  th<^  Dryads  and  Nereids  employed ;  the  books  of  the 

146  S  A  N  S  O  V  I  N  O. 

.  8ANSOVINO. (Francis),,  an  Italian  poet  and  bHtoriaa^ 
was.  borq  in  1521  ai  Rome,  and  was  the  son  of  Jiioies'Saa-' 
sovino,  an  eminent  sculptor  and  celebrated  architect,  whose' 
eulc^y  Vasari  has  left  us.  He  studied  the  belles  Jettres  at 
Venice,  and  took  bis  degrees  in  law  at  Padua ;  but  that 
scien.ce  not  sj;iiting  bis  taste,  be  devoted  himself  wholly  ta 
poetry,  history,  and  polite  literature,  and  died  in  15&6,  at 
Venice,  aged  sixty-five,  leaving  more  than  fifty  w^ksj  all 
written  in  Italian.  They,  ^on^ist  of  "  Poems  i"  iiot;es-  on 
Bocqaccio's/^  Decameron,  on  Ariosto,  Dante,  &c."  transla- 
tions of  ancient  historian  and  .some  histories  written  by 
himself,  .as  his  '^  Ven^zia  de^critta,"  of  wbicb  the  best  edi- 
tion is  that  of  166;^,  4to ;  ^*  Istoria  Universale  jd&W  origioer 
guerre,  ed  imperio  de  Turchi,^'  1654,  2  vols.  4to,  reckoned 
a  capital  work.  His  *'  Satires''  are  in  a  collection  with 
.those  of  Ariosto,  and  others,  Venice,  1560,  8vq;  his 
^' Ci&pitoIi'V.wich  those  of  Aretino,  and  different  .writecs, 
|540,  and  1583,  8vo ;  to  which  we  may  add  his  ^'  Cento 
novelle  Scelte,"  Venice,  1566,  4to.* 

SANTEUL,  or  SANTEUIL  {John  Baptist),  in  Utin 
$AMTOLius,  a  celebrated  modern  Latin. poet,  was  born^afi 
Paris  May  13,  1630,  of  a  good  family..  He  studied. the 
belles  lettres  at  the  college  of  St.  Barbe,  and  in  that  of. 
Louis  le  Grand,  under  the  learned  Pere  Coiisart,  and.  en- 
tering soon  after  among  the  regular  canons  of  St.  Victor, 
devoted  himself  wholly  to  poetry,  commencing  lus  career 
by  celebrating  some  great  men  of  that  time.  .  He  also  was 
employed  to  write  many  of  those  inscriptions  which,  may 
be  seen  on  the  public  fountains  and  mpnuments  of  Paris, 
and  this  he  did  in  a  style  at  once  clear,  easy,  and  digot- 
fied.  When  some  new  hymns  were  wanted  for  the  Paris 
breviary,  he  was  requested  by  bis  brother  Claude,  Pelisfson» 
and  Bossuet,  to  compose  them^  which  he  accomplished 
with  the  greatest  success  and  applause,  in  an  elevated, 
perspicuous,  and  majestic  style,  suited  to  the  dignity  of. 
the  subject.  The  reputation  which  he  gained  by  these  in* 
duced  the  order  of  request  some  for  their  bre* 
viary.  With  this  he  complied,  and  in.  return  they  granted 
bin)  letters  of  filiation,  and  a  pension.  Santeul  was  much 
esteemed  by  the  literati  of  his  time,  and  by  many  persons 
of  rank,  among  whom  were  the  two  princes  of  Cond6,  fia- 
tber  and  son,  whose  bounty  he  frequently  experienced  ; 

1  NiceroD^  toI.  ^XIL*^Tirabo8chi. 

8  AN  t  tV  L.  Ul 

•ltd  Louis  XIV.  who  settled  a  pension  upon  Mm.  He 
gr^tly  ofFedded  the  Jeiuits,  however,  bj  his  epitaph*  in 
pmise  of  their  enemy  Arnauld.  Whilfe  Santeul's  Liltin 
poems  w^re  always  much  admired  by  his  countVymenj  he 
seems  to  have  enjoyed  fully  as  much  reputation/  during  his 
life-time,  for  his  wit,  and  oddities  of  character.     La  Bru- 

■  yere,  under  the  name  of  Theodes,  has  described  him  as,  in 
one  moment,  good-humoured,  trattable,  easy,  and  cottt^ 

.  plaisant,  in  another,  harsh,  violent,  choleric,  and  capri- 
eious ;  as  at  once  simple,  ingetfudus,  credulous,  sportive, 
^nd  volatile ;  in  short,  a  child,  with  grey  hairs,  and  as 
speaking  like  a  fool,  and  thinking  like  a  sage.  He  utters, 
adds  La  Bruyere,  truths  in  a  ridiculous  manner,  and  sen- 
sible things  in  a  siliy  way  ;  and  we  are  surprised  to  find  so 
much  intdiect  shining  through  the  clouds  of  buffoonery, 
contortions,  and  grimaces.  He  had  great  credit  for  his 
witticisms,  many  of  which  may  be  seen  in  the  "  Santolianal^* 
When  the  duke  of  Bourbon  went  to  hold  the  states  of  Bur- 
gundy at  Dijon,  Santeul  attended  him,  and  died  therie, 
August  5,  1697,  aged  sixty-seven,  as  he  was  on  the  "point 
of  returning  to  Paris.  His  death  was  attributed  to  an  in* 
considerate  trick  played  upon  him  by  some  one  whom  his 
oddity  of  charaieter  had  encouraged  to  take  liberties,  and 
who  put  some  Spanish  snuff  into  his  wine-glass,  which 
brought  on  a  complaint  of  the  bowels  that  proved  fatal  in 
fourteen  hours.  Besides  his  Latin  hymns,  l!2mo,  he  left 
a  considerable  number  of  Latin  "  Poems,"  1739,  3  vols. 

*  12mo.  * 

SANTEUL  (Claude),  brother  of  the  preceding,  born 
Feb.  3,  16i28,  also  wrote  some  beautiful  hymns  in  the  Paris 
breviary,  under  the  name  of  "  Santolius  Maglorianus,"  a 
name  given  on  acicount  of  his  having  resided  a  long  time  in 
the  seminary  of  St.  Magloire  at  Paris,  as  a  secular  eccle- 
siastic. Though  the  brother  of  Santeul,  and  a  poet  like 
him,  he  was  of  a  totally  different  temper  and  disposition; 
mild,  calm,  and  moderate,  he  had  none  of  that  heat  arid 
impetuosity,  by  which  his  brother,  was  incessantly  agitated, 
fie  was  esteemed  not  only  for  his  poetical  talents,  but  his 
deep  learning  and  exemplary  piety.  He  died  September 
^9,  1684,  at  Paris^  aged  fifty-seven.  Besides  his  hymns 
on  the  particular  festivals,  which  are  very  numerous  and 
preserved  by  the  family  in  MS.  2  vols.  4to ;  some  of  his 

1  Perrault  Lei  Hommet  Uluitres.— ^Santqliana.— Moreri.— Diet.  Htit^ 

L  2 

,  I 


5  A  N  T  E  U  L. 

poetry  bat  been  printed  with  his  brother's  works.  Theim 
was  another  Claude  Santeul,  related  to  the  preceding,  • 
merchant  and  sheriff  of  Paris,  who  died  about  1799,  leav- 
ing some  <^  Hymns/'  printed  at  Paris  in  1123^  8vo.^ 

.  SAPPHO,  an  eminent  Greek  poetess,  was  a  native  of 
Mitylene  in  the  island  of  Lesbos.  Who  was  her  father  i9 
uncertain,  there  being  no  less  than  eight  persons^who  havo 
contended  for  that  honour ;  but  it  is  universally  acknow- 
ledged that  Cleis  was  her  mother.  She  flourished,  accord-^ 
ing  to  Suidas,  in  the  42d  olympiad }  according  to  Euse-* 
bins,  in  the  44th  olympiad,  about  600  years  B.  C.  Her 
loVe-afFairs  form  the  chief  materials  of  her  biography. 
Barnes  has  endeavoured  to  prove,  from  the  testimonies  of 
Chamieleon  and  Hermesianax,  that  Anacreon  was  one  of 
her  lovers ;  but  from  the  chronology  of  both,  this  has  been 
generally  considered  as  a  poetical  fiction.  She  married 
ofie  Cercolas,  a  man  of  great  wealth  and  power  in  the  isv 
land  of  Andros,  by  whom  she  had  a  daughter  named  Cleis. 
He  leaving  her  a  widow  very  young,  she  renounced  all 
thoughts  of  marriage,  but  not  of  love  ^ ;  nor  was  she  very 
scrupulous  in  her  intrigues.  Her  chief  favourite  appears  to 
have  been  the  accomplished  Pbaon,  a  young  man  of  Les* 
bos ;  who  is  said  to  have  been  a  kind  of  ferry-man,  and 
thence  fabled  to  have  carried  Venus  over  the  stream  in  his 
boat,  and  to  have  received  from  her,  as  a  reward,  the  fa- 
vour of  becoming  the  most  beautiful  man  in  the  worlds 
Sappho  fell  desperately  in  love  with  him,  and  went  into 
Sicily  in  pursuit  of  him,  he  having  withdrawn  hitnself  thi-^* 
tber  on  purpose  to  avoid  her.  It  was  in  that  island,  ar^d 
on  this  occasion,  that  she  composed  her  hymn  to  Venus* 
This,  however,  was  ineffectual.  Phaon  was  still  obdurate, 
and  Sappho  was  so  transported  with  the  violence  of  her 
passion,  that  she  had  recourse  to  a  promontory  in  Acar- 
nania  called  Leucate,  on  the  top  of  which  was  a  temple 
dedicated  to  Apollo.     In  this  temple  it  was  usual  for  de* 

^  "  Sappho  formed  an  academy  of 
females  who  excelled  in  music ;  and  it 
was  doubtless  this  academy  which  drew 
on  her  the  hatred  of  the  women  of  Mi- 
tylene,  who  accused  her  of  being  too 
fond  of  her  own  sex;  but  will  not  her 
\ox^  for  Pbaon,  and  the  fatal  termina- 
tioH  of  her  existence^  sufficiently  ex- 

culpate her  ?  And  might  she  not  have 
written  the  celebrated  verses  "  Blest 
as  the  immortal  goda  is  he,'*  &c.'  for 
another  ?  Many  of  our  poetical  ladies, 
whom  we  could  name,  have  written 
excellent  impassioned  songs  of  com* 
plaint  in  a  male  character.''  Or.  Biht- 
ney  in  Hist,  of  Music 

1  ltor»rL*>«Dict.  Hist. 

SAPPHO.  ,149 

^pairing  Idvers  to  make  their  vows  in  secret,  and  after- 
firards  to  fling  themselves  from  the  top  of  tbeprecipice  into 
th&sea,  it  being  an  established  opinion^  that  all  those  who 
were  taken  up  alive,  would  immediately  be  cured  of  their 
former  passion.  Sappho  perished  in  the  experiment  The 
original  of  this  unaccountable  humour  is  not  known*  Her 
genius,  however,  made  her  be  lamented.  The  Romans 
erected  a  noble  statue  of  porphyry  to  her  memory;  and  the 
Mityienians,  to  express  their  sense  of  her  worth,  paid  her 
sovereign  honours  after  her  death,  and  coined  money  with 
her  head  for  the  impress.  She  was  likewise  honoured  with 
the  title  of  the  tenth  Muse. 

Yossius  is  of  opinion  that  none  of  the  Greek  poets 
excelled  Sappho  in  sweetness  of  verse ;  and  that  she  made 
Archilochus  the  model  of  her  style,  but  at  the  same  time 
took  great  care  to  soften  and  temper  the  severity  of  his 
expression.  Hoffman,  in  his  Lexicon,  says,  *^  Some  au- 
thors are  of  opinion,  that  the  elegy  which  Ovid  made  und#r 
the  name  of  Sappho,  and  which  is  infloitely  superior  to  his 
other  elegies,  was  all,  or  at  least  the  most  beautiful  part  of 
it,  stolen  from  the  poems  of  the  elegant  Sappho."  She 
was  the  inventress  of  that  kind  of  verse  which  (from  her 
name)  is  called^  the  Sapphic.  She  wrote  nine  books  of 
odes,  besides  elegies,  epigrams,  iambics,  monodies,  and 
other  pieces ;  of  which  we  have  nothing  remaining  entire 
but  an  hymn  to  Venus,  an  ode  preserved  by  Louginus 
(which,  however,  the  learned  acknowledge  to  be  imper- 
fect), two  epigrams,  and  some  other  little  fragments,  which 
have  been  generally  published  in  the  editions  of  Anacreon. 
Addison  has  given  an  elegant  character  of  this  poetess  in 
the  Spectator  (No.  223  and  229),  with  a  translation  of  two 
of  her  fragments,  and  is  supposed  to  have  assisted  Philips 
in  his  translation.^ 
'  SARASIN  (John  Francis),  a  French  miscellaneous  au- 
thor, was  born' at  Hermanville,  in  the  neighbourhood  of* 
Caen,  about  1604.  It  is  said,  in  the/^  Segraisiana,"  but 
we  know  not  on  what  foundation,  that  he  was  the  natural 
son  of  Mr.  Fauconnier  of  Caen,  a  treasurer  of  France,  by 
a  woman  of  low  rank,  whom  he  afterwards  married.  Sara- 
sin  began  his  studies  at  Caen,  and  afterwards  went  to 
Paris,  where  he  became  eminent  for  wit  and  polite  litera- 
ture, though  he  was  very  defective  in  every  thing  that 

4  Gen.  Dkt— YosfiiM  de  Poet  GraBC— Fawkes'i  TniuiatioD. 


S  A  R  A  S  I  N. 

•could  be  called  learning.  He  tben  inade  tlie  tour  of  Ger^ 
•many;  and,  upon  his  return  to  France,  was  appointed  a 
kind  of  secretary  to  the  prince  of  Conti.  Ite  was  a  man 
of  a  lively  imagination  and  ready  wit;  and  much  caressed 
by  those  who  thought  themselves  judges  of  that  article. 
He  was,  however,  so  frequently  invited  on  this  account 
that  he  began  to  envy  matter-of-fact  men,  from  whom  no- 
thing of  the  kind  is  expected.  He  was  also  unfortunate  in 
'bis  marriage,  his  wife  being  a  woman  of  a  violent  ungo- 
vernable temper.  It  is  said  that  he  persuaded  the  prince 
of  Conti  to  marry  the  niece  of  cardinal  Mazarin,  and  for 
this  good  office  received  a  great  sum  ;  but  this  being  dis^ 
•  covered,  the  prince  dismissed  him  from  his  > service,  with 
every  mark  of  ignominy,  as  one  who  had. sold  himself  t€ 
the  cardinal.  This  treatment  is  supposed  to  have  occa- 
sioned his  death,  which  happened  in  1654.  Pelisson,  passw 
ing  through  the  town  where  Sarasin  died,  went  to  the 
grave  of  his  old  acquaiiitancie,  shed  soMie  tears,  had  a  mass 
said  over  him,  and  founded  an  anniversary,  though  he  him« 
'  self  was  at  that  time  a  protestant. 

He  published  in  his  life-time,  "  Discours  de  la  Trage- 
die;"  "  L*Histoire  du  Siege  de  Dunkerque,"  in  1649; 
and  "  La  Pompe  funebre  de  Voiture,"  ik  the  "  MisceU 
lanea'*  of  Menage,  to  whom  it  is  addressed,  in  1652«  At 
his  death,  he  ordered  all  his  writings  to  be  giv'en  into  the 
bands  of  Menage,  to  be  disposed  of  as  that  gentleman 
should  think  proper ;  and  Menage  published  a  4to  volume 
of  them  at  Paris  in  1656,  with  a  portrait  of  the  author  en- 
graven by  Nanteuil,  and  a  discourse  of  Pelisson  upon  his 
merits.  They  consist  of  poetry  and  prose ;  and  have  much 
wit  and  considerable  ease,  elegance,  and  invention.  Be- 
sides this  collection  in  4to,  two  more  volumes  in  l2mo 
were  published  at  Paris  in  1675,  under  the  title  of  "  Nou^ 
velles  Oeuvres  de  Mr.  Sarasin  ;'*  which  appear  to  consist  of 
the  pieces  rejected  by  Menage,  mostly  unfinished  frag- 
ments, but"  Boileau  encouraged  the  editor,  M.  deMonnoye, 
to  publish  them,  as  not  unworthy  of  Sarasin.* 

SARAVIA  (Hadrian  a),  of  Spanish  extraction,  but  to 
be  classed  among  English  divines,  was  a  native.of  Artois, 
where  he  was  born  in  1531.  Of  his  early  years  we  have 
no  account.  In  1582  he  was  invited  to  Leyden  to  be:  pro- 
fessor of  divinity,  and  was  preacher  in  the  French  church 


'  Niceron,  vols.  VI.  and  £.«-Moreri.— Diet.  Hikt.'^^i-PerrauU  Lei  Homme« 

S  A  R  A  V  I  A.  151 

there.     Having  studied  the  controversy  respecting  church 
government,  he  inclined  to  that  of  episcopacy,  and  in  1587 
oame  to  England  ^vbere  he.  was  well  received  by  some  of 
the  pirates  and  divines  of  that  day,  particularly  Wbitgift, 
archbishop  of  Canterbury.      He   first  settled  at  Jersey, 
where  he  taught  a  scbool,  and  preached  to  bis  countrymen, 
who  ^were  exiles  tbere.     He  was  appointed  master  of  the 
£reet  .gnuxiQiar-scbool    at  Southampton,    where  Nicholas 
Fii^yWr, .  the  most  renowned  critic  of  bis  age,  received  bia 
education  principally  under  him,  and  he  also  educated  sir 
ThoKitfis  Lake,  .secretary  of  state  to  James  I.     He  was  suc- 
cessively promoted  to  a  prebend  in  the  cburcbes  of  Glou- 
cn^er,  CaAt^rbury,  and  Westminster.     He  displayed  great 
leaf  aing  in  defence  of  episcopacy  against  Beza,  when  tbat 
4ivine  reeofiMOQiended  the  abolition  of  it  in  Scotland.     He 
^ed  in  1613,  at  the  age  of  eighty^-two,  and  was  interred 
in.  Cii^terbury  catbedral,  where  tbere  is  a  monument  to 
his'memory.     All  bis  works  were  published  in  1611,  one 
yoU  folio.     He  must  have  acquiced  a  very  considerable 
knowledge  of  the  English  language,  as  we  find  his  name 
in  the  first  .class  .of  those  whom  king  J^mes  I.  employed  in 
the  new  .translation  of  tbe  Bible.     He  lived  in  great  inti-  . 
majcy  with  hisjellow  labourer  in  the  cause  of  episcopacy, 
the  celebrated  Hooker.     *^  These  two  persons,^'  says  Wal- 
ton, ^'  began  a  holy  friendship,  increasing  daily  to  so  high 
wd.  mutual  .affections,  that  their  two  wills  seemed  to  be  but 
one.  and  the  same.'^^ 

.  ^SARBIEVySKI,  or  Sarbievi^s  (Mattbias  Casimir),  a 
modern  Latin  poet,  was  born  of  illustrious  parents,  in  1595^ 
in  the  duchy  of  Masovia,  in  Poland.  He  entered  among 
the  Jesuits  in  1612,  and  was  sent  to  continue  his  theol&gi- 
x^l  studies  at  Rome,  whene  he  devoted  himself  to  the  pur- 
suit of  .antiquities,  and  indulged  his  taste  for  poetry.  Some 
L^tin  ^'  Odes,'^  which  he  presested  to  Urban  VIII.  gained 
him  that  pontiff's  esteesi,  and  the  honour  of  heing  chosen 
to  correct  the  hymns,  intended  for  a  new  breviary,  then 
composing  by  Urhan's  orders.  When  Sarbiewski  returned 
•to  Poland,  he  taught  ethics,  philosophy,  and  divinity,  suc- 
cessively at  Wilna.  Such  was  the  .esteem  in  which  he  was 
held,  that  when  admitted  to  a  doctor's  degree  there,  La- 
dislaus  V.  king  of  Poland,  who  was  present,  drew  the  ring 

^  Atb.'Ox.  Tot.  L^ZouQh's  edition  of  Walton'i  Lives.—Strype's  Life  of  W^it- 
.f'lft,  pp«  429,  441.-«8ee  tome  reSectioQS  on  his  political  conduct  at  Leyden  ip 
IS^jmann's  **  Sylloge  Epistolarom." 

15a  8ARBI£W,SKT, 

from  his  finger*  and  put  it  on  that  of  Sarbiewski ;  and  tbif 
ring  is  still  preserved  in  the  university  at  Wilna,  and  made 
we  of  in  the  inauguration  of  doctors.  Ladislaus  also  chose 
l^im  for  his.  preacher,  an  office  in  which  he  gained  great 
applause ;  and  he  was  frequently  his  oiiyesty^s  companioii 
in  his  journeys,  especially  when  he  went  to .  the  baths  of 
Baden.  Sarbiewski  was  so  enthusiastic  in. his  admiration 
of  the  Latin  poets,  that  he  is  said  to  have  re^d  Virgil  ove^ 
sixty  times,  and  other  poetical  classics  more  ^an  thirty 
times.  He  died  April  2, 1640,  aged  forty-five.  His  Latin 
poems  contain  great  beauties,  mingled  with  ^ome  defects. 
An  enlarged  and  very  elegant  edition  of  them  was  publish- 
ed at  Paris,  by  Barbou,  1759,  12mo.  They  consist  of  La<* 
tin  odes,  in  four  books;  a  book  of  epodes ;  one  of  ditby^ 
rambic  verses;  another  of  miscellaneous  poems;  and  a 
fourth  of  epigrams.  His  lyric  yerses  are  the  most  admired  j 
their  style  is  elevated,  but  they  are  sometimes  deficient  iu 
elegance  and  perspicuity.^ 

SARJEANT,  or  SERJEANT  (John),  a  secular  priest^ 
who  was  sometimes  called  Smith,  and  sometimes  Holland) 
|vas  born  at  Barrow  in  Lincolnshire,  about  1621,  and  ad-> 
mitted  of  St.  John's  college  in  Cambridge  April  12,  1639^ 
by  the  masters  and  seniors  of  which  he  wai  recommenfled 
to  bie  secretary  to  Dr.  Thomas  Morton,  bishop  of  Durham^ 
While  in  this  employment  he  entered  on  a  course  of  read* 
ing,  which  ended  in  bis  embracing  the  popish  religion. 
He  then  went  over,  to  the  English  college  of  secular  priests 
at  Lisbon  in  1642  ;  and^  after  studying  there ^ome  time,  he 
returned  to  England  in  1652,  and  was  elected  secretary  of 
the  secular  clergy,  and  employed  in  propagating  his  reli« 
gion,  and  writing  books  in  defence  of  it^  particularly  against 
Dr.  Hammond,  Dr.  Bramhall,  Dr.  Thomas  Pierce,  Dr.  Til- 
lotsou,  .Casaubon,  Taylor,  Tenison,  Stillingfleet,  Whitby, 
&c.  In  the  course  of  his  controversies  he  wrote'  about 
forty  volumes  or  pamphlets,  the  titles  of  which  may  be  seen 
in  Dodd.  He  bad  also  a  controversy  with  the  superiors  of 
his  own  communion,  of  which  Dodd  gives  a  long,  but  now 
very  uninteresting  account.  He  died,  as  his  biographer 
says^  with  the  pen  in  his  hand,  in  1707,  in  the  eighty-sixth 
year  of  his  age.* 

1  BailleU-^Nov.   Act.  Erudit:  1753,  8?o,  p.  621^624.— Diet.  Hift.--Saxii 
s  Dodd'8  Cb.  Hist.— -Birch's  Tillotson.— Aih.  Ox.  ?ol.  II. 

6  A  R  N  E  L  L  I.  |5l 

'  6ARNELLI  (Pompey),  a  leanied  Italian  prelate,  wa« 
bom  at  Poiignano  in  1649,  and  studied  principally  at  Na- 
ples. He  connnenced  bis  career  as  an  author  about  1668^ 
and  published  some  pieces  connected  with  grammar  and 
polite  literature.  In  1675,  after  he  had  been  admitted  to 
priest's  orders,  pope  Clement  X.  made  him  honorary  pro^ 
tbonotary ;  and  in  1679,  he  was  appointed  grand  vicar  to 
cardinal  Orsini,  and  obtained  other  preferment  in  th^ 
jDhurch.  He  died  in  1724,  He  was  the  author  of  abovo 
thirty  works,  enumerated  by  Niceron  and  Moreri,  of  which 
we  may  mention,  *^  Lettere  ecclesiastiche/'  in  9  vols.  4to} 
^*  II  Clero  secolare  nel  suo  Splendore,  overo  della  vita 
commune  clericale;'*  *^  Bestiarum  Schola  ad  Homines 
lerudiendos  ab  ipsa  rerum  natura  provide  instituta,  &c.  de^' 
^em  et  centum  Lectionibus  expUcata  ;'^  <^  M emorie  Grono- 
logtche  de*  Vescovi  et  Arcivescovi  di  Benevento,  con  1^ 
serie  de  Duchi  e  Principi  Lohgobardi  nella  stessa  citta  ;'^ 
^nd  the  lives  of  Baptista  Porta,  Boldoni,  &c.  He  some* 
times  wrote  under  assumed  names,  as  Solomon  Lipper, 
Esopus  Primnellius,  &c.^ 

SARPI  (Paul),  usually  called  in  England,  Father  Paul, 
in  Italian,  Fra  Paolo,  a  very  illustrious  writer,  was  born  at 
Venice  Aug.  14,  1552,  and  was  the  son  of  Francis  Sarpi^ 
a  merchant,  whose  ancestors  came  from  Friuli,  and  of  Isa- 
bella Morelli,  a  native  of  Venice.  He  was  baptized  by  the 
name  of  Peter,  which  he  afterwards,  upon  entering  intb 
his  order,  changed  for  P^ul.  His  father  followed  merchan- 
dize, but  with  so  little  success,  that  at  his  death,  he  left: 
bis  family  very  ill  provided  for,  but  under  the  care  of  a 
mother  whose  wise  conduct  supplied  the  want  of  fortune 
by  advantages  of  greater  value.  Happily  for  young  Sarpi, 
(be  had  a  brother,  Ambrosio  Morelli,  priest  of  the  collegia 
ate  church  of  St.  Hermagoras,  who  took  him  under  h\H 
care,  ^^^^'psio  was  well  skilled  in  polite  literature,  which 
he  taught  to  several  children  of  the  noble  Venetians :  and 
be  took  particular  care  of  the  education  of  his  nephew^ 
whose  abilities  were  extraordinary,  though  his  constitution 
was  very  delicate.  Paul  had  a  great  memory,  and  much 
strength  of  judgment ;  so  that  he  made  uncommon  advanceaf 
in  every  branch  of  education.  He  studied  philosophy  anfl 
divinity  under  Capella,  a  father  belonging  to  the  monastery 
of  th^'Servites  in  Venice;  and  when  only  in  bis  tendet 

I  NiceroOy  vol.  XLII.^— l^eren't  / 

154  S  A  R  P  L 

years,  made  great  progress  in  the  mathetnatios,  and  tb^ 
Greek  atrd.Hebrew  tongues.  Capella,  though  a  celebrated 
master,  confessed  in  a  little  time  that  be  could  give  his 
pupil  no  farther  instructioua^,  and  with  this  opinion  of  .his 
lalents,  prevailed  with  him  to  assume  the  religious  habit  of 
the  Serviies,  notwithstanding  his  mother  and  uncle  repre** 
seated  to  bim  the  hardships  and  austerities  of  that  kind  of 
life,  and.  advised  him  with  great  zeal  against  it.  But  be 
was  steady  in  his  resolutioos,  and  on  Nov.  24,  1566,  took 
the  habit,  and  two  years  after  made  his  tacit  profession^ 
which  he  solemnly  renewed  May  JO,  1572. 

At  this  time  he  was  in  his  twentieth  year,  and  defended 
in  a  public  assembly  at  Mantua,  several  difficult  proposi- 
tions in  natural  philosophy  and  divinity,  with  such  uscom- 
mon  genius  and  learning,  that  the  duke  of  Mantua,  a  great 
patron  of  letters,  appointed  him  his  chaplain,  at  the  same 
time  that  the  bishop  of  that  city  made  him  reader  of  canpM 
Jaw  and  divinity  in  bis  cathedral.  These  employment!! 
a^mmated  him  to  improve  himself  in  Hebrew;  and  heap- 
plied  also  with  much  vigour  to  the  study  of  history,  in  wfaiieb 
lie  was  afterwards  to  shine.  During  bis  stay  at  Mantua  he 
became  acquainted  with  many  eminent  persons ;  and  bis 
patron,  the  duke,  obliged  him  to  dispute  with  persons  of 
all  professions,  and  on  all  subjects.  Paul  bad  a  profound 
knowledge  in  the  mathematics,  but  the  utmost  cotiteiiipt 
for  judicial  astrology :"  We  cannot,'*  he  used  to  say, 
'^either  find  out,  or  we  cannot  avoid,  what  will  happfen 
hereafter/'  Fulgentio,  his  biographer,  relates  a  l^udicrQus 
story,  in  which  his  patron  appears  to  have  been  a  chief 
actor.  The  duke,  who  loved  to  soften  the  cares  of  govern- 
ment with  sallies  of  humour,  having  a  mare  ready  to^fpalisi 
mule,  engaged  Paul  to  take  the  horoscope  of  tbe  animal's 
nativity.  This  being  done,  and  the  scbeme  settled,  tbe 
duke  sent  it  to  all  tbe  famous  astrologers  in  Europe,  informir 
ing  them,  that  under  such  an  aspect  a  bastard  was  born  in 
the  duke's  palace.  Tbe  astrologers  returned  very  diSerent 
judgments ;  some  asserting  that  this  bastard  would  be  a 
cardinal,  others  a  great  warrior,  others  a  bishop,  and  others 
A  po{>e,  and-  these  wise  conjectures  ^tended  not  a  little  to 
abate  the  credulity  of  tbe  times. 

Sarpi,  however,  finding  a  court  life  unsuitable  to  bis  in^ 
4;linatioa,  left  Mantua  in  about  two  years,  and, returned  to 
bis  convent  at  Venice.  By  chis  time  he  had  made  a  sur- 
prising progress  in  tbe  canon  and  civil  law,  m  all  parts  of 

\  S  A  R  P  I.  155 

physic,  and  in  the  Cbaldee  langui^ ;  and,  as  us\taily  bi^« 
peM,  bis  great  reputation  had  exppsed  him  totinuch  envy. 
For,  before  he  left  Mantaa,  one  Claudio,  who  was  jealous 
of  bis  superior  ^talents,  accused  him  to  the  inquisition  of 
heresy^  for  .bav'tng  dented  that  the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity 
eoald  be  proved  frohxi  the  first  diapiter  of  Genesis:  but 
Paul,  appealing  to  Rome,  was  honourably  acquitted^  axsd 
the  inquisitor  reprimanded  for  presuming  to  determioe  upoit 
things  written  in  a  language  he  did  not  understands  At 
.twenty*t\vo  he  was  ordained  priest ;  and  afterwards,  when 
he  bad  taken  the  degree  of  doctor  in  divinity,  ai^d  was  ad* 
mitted  a  member  of  the  college  of  Padua,  was  chosen  pro* 
vinciai  of  his  order  for  the  province  of  Venice,  though  he 
was  then  but  twenty-six :  an  instance  which  had' never  hap- 
pened beifore  among  the  Servites.  He  acquitted  himself  in 
■this  post,  «s  he  did  in  every  other,  wji|h  the,  strictest  inte-- 
grity,  honour,  and  piety;  insomuch  that,  in  1579,  in  a 
general  chapter  held  at  Parma,  he  was  appointed,  with  two 
others,  much  bis  seniors,  to  dr&w  up  new  regulations  and 
statutes  for  bis  order.  This  employment  made  it  necessary 
for  him  to  reside  at  Kome,  where  his  exalted  talents  recom- 
inended  him  to  the  notice  of  cardinal  Alexander  Faroese, 
and  other  great  personages. 

^  His  employment  as  provincial  being  ended,  he  retired 
for  three  years,  which  he  said  was  the  only  repose  he  had 
ever  enjoyed ;  and  applied  himself  to  the  study  of  natural 
{Aiiosophy  aod  anatomy.  Among  other  experiments,  he 
employed  himself  in  the  transmutation  of  nietats ;  but  not 
with  any  view  of  discovering  the  philosopher's  stone,  which 
be  always  ridiculed  as  impossible.  In  the  course  of  his  ex- 
periments, he  made  some  discoveries,  the  honour  of  which, 
it  is  said,  has  been  appropriated  by  others.  He  likewise 
studied  anatomy,  especially  that  part  of  it  which  relates,  to 
the  eye ;  on  which  be  made  so  many  curious  observations, 
that  the  celebrated  Fabricius  ab  Aquapendente  did  not 
scruple  to  employ,  in  terms  of  the  liigbest  applause,  the 
authority  of  Paul  on  that  subject,  both  in  his  lectures  and 
writings.  Fulgentio  expresses  bis  surprise  at  Aquapen* 
dente,  for  not  acknowledging,  in  bis  <<  Treatise  of  the  Eye,'* 
the  singular  obligations  he  bad  to  Paul,  whom  he  declares 
to  have  merited  all  the  honour  of  it.  He  asserts  likewise, 
that  Paul  discovered  the  valves  which  serve  for  the  ciriau* 
lation  of  the  blood,  and  this  seems  to  be  allowed  ;  but  npt 
that  he  discovered  the  circulatibn  itself,  as  W^le&us,  Mof- 


S  A  R  I^  I. 

ho(F|  and  others  have  contended^  against  the  claim  of  our 
countryman  Harvey,  to  whom  that  discovery  has  been 
usually,  and  indeed  jastly,  ascribed. 

Father  Paul's  great  fame  would  not  suffer  him  any  longer 
to  enjoy  his  retreat :  for  be  was  now  appointed  procnrator* 
general  of  his  order;  and  during  three  years  at  Rome, 
tebere  he  was  on  that  account  obliged  to  reside,  he  disco- 
vered such  extraordinary  talents,  that  he  was  called  by  the 
pope's  command  to  assist  in  congregations  where  matters  of 
the  highest  importance  were  debated.  He  was  very  much 
esteemed  by  Sixtus  V,  by  cardinal  Bellarmine,  and  by  car«* 
dinal  Castegna,  afterwards  Urban  VII.  Upon  his  return 
to  Venice,  he  resumed  his  studies,  beginning  them  before 
6i|n-rise,  and  continuing  them  all  the  morning.  The  after- 
noons he  spent  in  philosophical  experiments,  or  in  conver- 
sation with  his  learned  friends.  He  was  now  obliged  to 
remit  a  littfefrom  his  usual  application  :  for,  by  too  intense 
9ttidy,  be  had  already  contracted  infirmities,  with  whiich  be 
was  troubled  till  old  age.  These  made  it  necessary  forhim 
to  drink  a  little  wine,  from  which  he  had  abstained  till  he 
was  thirty  years  old ;  and  he  used  to  say,  that  one  of  the 
things  of  which  he  most  repented  was,  that  he  had 
been  persuaded  to  drink  wine.  He  ate  scarce  any  thing 
but  bread  and  fruits,  and  used  a  very  small  quantity  of  food, 
because  the  least  fulness  rendered  him  liable  to  violent 
pains  of  the  head. 

His  tranquillity  was  now  interrupted  by  oth^r  causes; 
Upon  leaving  Venice  to  go  to  Rome,  he  had  left  his  friends 
under  the  direction  of  Gabriel  Collissoni,  with  whom  he 
bad  formerly  joined  in  redressing  certain  grievances.  But 
this  tnan  did  not  answer  Paul's  expectation,  being  guilty  of 
great  exactions :  and,  when  Paul  intended  to  return  to 
Venice,^  dissuaded  him  from  it,  well  knowing  that  his  return 
would  put  an  end  to  his  impositions.  He  therefore  artfully 
represented,  that,  by  staying  at  Rortie,  he  would  be  sure 
tp  make  his  fortune :  to  which  Paul,  with  more  honesty 
than  policy,  returned  an  answer  in  cypher,  that  "  there 
was  no  advancing  himself  at  the  court  of  Rome,  but  by 
scandalous  means ;  and  that,  far  from  valuing  the  dignities 
there,  he  held  them  in  the  utmost  abomination."  Aftet 
this  he  returned  to  Venice ;  and,  coming  to  an  irrecon- 
cileable  rupture  with  Collissoni,  on  account  of  his  corrupt 
pracitices,  the  latter  shewed  his  letter  in  cypher  to  cardinal 
Sant«  Se veriDa,  who  was  then  at  the  head  of  the  inquisitiotb 

S  A  R  P  L  15T 

The  cardinal  did  not  think  it  convenient  to  attack  Paiil 
himself,  although  he  shewed  his  disaffection  to  him  by  per* 
secuting  his  friends ;  ^ut  when  Paul  opposed  Collissoni^f 
being  elected  generij  of  the  order,  the  latter  accui^ed  bim 
to  the  inquisition  at  Rome  of  holding  a  correspondence  with 
the  Jews ;  and,  to  aggravate  the  charge,  produced  the  let^r 
ter  in  cypher  just  mentioned.  The  inquisitors  still  did  nol 
think  proper  to  institute  a  prosecution,  yet  Paul  was  ever 
after  considered  as  an  inveterate  enemy  to  the  court. of 
Rome.  He  was  charged  also  with  shewing  too  great  respect 
to  heretics,  who,  on  account  of  his  reputation,  came  to  see 
bim  from  all  parts ;  and  this  prevented  pope  Clement  Yllh 
from  nominating  him,  when  he  was  solicited,  to  the  see  of 
Nola«  He^vas  also  accused  of  being  an  intimate  friend  of 
Moroay,  of  Diodati,  and  several  eminent  Protestants ;  and# 
that  when  a  motion  was  made  at  Rome  to  bestow  on  him  a 
cardinal's  bat,  what  appeared  the  chief  obstacle  to  his  ad«« 
vancement  was,  his  having  more  correspondence  with  be** 
retics  than  with  Catholics.  <^  Diodati  informed  me,"  sayt 
Ancillon,  in  bis  ^^  Melange  de  Literature,"  that,  *^  observ- 
ing in  bis  conversations  with  Paul,  bow  in  many  opinions 
he  agreed  with  the  Protestants,  he  said,  be  was  extremely 
rejoiced  to  find  him  not  far  from  the  kingdom  of  heaven; 
and  therefore  strongly  exhorted  bim  to  profess  the  Protest" 
tant  religion  publicly.  But  the  father  answered,  that  ill 
was  better  for  him,  like  St.  Paul,  to  be  anathema  for  hia 
brethren ;  and  that  be  did  more  service  to  the  Protestant 
religion  in  wearing  that  habit,  than  be  could  do  by  laying 
it  aside. — The  elder  Daill^  told  me,  that  in  going  to  and 
coming  from  Rome  with  de  Villarnoud,  grandson  to  Mor- 
nay,  whose  preceptor  be  was,  he  had  passed  by  Venice,- 
and  visited  Paul,  to  whom  Mornay  bad  recommended  him 
by  letters ;  that,  having  delivered  them  to  the  father,  he 
discovered  the  highest  esteem  for  the  illustrious  Mr.  Du 
Plessis  Mornay ;  that  be  gave  the  kindest  reception  to  Mr* 
de  Villarnoud  his  grandson,  and  even  to  Mr.  Daill6 ;  that 
afterwards  Mr.  Daill£  became  very  intimate  with  fiither 
Paul,"  &c.  All  this  is  confirmed  by  father  Paul's  letters^ 
wUcb  on  every  occasion  express  the  highest  regard  for  the 

About  1602,  he  was  diverted  from  bis  private  studies, 
which  bo  had  now  indulged,  though  amidst  numerous  vex- 
atious, for  many  years,'  by  the  state  of  public  affairs.  A 
dispute  arose  between  the  republic  of  Venice  and  the  court 


8  A  R  P  I. 

, ■        »  •  •        •  ... 

of  Rome,  r^lMtng  to  ecclesiastical  immutiiti^s;  «lt()^  as 
hotb  dmhity  and  law  were  concerned  in  it,  father  Patil  was 
ti[>pointecl  divine  and  canonist  for  the  republic  of -Venice, 
to  act  in  concert  with  the  law^bnstrttdrs.  Ttie  dtspiUe  bad 
etoimenced,  and  been  carfi^d  oiij  tmder  Clement VIII. ;  bM 
when  Paul  V.  came  te  thu  pdpedotti/  he  required  absolute 
obedience  without  disputes.  At  length,  \irhen  be  found 
his  coMfftiaads  slighted,  the  pop^  excommunicated  the 
duke,  the  whole  senate,  and  all  thdi^  dominions,  in  April 
1606,  and  the  Venetians  in  return  recalled  their  ambassad6r 
at  Rome,  suspended  the  inquisition  by  drder  of  state,  arid 
published  by  sound  of  trumpet  a  proclamation  to  this  eifedl, 
viz.  "  Thdt  whosoever  hath  received  from  'Rome  any  copy 
of  a  papal  edict,  published  there,  as  well  ag!)inst  the  law  c^ 
God,  as  against  the  honour  of  this  nation,  shall  immediat€^(y 
bring  it  to  the  council  of  ten  upon  pain  of  death.'*  But  as 
the  minds,  not  only  of  the  common  burghers,  but  also  "of 
some  noble  personages  belonging  to  the  state,  were  alarmed 
at  this  papal  interdict,  Paul  endeavoured  to  relieve- their 
fears,  by  a  piece  entitled  "Consolation  of  mind,  to  quiet 
the  consciences  of  those  who  live  well,  against  the  tefrrors 
of  the  interdict  by  Paul  V."  As  this  was  written  for  th<A 
sole  use  of  the  government  under  which  he  wds  born,'it 
was  deposited  in  the  archives  of  Venice ;  till  at  letigth, 
from  a  copy  clandestinel}' taken,  it  was  first  published  at 
the  Hague,  both  in  the  Italian  and  French  latiguages,  ahd 
cbe  tome  year  in  English,  under  this  title,  '*  Thfe  Rights  df 
Sovereigns  and  Subjects,  argued  from  the  civil,  cttnon,  an*d 
coinmon  law,  under  the  several  heads  of  E^^comm'u'm^a- 
tioris,  Interdicts,  Persecution,  Councils,  Appeals,  ItifatB- 
bility,  describing  the  boundaries  of  that  power  which  is 
ebimed  throughout  Christendom  by  the  Crownand  theMitr^; 
and  of  the  privileges  which  appertain  to  the  Subjects,  both 
clergy  and  laity,  according  to  the  laws  of  God  atid-  Man.*' 
Paul  wrote,  or  assisted  in  writing  and  publishing,  several 
othdr  pieces  in  this  controversy  between  the  two  states ; 
and  bad  the  Inquisition,  cardinal  Beilarmine,  and  other 
great  personages,  for  his  antagonists.  Paul  and  his  brother 
writers,  uhatever  might  be  the  abilities  of  (heir  adyefsaries, 
were  at  least  superior  to  them  in  the  justice  of  th^ir  cause. 
The  propositions  maintained  on  the  sfide  of  Rome  were 
these;  that  the  pope  is  invested  with  all  the  authority  of 
heaven  and  earth  ;  that  all  princes  are  his  vassals,  and  that 
he  may  annul  their  laws  at  pleasure;  that  kings  may  appeal 

S  A  R  P  I.  1^9 

Id  hiia,  as  he  is  temporal  moqarch  of  the  whole  earth ;  that 
he  can  discharge  subjects  from  their  oaths  of  aUegiancey 
and  .make  it  their  duty  to  take  up  arms  against  their  80ve« 
i^eiga ;  that  he  may  depose  kings  without  any  fault  commit- 
1^  by  tbem>  if  the  good  of  the  church  requires  it-;  that  the 
^l^cgy  are  .exeaipt  from  all  tribute  to  kings,  and  are  not 
acoountable  to  them  even  in  cases  of  high  treason ;  that  the 
pope  cannot  err;  that  bis. decisions  are  to  be^recieiTed  and 
obeyed  on  pain  of  sin,  though  all  the  world  should  judge 
tbem  to  be  false;  that  the.  pope  is  God  upon  earth,  and 
that  tacall  bis  power  in  question,  is  to  ciA  in  question 'the 
l^^er  of  God; — maxims  equally  shocking,  weak,  perni-^ 
cious,  and  absurd,  which  did  not  require  the  abilities  or 
learning  of  father  Paul,  to  dedionstrate  their  falsehood,  and 
jdestructive  tendency.     The  court  of  Rome,  however,  w€» 
aow  so  exasperated  against  him,  as  to  cite  him  by  a  decree^i 
Oct.  .30,  1606,  under  pain,  of  absolute  excommunication, 
to  appear,  in  person  at  Rome,  to  answer  the  charges  of 
heresies  .against  him. .  Instead  of  appearing,  he  published 
a  nianifesto,  shewing  the  invalidity  of  the '  summons ;  yet 
offered  to  dispute  with  any  of  the  pope^s  advocates,  in  a 
place  of  safety,  on  the  articles  laid  to  his  charge. 
.   In  April  1607,  the  division  between  Rome  and  the  re- 
pipl^lic  was  healed. hy  the  interposition  of  France ;  aud  Ful- 
geniio  relates,  that  the  affair  was  transacted  at  Rome  hy 
cardinal  Perron,  according  to  the. order  of  the  king  bis 
master.     But  some  English  writers  are  of  opinion,  that  ibis 
a^^conimodation  between  the  Venetians  and  the  pope  was 
owiug'tQ.the.  misconduct  of  king  James  I.,  who,  if  he  had 
heartily  supported   the  Venetians,   would  certainty  have 
disunited  them  from  the  see  of  Rome.     Isaac  Walton  ob- 
serves, that  during  the  dispute  it  was  reported  ahfoad, 
**  that,  the  Venetians  were  all  turned  Protestants,  which  was 
believed  by  many :  for  it  was  observed,  that  the  English 
ambassador.  (Wotton)  WdLS  often  in  conference  with,  the  se- 
nate ;  and  his  chaplain,  Mr.  Bedel,  more  often  with  father 
Paul,  whom  the  people  did  not  take  to  be  his  friend;  and 
also^  for  that  the  republic  of  Venice  was  known  to  give 
commission  to  Gregory  Justiniauo,  then  their  ambassador 
i^  England,  to  make  all  these  proceedings  known  to  the 
\\ng  of  England,  and  to  crave  a  promise  of  his  assistaocie, 
ijf  need  should  require,"  &c.     Burnet  tells  us,  ^*  That  the 
breach  between  the  pope  and  the  republic  was  brought  very 
near  a  crisis,  so  that  it  was  expected  a  total  separation  not 

160  S  A  R  P  t 

only  from  thi  court,  but  the  church  of  Rome,  was  like  td 
follow  upon  it.  It  was  set  on  by  father  Paul  and  the  seven 
divines  with  much  zeal,  and  was  very  prudently  conducted 
by  them.  In  order  to  the  advancing  of  it,  king  James  or- 
dered his  ambassador  to  offer  all  possible  assistance  to  them^ 
and  to  accuse  the  pope  and  the  papacy  as  the  chief  authors 
of  all  the  mischiefs  of  Christendom.  Father  Paul  and  the 
seven  divines  pressed  Mr.  Bedel  to  move  the  ambassador  to 
present  king^  James's  premonition  to  all  Christian  princes 
and  states,  then  put  in  Latin,  to  the  senate;  and  they 
were  confident  it  would  produce  a  great  effect.  But  the 
ambassador  could  not  be  prevailed  on  to  do  it  at  that  tinle ; 
and  pretended,  that  since  St  James's  day  was  not  far  off, 
it  would  be  more  proper  to  do  it  on  that  day.  Before  St. 
James'sday  came,  the  difference  was  madeup,  and  that  happy, 
opportunity  was  lost ;  so  that  when  he  had  his  audience  on 
that  day  in  which  he  presented  the  book,  all  the  ahswjer  he 
got  was,  that  they  thanked  the  king  of  England  for  his  good 
will,  but  they  were  now  reconciled  to  the  pope;  and  that 
therefore  they  were  resolved  not  to  admit  any  change  in 
their  religion,  according  to  their  agreement  with  the  court 
of  Rome.''  Welwood  relates  the  same  story,  and  imputes 
the  miiscarriage  of  that  important  affair  to  *^  the  conceit  of 
pjreaenting  king  James's  book  on  St.  James's  day."  But 
Dr.  Hickes  attempts  to  confute  this  account,  by  observing, 
that  the  pope  and  the  Venetians  were  reconciled  in  1607, 
and  that  the  king's  premonition  came  not  out  till  1609, 
which  indeed  appeara  to  be  true ;  so  thatj  if  the  premoni« 
lion  was  really  presented,  it  must  have  been  only  in  manu* 

The  defenders  of  the  Venetian  rights  were,  though  com-- 
prehended  in  the  treaty  of  April  1607,  excluded  by  the 
Romans  from  the  benefit  of  it ;  some,  upon  different  pre« 
tences,  were  imprisoned,  some  sent  to  the  gallies,  and  all 
debarred  from  preferment.  Bnt  then  their  malice  was 
obiefiy  aimed  against  father  Paul,  who  soon  found  the  ef-^ 
fects  of  it;  for,  on  Oct.  5,  1607,  he  was  attacked,  on  hit 
neturn  to  his  convent,  by  five  assassins,  who  gave  him  fif-> 
teen  wounds,  and  left  him  for  dead.  Three  of  these 
wounds  only  did  execution  :  he  received  two  in  the  neck; 
the  third  was  made  by  the  stiletto's  entering  his  right  ear^ 
ond  Coming  out  between  the  nose  and  right  cheek ;  and  so 
violent  was  the  stab,  that  the  assassin  was  obliged  to>  leave 
his  weapon  in  the  wound.    Being  come  to  himself^  and 

S  A  R  P  L  461 

having  bad  bis  wounds  dressed,  be  told  those  about  hitn^ 
that  the  first  two  he  had  received  seemed  like  two  flashes 
of  fire,  wbic^i  shot  upon  him  at  the  same  instant;  and 
that  at  the  third  he  thought  himself  loaded  as  it  were  with 
a  prodigious  weight,  which  stunned  and  quite  confounded 
his  senses.  The  assassins  retired  to  the  palace  of  thepope^s 
nuncio  at  Venice,  whence  they  escaped  that  evening  either 
to  Ravenna  or  Ferrara.  These  circumstances  di^covefed 
Who  were  at  the  bottom  of  the  attempt;  and  Paul  himself 
once,  when  his  friend  Aquapendente  was  dressing  bis 
wounds,  could  not  forbear  saying  pleasantly,  that'^^tbey 
were  made  Sfilo  Romariie  Curia.*^  The  person  who  drew 
the  stiletto  out  of  hi^  head,  was  desirous  of  having  it ;  but, 
as  father^s  PauPs  escape  seemed  somewhat  miraculous,  it 
was  thought  right  to  preserve  the  bloody  instrument  as  a 
public  monument :  and  therefore  it  was  hung  at  the  feet  of 
a  crucifix  in  the  church  of  the  Servites,  with  the  inscrip- 
tion, "  Deo  Filio  Liberatori,"  ^  To  God  the.  Son  the  De- 
liverer." The  senate  of  Venice,  to  shew  the  high  regard 
they  had  for  Paul,  and  their  detestation  of  this  horrid  at^ 
tempt,  broke  up  immediately  on  the  news ;  came  to  the 
monastery  of  the  Servites  that  night  in  great  numbers ;  or** 
dered  the  physicians  to  bring  constant  accounts  of  him  to 
the  senate ;  and  afterwards  knighted  and  richly  rewarded 
Aquapendente  for  his  great  care  of  him. 

How  scandalous  soever  this  design  against  bis  life  was,  it 
was  attempted '  again  more  than  once,  even  by  monks  of 
his  own  order :  but  the  senate  took  all  imaginable  precau- 
tions for  his  security,  and  he  himself  determined  to  livcfe. 
more  privately.  In  his  recess,  he  applied  himself  to  write 
his  "  History  of  the  Council  of  Trent,"  for  which. he  had 
begun  to  collect  materials  long  before.  Walton  tells  us^ 
tha(  the  contests  between  the  court  of  Rome  and  the  senate 
of  Venice  '"  were  the  occasion  of  father  Paul's  knowledge 
and  interest  with  king  James,  for  whose  sake  principally 
he  compiled  that  eminent  history  of  the  remarkable  coun;<* 
cil  of  Trent;  which  history  was,  as  fast  as  it  tvas  written^ 
sent  in  several  sheets  in  letters  by  sir  Henry  Wotton,  Mr. 
Bedell,  and  others,  unto  king  James,  and  the  then  bishop 
6f  Canterbury,  into  England."  Wotton  relates,  that 
James  himself  '^  had  a  hand  in  it ;  for  the  benefit,"  headds^ 
**  of  the  Christian  world."  This  history  was, first  published 
by  sir  Nath.  Brent  (See  Brent),  at  London,' in  1619,  in 
folio,  under  the  feigned  name  of  Pietro  Soav^  Polano^ 

Vou  XXVII.  M 

162  S  A  R  P  l 

which  is  an  anagram  of  Paolo  Sarpi  Venetiaik),-  and  dedf* 
cated  to  James  I.  by  Antony  de  Dominis,  archbishop  of 
Spalatro^  It  was  afterwards  translated  into  Latin,  English^ 
French,-  and  other  languages ;  and  a  new  translation  oT  it 
into  French  by  Dr.  le  Courayer^  with  notes  critical,  his-^ 
torical,  and  theological,  was  published  at  London,  173o> 
5  vols,  folioi  Burnet's  account  of  this  work  may  serve  to 
ihew  the  opinion  which  Protestants  of  all  communities  have 
ever  entertained  of  it :  "The  style  and  way  of  writing,'.' 
says  he,  ^^  is  so  natural  and  masctiline,  the  intrigues  wer« 
80  fully  opened,  with  so  many  judi-ciou^  reflections  in  att 
the  parts  of  it,  that  as  it  was  read  with  great  pleasure,  so  it 
was  generally  looked  on  as  the  rarest  piece  of  history 
which  the  world  ever  saw.  The  author  was  soon  guessed, 
and  that  raised  the  esteem  of  the  work :  for  as^  he  was  ac-^ 
fjottnted  one  of  the  wisest  men  in  the  world,  so  he  had  great 
opportunities  to  gather  exact  informations.':  He  had  free 
access  to-all  the  archives  of  the  republic  of  Venice,  which 
has  been  now  looked  on  for  several  ages  as  very  exact, 
twoth  in  getting  good  intelligence,  and  in  a  most  careful  way 
of  preserving  it :  so  that  among  their  records  he  must  have 
found  the  dispatches  of  the  ^ambassadors  and  prelates  6f 
fhat  republic,  who  were  at  Trent ;  which  being  so  neat 
them,  atid  the  council  being  of  such  high  consequence,  it 
k  not  to  be  doubted,  but  there  were  frequent  and  parti-r 
l^lar  informations,  both  of  more  public  and  sfecreter  trains- 
aetidns  transmitted  thither.  He  had  also  contracted  a  close 
friefidship  with  Camillus  Oliva,  that  was  secretary  to  one  of 
the  legates,  from  whom  be  had  many  discoveries  of  the 
pf^ctices  of  the  legates,  and  of  their  correspondence  with 
Kotn« :  besides  many  other  (Materials  and  notes  of  -some 
prelates  wlio  were  at  Trent,  which  he  had  gathered  toge-* 
ther.  His  work  came  out  within  fifty  years  of  the  conclu'* 
tion  of  the  council,  when  several,  who  had  been  present 
tttere;  were  still  alLve  ;  and  the  thing  was  $o  recent  in  linen's- 
0iei^ories,  that  few  thought  a  man  of  so  great  prudence  as 
^ewasvould  have  exposed  his  reputation,  by  writing  in 
^uch  a  nice  manner  things  which  he  could  not  justiiFy* 
Never  was  there  a  man  more  hated  by  the  coilrt  of  Rome. 
^haTi  he  was ;  and  now  he  was-  at  their  m^rcy,  if  he  had 
^bused  the  world  by  such  falsehoods  in  matter  of  fact,  as 
have  been  since  charged  on  his  work ;  but  none  appeared 
l^gainst  him  for  fifty  years.'* 

Early  ip  the  winter  of  1622,  bis  health  began  to  decline 

B  A  R  p  r.  f^ 

gt^Hy ;  and  he  Islnguished  till  January  tbe  14tb,  w|ien  h^ 
expired,  in  his  seventy-second  yean  He  behaved  with  tbii 
greatest  eotistancy  and  piety  during  bis  illness,  and  tbe  last 
wordft  be  uttered  were  "  Esto  perpetua/'  which  was  under«» 
itood  to  be  a  prayer  for  the  republic. 

When  tbe  tiews  of  bis  deaib  reached  Rone,  the  courtiers 
rejoiced  ;  nor  could  tbe  pope  himself  forbear  saying,  tbst 
the  hand  of  God  was  visible  in  taking  him  out.of  tbe  worid^ 
as  if  it  bad  been  a  miracle  surely  that  a  man  of  seventy-two 
should  die!  bis  funeral  was  disiinguisbed  by.ltbe  public 
magnificence  of  it,  and  the  vast  concourse  of  nobility  and 
persons  of  all  ranks  attending  it :  and  tbe  senate,  out  of 
gratitude  to  his  memory,  erected  a  monument  to  him,  tbe 
inscriptioi)  upon  which  was  written  by  John  Anthony  Ve« 
nerio,  a  noble  V^netiaii.  He  was  of  middle  stature;  bis 
head  very  large  in  proportion,  to  his  body,  which  was  ex« 
tremely  lean.  He  had  a  wide  forehead,  in  tbe  middle  of 
wbich  was  a  very  large  vein.  *  His  eye* brows  were* well 
arched,  his  eyes  large,  black,  and  sprightly ;  bis  nose  long 
and  large;  l^s  beard  but  thin.  His  aspect,  though  grave»' 
was  extremely  soft  and  inviting;  and  be  bad  a  very  fii>0 
hand-  Fulgentio  relates,  that  though  several  kic^gs  En4 
princes  bad  desired  him  to  sit  for  bis  picture,  yeb  b§  n^^ei* 
would  suffer  it  to  be  drawn  ;  but  sir  Henry  Wottoni  in  bis< 
letter  to  Dr*  Collins,  writes  thus  :  *^  And  now,  sir,  .havir|]g 
ft  fit  messenger,,  and  not  long  after  the  time  when  love« 
tokens  use  to  pass  between  friends,  let  me  be  bold  to  send 
you  for  a  new-year's  gitt  a  certain  memorial^  not  altogether 
unworthy  of  some  entertainment  under  your  roof ;  na^oelyy 
a  true  picture  of  father  Paul  the  Servite,  wbicb  was  fira8( 
taken  by  a  painter  whom  I  sent  uoto  bim;  my  house  then 
neigbbouring  bis  monastery.  I  have  newly  added  there* 
tontu  a  title  of  -my  own  conception,'  ^^  Concilii  Tridentiui 
Eviscerator,  &c. — You  will  find  a  scar  iu  his  face,  that  was 
from  the  Roman  assassinate,  that  would  have  killed  bia  as 
be  was  turned  to  s^wall  near  bis  convent/' 

Father  Fulgentio,*  bis  friend  and  companion,  who  was  a 
man  of  great  abilities  and  integrity,  and  is  allowed  on  alt. 
bands  to  have  drawn  up  Paul's  life  with  great  judgment 
and  impartiality,  observes,  that,  notwithstanding  the  ani- 
mosity of  the  court  of  Rome  against  him,  the  most  eminent 
prelates  of  it  always  expressed  the  highest  regard  for  him ; ; 
and  Protestants  of  all  communities  have,  justly  supposed 
him  one  of  tbe  wisest  and  best  men  that  ever  lived*     <^  Fa? ; 

^  2 

1^  S  A'R  PJ. 

ther  P.aul,**  says  sir  Henry  Wotton,  "  was  one  of  the  hum- 
blest things  that  could  be  seen  within  the  bounds  of  hu- 
manity ;  the  very  pattern  of  that  pre<;e(>t,  quanta  tloctior, 
40nto  subniissiory  and   enough  alone  lo  demonstrate,  that 
knowledge  well  digested  nan  inflat.     Excellent  in  positive, 
excellent  in  scholastical  and  polemical,  divinity  :  a  rare 
naibematician,  even  in  the  most  abstruse  parts  thereof,  as 
in  algebra  and  the  tbeoriques;  and  yet  withal  so  expert  in 
.the  history  of  plants,  as  if  he  had  never  perused  any  book 
i>Qt  nature.     Lastly,  a  great  canonist,  which,  was  the  title 
of  his  ordinary  service  with  the  state  \  and  certainly,  in  the 
'time  of  the  pope's  interdict,  they  had  their  principal  light 
from  him.     When  he  was  either  reading  or  writing  alone, 
his  manner  was  to  sit  fenced  with  a  castle  of  paper  about 
his  ebair  and. over  his  head;  for  he  was  of  our  lord  St» 
J^lban^si  opinion,  that  all  air  is  predatory,  and  especially 
hurtful,  when  the. spirits  are  most  employed. — He  was  of  a 
quiet  and  settled  temper,  which  made  him  prompt  in  his 
counsels  and  answers ;  and  the  same  in  consultation  which 
Themistocles  was  in  action,  iura-x^ia^.w  Inamarog^  as   will 
appear  unto  you  in  a  passage  between  him  and  the  prince 
of  CoikI^.     The  said  prince,  in  a  voluntary  jourRey  to 
Rome,  came  by  Venice^  where,  to  give  some  vent  to  his 
own  humours,  he  would  often  divest  himself  of  bis  great- 
ness ;  and  after  other  less  laudable  curiosities,  uot  long  be- 
fore his  departure,  a  desire  took  him  to  visit  the  famovt 
obscure  Servite.     To  whose  cloyster  coming  twice,  he  was 
the  first  time  denied  to  be  within  ;  and  at  the  second  it  was 
intimated,  that,  by  reason  of  bis  daily  admission  to  their 
deliberations  in  the  palace,  he  could  not  receive  the  visit 
of  so  illustrious  a  personage,  without  leave  from  the  senate, 
which  he  would  seek  to  procure.     This  set  a  greater  edge 
tipo.n  the  prince,  when  he  saw  he  should  confer  with  one 
participant  of  nwre  than  monkish  speculations.     So,  after 
leave  gotten,^  be  came  the  third  time ;  and  then,  besides 
other  voluntary  disoourse,  destined  to  be  told  by  him,  who  was. 
the  true  unmasked  author  of  the -late  Tridentine  History? 
-^To  whom  father  Paul  said,  that  he  understood  he  was 
going  to  Rome,  where  he  might  learn  at  eaise,  who  was 
the  author  of  that  book.'* 

Cardinal  Perron  gave  his  opinion  of  father  Paul  in  these 
terms  :  <^  I  see  nothing  eminent  in  that  man ;  be  is  a  man 
of  judgment  and  good  sense,'  but  has  no  great  learning :  I 
obaerre  bis  qualifications  to  be  mer4S  common  ones^  and 

S  A  R  P  I.  ISS 

little  superior  to  an  ordinary  monk's/*     But  the  learned 
Morhoff  has  justly  remarked,  ti^iat  ^<  thi^  judgment  of  Per- 
ron is  absurd  and  maligf^ant,  and  directly  contrary  to  the 
clearest  evidence ;  since   those   who  are  acquainted  with 
the  great  things  done  by  father  Paul,  and  with  the  vast 
extent  of  his  learnings   will   allow   him   to   be  superior^ 
not  only  to  monks,    but   cardinals,  and  even  to   Perron 
himself."      Courayer,   his   French  translator,    ^^'h   ^hat 
**  in  imitation  of  Erasmus,  Cassander,  Thuanus,  and  other 
great  men,  Paul  was  a  Cathoiic*  in  general,   and  some- 
times a  Protestant  in  particulars.    'He  observed  every  thing 
in  the  Roman  religion,  which  could  be  practised  without 
superstition  ;  and,  in  points  which  be  scrupled,  took  great 
care  not  to  scandalize  the  weak.  •  In  short,  he  was  equally 
averse  to  alt  extremes :  if  he  disapproved  the  abuses  of  the 
Catholics,  he  condemned  also  the  too  great  heat  of  the 
reformed  ;  and  used  to  say  to  those  who  urged  him  to  de- 
clare himself  in  favour  of  the  latter,  that  God  had  not 
given  him  the  spirit  of  Luther.''  —  Courayer  likewise  ob-» 
serves,  that  Paul  wished  for  a  reformation  of  the  Papaoy^ 
and  not  the  destruction  of  it ;  and  was  an  enemy  to  the 
abuses  and  pretences  of  the  ^opes,  not  tfaetr  place/'     We 
see  by  several  of  Paul's  letters,  that  be  wished  well  to  the 
progress  of  the  relbrmation,  though  in  a  gentler  manner 
than  that  which  bad  been  taken  to  procure  it;  and,  if  he 
limself  had  been  silent  on  this  head,  we  might  have  col-^ 
iected  his  inclinations  this  way,  from  circumstances  relat- 
iirg  to  Fulgentio,  the  most  intimate  of  his  friends,  and  who 
waii  best  acquainted  with  his  sentiments.     Burnet  iolbrms 
us,    that    Fulgentio    preaching    upon    Pilate's    question, 
**  What  is  Truth  ?"  told  the  audience^  that  at  last,  after 
many  searches,  he  had  found  it  out:  and  holding  forth  a 
New  Testament,  said,  it  was  therein  his  hand;  but,  adds  be, 
putting  it  again  in  his  pocket,  *'  the  book  is  prohibited.'' 

Of  father  Paul's  whole  works,  *^  Tutte  le  sue  opere^  oon 
un  supplemento,"  an  edition  was  published  at  Verona, 
Under  the  name  of  Helmsted,  1761^-68,  S  vols,  4to$  and 
another  at  Naples  in  1790,  24  vols.  8vo.  In  1788,  ^  trea- 
tise was  published  at  London  in  Italian,  entitled  '^  Qpi- 
nione'di  Fra  Paolo  Sarpi,  toccente  il  governo  della  repub- 
lica  Veneziana,"  8vo,  we  know  not  whether  in  any  of.  the 
preceding  editions.  Of  his  works,  we  have  English  trans- 
lations, printed  at  vairious  times,  of  "  The  Rights  of  Sove- 
reigns and  Subjects,"  *'  The  History  of  the  Council  of 

166  S  A  R  T  O. 

the  barpsiebord,  with  a  flute  accompaniment,  Afust^aof, 
Three,  sonatas,  in  London,  1769.  *^  GiuUo  Sabino  cba^ 
racteristica/'  Vienna,  1787.* 

SARTO  (Andr£A  del),  or  Vannucchi,  a  famous  It^ian 
painter,  was  the  son  of  a  tailor,  whence  he  bad  the  name 
of  Sarto,  and  was  born  at  Florence  in  1471.  He  was  np^ 
prenticed  to  a  goldsmith,  with  whom  he  lived  sometime^ 
but  was  then  placed  with  John  Basile,  an  ordinary  painter, 
who  taught  him  the  rudiments  of  his  art ;  and  afterwards 
with  Peter  Cosimo,  and  while  with  him,  studied  the  ear«^ 
toons  of  Michael  Angelo  and  Leonardo  da  Vinci ;  and  by 
these  oneans  arrived  at  a  mastery  in  his  art.  Being  at  last 
dissatisfied  with  bis  master,  he  associated  with  Francia 
Bigio,  and  they  painted  various  pieces  in  conjunction,  at 
Florence  and  about  it,  for  the  monasteries.  At  length 
come  of  Sarto's  pieces  falling  under  the  notice  of  Francis  X, 
tliat  monarch  was  so  pleased  with  them,  that  he  invited 
Barto  into  France,  and  treated  him  with  great, liberality. 
He  executed  many  pictures  for  the,  king  and  the  nobility ; 
but,  while  employed  upon  a  St.  Jerome  for  the  queens- 
mother,  he  received  letters  from  his  wife,  with  whom  het  was 
infatuated,  which  made  him  resolve  to  return  thither.  He 
pretended  domestic  affairs,  yet  promised  the  king  not  only 
to  return,  but  also  to  bring  with  him  a  good  collection  of 
pictures  and  sculptures.  In  this,  however,  he  was  over* 
ruled  by  bis  wife,  and,  never  returning,  gave  Francis^  who 
bad  trusted  him  with  a  considerable  sum  of  money,  so  bad 
9n  opinion  of  JPlorentine  painters,  that  he  would  not  look 
favourably  on  them  for  some  years  after.  Sarto  afterwards 
gave  hinpself  up  wholly  to  pleasure,  and  became  at  length 
very  poor.  He  was  naturally  liiild  and  diffident,  and  set 
but  ver}'  little  value  upon  bis  own  performances:  yet  th« 
Florentines  bad  so  great  an  esteem  for  his  works^  that^ 
during  the  fury  of  the  popular  factions  among  ihem,  they 
preserved  them  from  the  flames.  Sarto  died  of  the  plague 
in  ]  ^20,  when  only  42.  Sarto's  works,  in  Mr.i  Fuseli'a 
Opin^n  seem  to  have  obtained  their  full  share  of  justice* 
As  a  Tuscan,  the  suavity  of  his  tone  and  facility  of  prac- 
tice contrast  more  strikingly  with  the  general  austerity  aud 
elaborate  pedantry  of  that  school,  and  gain  him  greater 
praise *tfaan  they  would,  had  he  been  a  Bolognese  or  Lorn-' 
bard.*  It  cannot,  however,  be  denied  that  his  sweetness 
spmatimes  borders  on  insipidity :  the  modesty  or  rather 

1  From  Dr.  Burney  in  Rees's  Cyclopaedia.  ^ 

S  A  R  T  O.  UB 

pasiHaniinity  of  his  character  cheeked  the  £dll  ^certion  of 
his  powers ;  his  faults  are  of  the  negative  kind,  and  defects 
rather  than  blemishes.  He  had  no  notions  of  nature  be^ 
yond  the  model,  and  concentrated  all  female  beauty  in  his 
wif^^Lucretia ;  and  if  it  be  true  that  he  sacrificed  his  for^ 
tune  and  Francis  L  to  her  charms,  she  must  at  least  have 
equalled  in  form  and  feature  bis  celebrated  Madonna  del 
Sacca  !  hence  it  was  not  unnatural  that  the  proportions  of 
Albert  Durer  should  attract  him  more  than  those  of  Mi^ 
cbaelagnolo.  His  design  and  his  conceptions,  which  seU 
dom  rose  above  the  sphere  of  common  or  domestic  lifc^ 
kept  pace  with  each  other ;  here  his  observation  was  acute^ 
and  his  ear  open  to  every  whisper  of  social  intercourse  or  emo» 
tion.  The  great  peculiarity,  perhaps  the  great  prerogativoi 
of  Andrea  appears  to  me  that  parallelism  of  oompositionj 
which  distinguishes  the  best. of  his  historic  works,  seem* 
ingly  as  natural,  obvious  and  easy,  as  inimitable.  In  so* 
lemn  eflPects,  in  alternate  balance  of  action  and  repose,  b« 
excels  all  the  moderns ;  and  if  he  was  often  unable  to  eoii^ 
ceive  the  actors  themselves,  he  gives  them  probability  and 
importance  by  place  and  posture.  Of  costume  he  was 
ignorant,  but  none  ever  excelled  and  few  approached  him 
in  breadth,  form,  and  style  of  that  drapery  which  ought  4o 
distinguish  solemn,  grave,  or  religious  subjects.  ^    • 


SAUNDERS  (Sir  Edmund),  lord  chief  justice  of  the 
King's  Bench  towards  the  close  of  the  seventeenth  cett<* 
tury,  seems  entitled  to  some  notice  on  account  of  hts 
^^  Reports/'  although  his  character  in  other  respects  may 
as  well  be  consigned  to  oblivion.  He  was  originally  a 
strolling  beggar  d.bout  the  streets,  without  known  parents 
or  relations.  He  Came  often  to  beg  scraps  at  Clement's 
Inn,  where  bis  sprightliness  and  diligence  made  the  society 
desirous  to  extricate  him  from  his  miserable  situation.  As 
he  appeared  desirous  to  learn  to  write,  one  of  the  attornies 
fixed  a  board  up  at  a  window  on  the  top  of  a  stair-case^ 
which  served  him  as  a  desk,  and  there  he  sat  and  wrote 
after  copies  of  court  and  other  bands,  in  which  at  length 
he  acquired  such  expertness,  as  in  some  measure  to  set 
up  for  himself,  and  earn  a  pittance  by  hackney-writing. 
He  also  took  all  opportunities  of  improving  himself  by 
reading  such  books  as  he  borrowed  of  his  friends,  and  in 

->  ArgeavUlei  vol.  li— PilkinstOB  by  FaseU. 

am  S  A  U  N  D  E  R  S. 

tbe  course  of  a  few  years,  became  an  able  attorney  and  a 
rvery  eminent  'counsel,  his  practice  in  the  King*s-beoch 
-being  exceeded  by  none.  All'this  would  have  redounded 
•to.  his' honour,-  had  his  progress  in  integrity  kept  pace  with 
ofcher  accomplishments,  but  he  appears  to  have  brought  into 
ills  profession  the  low  habits  of  his  early  life,  and  became 
as  iMucb  a  disgrace  as  an  ornament  to  the  bar.  His  art  and 
cunning  were  equal  to  his  knowledge,  and  he  carried  many 
a  cause  by  sinister  means,  and  when  detected,  he  never 
was  out  of  countenance,  but  evaded  the  matter  with  a  jest, 
which  he  had  always  at  hand.  He  was  much  employed  by 
the  king  against  the  city  of  London,  in  the  business  of  the 
quo  warranto,  and  ^vas  a  very  fit  tool  in  the  hands  of  the 
court,  and  prompted  the  attorney- general  Sawyer,  to  over- 
throw the  city  charter*  It  was  when  this  affair  was  to  be 
brought  to  a  decision,  that  Saunders  was  knighted  and 
aade.  lord  chief  justice  Jan.  25,  1682-3.  But  just  as  sen-^ 
tence  was  about  to  be  given,  he  was  seized  with  an  apo^ 
plexy  and  died.  In  our  authority,  a  disgusting  descriptioit 
is  given  of  his  person,  which  seems  to  have  corresponded 
wkh  his  mind.  >    . 

His  ^^  Reports*'  are  considered  as  peculiarly  valuable^ 
PB  .account  of  the  correct  state  of  the  pleadings  in  the  ise- 
veral  cases  in  the  court  of  King's-bench. .  They  were  first 
published  in  French,  1686,  2  vols.  fol.  and  reprinted  in 
English,'  with  the  addition  of  several  thousand  references, 
in  1722.  A  third  edition,  by  serjeant  Williams,  appeared 
in  1799^  with  notes  and  references,  2  vols.  8vo,  usually 
bound  in  three- " 

;  SAUNDEBSON  {Nicolas),  an  illustrious  professor  of 
the  n^athiematics  in  the  university  of  Cambridge,  and  fel*^ 
low  of  the  Royal  Society,  was  born  in  1682,  atThurlston 
in  Yorkshire ;  where  ^is  father,  besides  a  small  estate^  en* 
joyed  a  place. in  the  Excise.  When  he  was  a  year  old,  he 
was  deprived,  by  the  small-pox^  not  only  of  his  sight,  but 
pf  his- eye-balls^  which  were  dissolved  by  abscesses;  so 
that  he,  retained  no  more  idea  of  light  and  colours  than  if 
he  ha,d  been  bom  blind.  He  was  sent  early  to  a  free^ 
sebool  at  Penniston,  and  there  laid  the  foundation  of  that 
kndwle^lge  of  the  /Greek  and  Roman  languages,  which  he 
aftetiwards  improved  so  far,  by  his  own  application  to  the 
cla^^ic:  ^ulhors^  as  to.  hear  the  works  of  Euclid,  Archimedes,; 

i  North's  Liv^p  of  ttie  ChapGellors,-«*BHniet'^  Ovo  Timel^.^Qraoger. 


S  A  U  N  D  E  »  S  O  N.  IM 

juicl  Diophantus,  read  in  their  brigioal  Greek,  When  he 
had  passed  spme  time  at  this  school,  bis  father,  whose  oc*'' 
cupation  led  him  to  be  conversant  in  numbers,  began  to 
instruct  hicn  in  the  common  rules  of  arithmetic.  Here  it 
was  that  his  genius  first  appeared :  for  be  very  soon  he-* 
came  able  to  work  the  common  questions,  to  make  long 
calculations  by  the  strength  of  bis  memory,  and  to  form 
new  rules  to  himself  for  the  more  ready  solving  of  such 
problems  as  are  often  proposed  to  learners,  as  trials  of 
skill.  At  eighteen,  he  was  introduced  to  the  acquaintance 
of  Richard  West  of  Underbank,esq.  a  gentleman  of  fortune^ 
and  a  lover  of  the  mathematics,  who,  observing  his  unGom<* 
mou  capacity,  took  the  pains  to  instruct  him  in  the  prihci** 
pies  of  algebra  and  geometry,  and  gave  him  every  encou- 
ragement in  the  proiiecution  of  these  studies.  Soon  after, 
he  became  acquainted  with  Dr.  Nettleton,  who  took  the 
same  pains  with  him ;  and  it  was  to  these  gentlemen  tha6 
be  owed  his  first  in&titution  in  the  mathematical  sciences.^ 
They  furnished  him  with  books,  and  often  read  and  ex- 
pounded them  to  him. ;  but  he  soon  surpassed  hi$  masters^ 
and  became  fitter  to  teach  than  learn  any  thing  from  them. 
His  passion  for  learning  growing  up  with  him,  his  father 
sent  him  to  a  private  academy  at  Atterqliff  near  Sheffield; 
6ut  logiq  and  metaphysics  being  the  principal  learning  of. 
this  school,  were  neither  of  them  agreeable  to  the  genius, 
of  our  author ;  and  therefore  be  made  but  a  short  stay** 
He  remained  some  time  after  in  the  country,  prosecuting, 
bis  stt^dies  in  his  own  way,  without  any  other  assistant? 
than  a  good  author,  and  some  person  that  could  read  it  to. 
bim;.  being  abje,  by  the  strength,  of  his  own  abilities,  ta 
surmount  all  difficulties  that  might  occur.  His  educatioa' 
had  bithei[to  been  at  the  expence  of  his  father^  who,  hav«- 
ing  <a  numerous  family,  found  it  difficult  to  continue  it ;' 
and  bis  friends  therefore  began  to  think  of  fixing  him  in^' 
some  way  of  business,  by  which  he  might  support  himsellv; 
His  own  inclination  led  him  strongly  to  Cambridge;  and, 
after  much  consideration,  it  was  resolved  he  should  make> 
his  appearance  there  in  a  way  very  uncommon ;  not  as  a, 
scholar,  but  a  master;  for,  his  friends,  observing  in  him  a- 
peculiar  felicity  in  conveying  his  ideas  to  others,  hoped 
that  be  might  teach  the  mathematics  with  credit  and  ad- 
vantage, even  in  the  university ;  or,  if  this  design  shouldr 
miscarry,  they  promised  themselves  success  in  opening  a 
school  for  him  in  London< 

J7«  S  A  U  N  D  E  11  S  O  N. 

Accordingly,  iii  1707,  being  now  twenty-five,  he  wa« 
brought  to  Cambridge  by  Mr.  Joshua  Dunn,  then  a  fellow- 
cominoner  of  Christ^s  college ;  where  he  resided  with  that 
friend,  but  was  not  admitted  a  member  of  the  college.  The 
society,  however,  much  pleased  with  so  extraordinary  a 
guest,  allotted  him  a  chamber,  the  use  of  their  library, 
and  indulged  him  in  every  privilege  that  could  be  of  ad- 
vantage to  him.  But  still  many  difficulties  obstructed  his 
design  :  he  was  placed  here  without  friends,  without  for* 
tune,  a  young  man,  untaught  himself,  to  be  a  teacher  of 
philosophy  in  an  university,  where  it  then  flourished  in 
the  greatest  perfection.  Whiston  was  at  this  time  mathe- 
matical professor,  and  read  lectures  in  the  manner  pro- 
posed by  Saunderson  ;  so  that  an  attempt  of  the  same  kind 
by  the  latter  looked  like  an  encroachment  on  the  privileges 
of  bis  office;  but,  as  a  good-natured  man,  and  an  encou- 
rager  of  learning,  Whiston  readily  consented  to  the  appli- 
cation of  friends,  made  in  behalf  of  so  uncommon  a  person. 
Mr.  Dunn  had  been  very  i^ssiduous  in  making  known  his 
<;baracter;  his  fame  in  a  short  time  had  filled  the  univer* 
sity ;  men  of  learning  and  curiosity  grew  ambitious  and 
fond  of  his  acquaintance,  so  that  his  lecture,  as  soon  as 
opened,  was  frequented  by  many,  and  in  a  short  time  very 
much  crowded.  *^  The  Principia  Mathematica,  Optics, 
and  Arithmetica  Universalis,  of  sir  Isaac  Newton,"  -were 
the  foundation  of  his  lecture ;  and  they  afforded  a  noble 
.  field  to  display  his  genius  in.  It  was  indeed  an  object  of 
the  greatest  curiosity  that  a  blind  youth  should  read  lectures 
in  optics,  discourse  on  the  nature  of  light  and  colours,  ex- 
plain the  theory  of  vision,  the  effect  of  glasses,  the  phaeno- 
mena  of  the  rainbow,  and  other  objects  of  sight :  nor  was 
the  surprize  of  his  auditors  much  lessened  by  reflecting, 
that  as  this  science  is  altogether  to  be  explained  by  lines, 
and  is  subject  to  the  rules  of  geometry,  he  might  be  a  mas- 
ter of  these  subjects,  even  under  the  loss  of  sight. 

As  he  was  instructing  the  academical  youth  in  the  prin- 
ciples of  the  Newtonian  philosophy,  it  was  not  long  before 
be  became  acquainted  with  the  incomparable  author,  al- 
though he  had  left  the  university  several  years ;  and  en- 
joyed his  frequent  conversation  concerning  the  more  diffi- 
cult parts  of  his  works.  He  lived  in  friendship  also  with 
the  most  eminent  mathematicians  of  the  age;  with  Halley, 
•Cotes,  D.e  Moivre,  &c.  Upon  the  removal  of  Whiston 
from  his  professorship,  Saunderson's  mathematical  merit 

S  A  U  N  D  E  R  S  O  N.  lit 

was  universally  allowed  so  much  superior  to  that  of  any 
competitor,  that  an  extraordinary  step  was  taken  in  his 
favour,  to  qualify  him  with  a  degree^  which  the  statutes 
require*  Upon  application  made  by  the  heads  of  colleges 
lo  the  duke  of  Somerset,  their  chancellor,  a  mandate  was 
readily  granted  by  the  queen  for  conferring  on  him  the  de- 
gree of  master  of  arts  :  upon  which  he  was  chosen  Lucasian 
professor  of  the  mathematics,  Nov.  1711,  sir  Isaac  New- 
ton all  the  while  interesting  himself  very  much  in  the  affair. 
His  first  performance,  after  he  was  seated  in  the  chair,  was 
an  inauguration-speech  made  in  very  elegant  Latin,  and  a 
style  truly  Ciceronian ;  for  be  was  well  versed  in  the 
writings  of  TuUy,  who  was  his  favourite  in  prose,  as  Virgil 
and  Horace  were  in  verse.  From  this  time  he  applied  him« 
self  closely  to  the  reading  of  lectures,  and  gave  up  his 
whole  time  to  bis  pupils.  He  continued  amotvg  the  gen* 
tiemen  of  Christ's  college  till  1723  ;  when  he  took  a  hous« 
in  Cambridge,  and  soon  after  married  a  daughter  of  the 
rev.  Mr.  Dickens,  rector  of  Boxworth  in  Cambridgeshire, 
by  whom  he  had  a  son  and  a  daughter.  In  1728,  when 
George  11.  visited  the  university,,  he  was  pleased  to  signify 
his  desire  of  feeing  so  remarkable  a  person  ;  and  accord- 
ibgiy  the  professor  waited  upon  bis  majesty  in  the  senate- 
house,  and  was  there  created  doctor  of  laws  by  royal  favour. 
Saunderson  was  naturally  of  a  strong  healthy  constitu-- 
tion;  but  being  too  sedentary,  and  constantly  confining 
himself  to  the  bouse,  he  became  at  length  a  valetudinarian. 
For  some  years  he  frequently  complained  of  a  numbness  in 
his  limbs,  which,  in  the  spring  of  1739,  ended  in  an  in- 
curable mortification  of  bis  foot.  He  died  April  19,  aged 
fifty-seven,  and  was  buried,  according  to  his  request,  in 
the  chancel  at  Boxworth.  He  was  a  man  ra^er  to  be  ad- 
mired than  loved.  He  bad  much  wit  and  vivacity  in  con* 
versation,  and  many  reckoned  him  a  good  companion.  He 
had  also  a  great  regard  to  truth,  but  was  one  of  those  who 
think  it  their  duty  to  express  their  sentiments  on  men  and 
opinions,  without  reserve  or  restraint,  or  any  of  the  cour- 
tesies of  conversation,  which  created  him  many  enemies; 
nor  was  he  less  offensive  by  a  habit  of  profane  swearing,  and 
the  obtrusion  of  infidel  opinions,  which  last  he  held,  not«^ 
withstanding  the  kindness  of  providence  towards  him 
throughout  his  extraordinary  life*.     He  is  said,  however. 

*  '<  With  respect  to  the  infidel  part     Monthly  ReTiewer*  *'  we  aim  her» 
#f  Saundersoa*8  chancter/'  sayt  the     turallj  remioded  of  the  joke  that 


•174  8  A  U  N  D  E  K  S  O  N. 

to  have  received  the  notice  of  bis  approdcbing  death'  with, 
.great  calmnfess  and  serenity ;  and  after  a  short  silence,  re*- 
^uming  life  and  spirit,  talked  with  as  much  composure  as 
usual,  and  at  length,  we  are  told,  appointed  to  receive  the 
jacrament  the  evening  before  his  death,  which  a  deliriui^ 
that  never  went  off  prevented  him  from  doing. 
V  A  blind  man  moving  in  the  sphere  of  a  mathematician, 
neems  a  pba&oomenon  difficult  to  be  accounted  for,  and  has 
excited  the  admiration  of  every  age  in  which  it  has  appear- 
ed. Tully  mentions  it  as  a  thing  scarce  credible  in  his  own 
master  in  philosophy,  Diodotus,  that  ^'  he  exercised  him- 
self in  that  science  with  more  assiduity  after  he  became 
blind;  and,  what  he  thought  almost  impossible  to  be  done 
without  sight,  that  he  described  his  geometrical  diagrams 
so  expressly  to  his  scholars,  that  they  could  draw  every 
line  in  its  proper  direction.*'  Jerome  relates  a  more  remark- 
able instance  in  Didymus  of  Alexandria,  who,  ^*  though 
blind  from  his  infancy,  and  therefore  ignorant  of  the  very 
letters,  appeared  so  great  a  miracle  to  the  world,  as  not 
only  to  learn  logic,  but  geometry  also,  to  perfection,  which 
seems  the  most  of  any  thing  to  require  the  help  of  sight.^" 
But,  if  we  consider  that  the  ideas  of  extended  quantity, 
which  are  the  chief  objects  of  mathematics,  may  as  well  be 
acquired  from  the  sense  of  feeling,  as  that  of  sight ;  that  a 
fixed  and  steady  attention  is  the  principal  qualification  for 
this  study;  and  that  the  blind  are  by  necessity  more  ab- 
stracted than  others,  for  which  reason  Democritus  is  said 
to  have  put  out  his'eyes,  that  he  might  think  more  in- 
tensely ;  we  shall  perhaps  be  of  opinion,  that  there  is  no 
other  branch  of  science  better  adapted  to  their  circum- 

It  was  by  the  sense  of  feeling,  that  Saunderson  acquired 
most  of  bis' ideas  at  first;  and  this  he  enjoyed  in  great 
acuteness  and  perfection,^  as  it  commonly  happens  to  the 
blind,  whether  by  the  gift  of  nature,  or,  as  is  more  pro- 
bable, by  the  necessity  of  application.  Yet  he  could  not, 
as  ^onie  have  imagined,  and  as  Mr.  Boyle  was  made  to  be- 
lieve of  a  blind  man  at  Maestricbt,  distinguish  colours  by  • 
that  sense ;  and,  having  made  repeated  trials,  he  used  to 
say,  it  was  pretending  to  impossibilities.     But  he  could 

passed  on  the  learned  university,  on  they  have  put  in  Saandenon,  who  be-  * 

bis  bei\ig  elected  to  fill  the  Lucasiaa  lieves  in  no  God  at  all'."  Month.  Rev. 

chair — *  They  have  turned  out  Whis-  vol.  XXJCVI. 
ton  for  bftUeviog'  in  but  ooe  God ;  «od 


B  A  U  N  D  E  R  9  O  W.  17^5 

-with  great  nicety  and  exactness  discern' Ibe  least  (fiiferehce 
of  rough  and  smooth  in  a' surface,  or  the  least  defect  of  pd- 
lisb.  Thus  he  distinguished  in  a  set  of  Roman  nnedals  tbte 
genuine  from  the  false,  though  they  had  been  counterfeited 
with  such  exactness  as  to  deceive  a  connoisseur  who  hi£d 
judged  by  the  eye.  His  sense  of  feeling  was  very  accurate 
also  in  distinguishing  the  least  variation  in  the  atmosphere'; 
aiul  be  has  been  seen  in  a  garden^'  when  observations  have 
been  making  on  the  sun,  to  take  notice  of  every  cloud,  that 
interrupted  the  observation,  almost  as  justly  as  they  who 
could  see  it.  He  could  tell  when  any  object  was  held  near  his 
face,  or  when  he  passed  by  a  tree  at  no  great  distance,  pro«- 
vided  there  was  a  calm  air,  and  little  or  no  wind  :  these  he 
did  by  the  different  pulse  of  the  air  upon  his  face. 

An  exact  and  refined  ear  is  what  such  are  commonly 
blessed  with  wfaaare  deprived  of  their  eyes;  and  our  pro* 
fessor  was  perhaps  inferior  to  none  in  the  excellence  of  hfs. 
He  could  readily  distinguish  to  the  fifth  part  of  a  note ;  and, 
by  his  performance  on  the  flute,  which  he  had  learned  as 
an  aipusement  in  his  younger  years,  discovered  such  a  ge- 
nius for  music,  as,  if  he  had  cultivated  the  art,  would  have 
probably  appeared  as  wonderful  as  his  skill  in  the  mathe- 
matics. By  his  quickness  in  this  sense  he  not  only  distin- 
guished persons  with  whom. he  bad  ever  once  conversed  so 
long  as  to  fix  in  his  memory  the  sound  of  their  voice,  but 
in  some  measure  places  also«  He  could  judge  of  the  size 
of  a  room,  into  which  he  was  introduced,  of  the  distance 
he  was  from  the  wall ;  and  if  ever  he  had  walked  over  a 
pavement  in  courts,  piazzas,  &c.  which  reflected  a  sounds 
and  was.  afterwards  conducted  thither  agaip,  be  could 
exactly  tell  whereabouts  in  the  walk  he  was  placed,  merely 
by  the  note  it  sounded. 

There  was  scarcely  any  part  of  the  mathematics  on  which 
he  had  not  written  something  for  the  use  of  his  pupils :  but 
be  discovered  no  intention  of  publishing  any  of  his  works 
till  1733.  Then  his  friends,  alarmed  by  a  violent  fever 
that  had  threatened  his  life,  and  unwilling  that  his  labours 
should  be  lost  to  the  world,  importuned  him  to  spare  some 
time  fjcom  his  lectures,  and  to  employ  it  in  finishing  some 
of  his  works ;  which  be  might  leave  behind  him,  as  a  va- 
luable legacy  both  to  his  family  and  the  public.  He  yielded 
so  far  to  these  entreaties  as  to  compose  in  a  short  time  bis 

£tements  of  Algebra  ;'*  which  he  left  perfect,  and  tran-.. 
scribed  fair  for  the  press.    It  was  published  by  subscription 


176  8  A  U  N  D  E  R  S  O  N. 

rat  Cambridge,  1740,  in  ^  vols.  4to,  with  a  good  me^sfa-- 
tinto  print  of  the  author,  and  an  account  of  his  life  aad 
character  prefixed. 

Saunderson  entertained  the  most  profound  veneration  for 
^Mr  Isaac  Newton.  If  he  ever  differed  in  sentimeat  from 
any  thing  in  sir  Isaac's  mathematical  and  philosophical  Wri- 
tings, upon  more  mature  consideration ^  he  said,  he  always 
found  the  mistake  to  be  his  own.  The  more  he  read  his 
works,  and  observed  upon  nature,  the  more  reason  he  found 
to  admire  the  justness  and  care  as  well  ae  liappiness  ef  ex- 
pression, of  that  incomparable  philosopher.  Saunderson 
left  many  other  writings,  though  none  perhaps  prepared 
for  the  press.  Among  these  were  some  valuable  comments 
on  the  ^'  Principia,"  which  not  only  explain  the  more  diffi^ 
cult  parts,  but  often  improve  upon  the  doctrines ;  these 
are  published,  in  Latin,  at  the  end  of  his  posthumous 
."  Treatise  on  Fluxions,*'  a  valuable  work,  which  appeared 
in  1756,  8vo.  His  manuscript  lectures  too  on  most  parts 
of  natural  philosophy,  might,  in  the  opinion  of  Dr.  Button^ 
who  has  perused  them,  form  a .  considerable  volume,  and 
prove  an  acceptable  present  to  the  public.^ 

SAURlN  (Elias),  a  protestant  divine,  was  born  August 
28,  1639,  at  Usseaox,  in  the  valley  of  Pragelas  on  the 
frontiers  of  Dauphiny,  where  his  father^  officiated  as  minis- 
ter. He  was  himself  appointed  minister  of  Venterole  in 
4  661^  of  Embrun  in  1662,  and  would  have  been  shortly 
chosen  professor  of  divinity  at  Die,  but  meeting  acciden- 
tally with  a  priest  who  was  carrying  the  host  to  a  sick  per- 
son, he  would  not  take  off  his  hat.  This  trifle,  as  might 
be  expected  ia  a  popish  country,  was  so  much  resented, 
that  Saurin  found  it  necessary  to  retire  into  Holland,  where 
he  arrived  in  June  1664,  was  appointed  minister  of  the 
Walloon  church  at  Delft  the  following  year,  and  had  a  great 
share  in  deposing  the  famous  Labadie.  In  1671,  he  was 
invited  to  be  minister  of  the  Walloon  church  at  UtiPecht^ 
where  he  became  very  celebrated  by  bis  works,  and  had 
some  very  warm  disputes  with  Jarieu,  which  were  th*  sub- 
ject of  much  conversation  ;  but  be  is  said  to  have  satiifac-* 
torily  answered  the  charge  of  heresy  which  that  author 
^  brought  against  him.  Saurin  died  unmarried  at  Utrecht, 
April  8, 1703,  aged  sixly-fonr,  leaving  the  following  works: 

»  Life  prefixed  to  his  Algebra — Manin's  Biog.  Philog.—Biog.  Brit.  Sopp]*. 
aicnt,  TOl.  Vli.— 'HutCoa't  Diftiouary. 

S  A  U  B  I  K.  I7f 

li.1i  <<  JtxamiAation  of  M.  Juriisu's  Theology/'  BtqIs*  Svdj 
in  which  he  treats  of  sevleral  important  questions  io  diviaity ; 
<'  Reflections  on  the  Rights  of  Conscience,''  a^nst  Jurieii^ 
ttisd  Bayte's  Philosophical  Commentary;  a  treatise  on  ^ the 
Love  of  God,"  in  which  he  supports  the  doctrines  of  disin-i 
terested  love ;  and  another  on  the  *^  Love  of  our  Neighs- 
hours,"  4a.*  , 

SAURJN  (James),  a  very  celebrated  preacher,  was  the 
SOD  of  an  esoinent  protestant  lawyer,  and  was  born  at  Nismes 
in  1677*  His  father  retired^  aft^r  the  repeal  of  the  edic4{ 
of  N^ta,  to  Geneva,  at  which  pbce  be  died.  Sauria 
made  no  small  progress  in  his  studies,  but  abandoned  then 
for.aome  tiaie»  that  he  might  fcdlow  arms;  In  16d4,  he 
inade  »>  campaign  as  a  cadet  in  lord  Galloway^s  company, 
and  soon  afterwards  procured  a  pair  of  coloulrs.  But  ^tci 
soott  as  ihe  duke  of  Savoy  had  concluded  a  peace  with 
France,-  Saurio  quitted  a  profession  for  which  he  never  was 
designed;  and,  on  his  return  to  Geneva  again,  applied, 
himself  to  philosophy  and  divinity,  under  Turretin  and 
bther  professors.  In  itOO,  be  visited  both  Holland  and 
England.  In  this  last  country  he  remained  five  years,  and 
preached  among  the  French  refugees  in  London.  Here 
also  he  married  in  lt03,  and  returned  to  the  Hague  in 
1705,  Soon  after  be  becaitie  pastor  to  the  church  of 
French  refugees,  who  were  permitted  to  assemble  in  the 
chapel  belonging  to  the  palace  of  the  princes  of  Orange  at 
the  Hague,  in  which  he  officiated  during  the  remainder  of 
his  life»  When  the  princes^  of  Wales,  afterwards  queen 
Caroline^  passed  through  Holland  on  her  way "  to  England, 
Saurin  had  the  honour  of  paying  his  respects  to  her,  and 
she,  upon  her  return,  desired  Dr.  Boulter,  the  preceptor  to 
pirince  Frederic,  the  father  of  the  present  king,  to  write 
to  Saurin,  to  draw  up  a  treatise  ^^on  the  education  of 
princes."  The  work  was  done>  but  never  printed,  and  the 
author  received  a  handsome'present  from  the  princess,  and 
afterwards  a  pension  from  George  II.  to  whom  he  dedicated 
a  volupoEie  of  his  sermons.  Saurin  died  Dec.  30,  1730.  He 
possessed  great  talents,  with  a  fine  address,  and  a  strong, 
clear,  and  harmonious  voice,  while  his  style  was  pure,  un- 
affected j  and  eloquent.  His  principles  were  what  are  called 
moderate  Calvinism.  Five  volumes  of  his  sermons  have 
-  made  their  appearance  at  different  times;  the  first  in  1709^ 

t  Cliaiirepie.^Moreri.--:I>Mt.  Ui^' 
VoIh  XXVIL  N  • 

17S  SAURtK. 

the  second  in'  1712,  the  third  some  years  after/  the  fotirlif 
in  1722,  and  the  fifth  in  1725.  Since  bis  dearth,  the  ser-> 
nions  relating  to  the  passion  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  other 
subjects,  were  published  in  two  volumes.  In  1727  h& 
published  "The  State  of  Christianity  in  France." 

But  his  most  considerable  work  was^  "  Discourses  histo- 
rical, critical,  and  moral,  on  the  most  memorable  Events  of 
the  Old  and'  New  Testament.''  His  first  intention  was  to 
have  published  a  set  of  prints,  with  titles  and  explanations  ; 
but^  as  that  had  been  before  executed  by  Fontaine  amongst 
the  Roman  catholics,  and  by  fiasnage  amongst  the  protes- 
tants,  it  became  necessary  to  adopt  a  newer  plan.  Thi$ 
gave  rise  to  the  work  abov^  mentioned,  which  the  authot 
left  imperfect.  Two  Volumes  made  their  appearance  in 
folio,  and  the  work  was  afterwards  reprinted  in  four  in  8vo. 
Six  other  discourses  form  a  part  of  a  fifth  volume  in  8vo^ 
published  by  Mn  Roques,  who  undertook  a  continuation  of 
the  work.  It  is  replete  with  learning.  The  Christian  and 
the  heathen  authors,  philosophers,  poets,  historians,  and 
critics,  are  cited  with  the  utmost  profusion,  and  it  forms  a 
compilation  of  all  their  sentiments  on  every  subject  dis-» 
cussed  throughout  the  work.  The  author  shews  himself  tof 
be  a  warm  advocate  for  toleration  ;  and,  though  the  catho- 
lics are  more  frequently  censured  than  commended,  yet 
his  principles  are  very  moderate.  *^  A  Dissertation  on  the 
Expediency  of  sometimes  disguising  the  Truth"  raised  a 
clamour  against,  the  author,  the  fury  of  which  be  had  not 
power  16  appease.  As  an  historian^  he  believed  that  he 
was  permitted  to  produce  the  chief  arguments  of  those  that 
maintain,  that  in  certain  cases  truth  may  be  disguised  ;  and 
the  reasons  which  they  gave  who  have  asserted  the  contrary. 
Without  deciding  the  question,  it  is  easy  to  perceive  that 
he  is  a  favourer  pf  the  former.  His  principal  antagonist 
was  Armand  de  la  Chapelle ;  to  whom  Francis  Michael  Ga« 
nicoH  replied  with  great  spirit,  in  a  work,  entitled  ^^Lettres 
s6rieuses  &  jocoses."  The  three  first  of  the  lettres,  in  the 
second  volume,  are  in  favour  of  Saurin.  He  was  answered 
by  La  Chapelle  with  great  violence.  Saurin  imagined,  that 
be  should  be  able  to  terminstte  this  dispute  by  reprinting  the 
dissertation  separately,  with  a  preface  in  defence  o£  his 
assertions :  but  he  was  deceived ;  for  La  Chapelle  pub- 
lished a  very  long  and  scurrilous  reply.  It  was  Saurin^s . 
intentkm  entirely  to  have  neglected  this  production ;  but 
hs  found  a  new  champion  in  Francis  Bruys,    This  dispuu^ 

S  A  It  R  I  N.  •         119 

liras  at  length  brought  before  the  synod  of  Cslmpen ;  wbo^ 
in  May  1730,  ordered  the  churches  of  Utrecht,  Leyden^ 
ami  Amsterdam,  t6  make  their  examinations,  slnd  report 
the  result  of  tbern^  to  the  synod  of  the  Hague,  which  was  to 
sit  in  the  September  following^     Commissaries  wdre  ap* 
pointed  for  this  purpose.     The  synod  of  Campen  gave  its 
opinion,  and  that  of  the  Hague  confirmed  it :  but,  having 
made  no  mention  of  the  instructions  sent ,  to  the  Wailooa 
church  at  Utrecht,  that  assembly  complained,  and  ordered 
Mr.  Banvoust,'6ne  of  its  ministers,  to  juaiify  his  proceed- 
ings and  his  doctrine,   /niis  he  did  in  a  large  octavo  vo"* 
luihe,  printed  at  Utrecht  in  1731,  after  the  death  of  Sau^ 
rin,  entitled  *<^  The  Triumph  of  the  Truth  and  Peace;  or. 
Reflections  on  the  most  important  Events  attending  the  last 
Synod   assembled  to  determine  in  the  case  of  Messieurs 
Saurin  and  Maty»^'     Saurin  had  contributed  to  this  peace, 
by  ^giving  such  a  declaration  of  his  sentiments  as  satisfied 
the  protestant  churches  ;  and  he  repeated  that  declaration, 
when  he  foresaw  that  the  new  lights^  which  Mn  Bruys  had 
thrown  upon  this  subject,  were  going  to  raise  a  storm  that 
might  perhaps  have  been  severer  than  the  last.     Saurin^s 
serofions  are  how  well  known^  in  this  country  by  the  Selec- 
tions translated  into  English,  and  published  in  1775 — 1784, 
by  the  rev.  Robert .  Robinison,  5  vols.  8vOj  to  which  Dr. 
Henry  Hunter  added  a  sixth  volume  in  1796.^ 
:    SAURIN  (Joseph),  a  French  mathematician,  was  born 
in  165d  at  Courtusbn,  in  the  principality  of  Orange.     He 
was  educated  by  his  father,  and  was  at  a  very  early  age  made 
a  minister  ^t  Eure  in  Dauphiny.     But  he  was  compelled  to 
retire  to  Geneva  in  1633f  in  consequence  of  having  givea 
offence  in  a  sermon,  which  he  afterwards  heightened  at 
Berne  by  preaching  against  some  of  the  established  doc- 
trines of  the  church.     He  then  withdrew  to  Holland,  but 
was  so  ill  received  by  his  brethren,  that  he  determined  to 
turn  Roman  catholic ;  with  this  design,  in  1690  he  went  to 
Paris,  and  made  an  abjuration  of  his  supposed  errors  under 
the  famous  Bossuet,  rather,  it  is  believed,  to  have  an  op-, 
portunity.  of  pursuing  his  studies  unmolested  at  Paris  thaa 
firom.any  motives  of  conscience  or  mental  conviction.  After 
this  he  had  a  pension  from  the  king,  and  was  admitted  a. 
member  of  the  academy  of  sciences  in  1707,  as  a  geome-^ 
trician.  The  dedinie  of  Saurin's  life  was  spent  in  the  peace* 

A  Li£B  \^  BobiatOB  prefixed  to  his  S^rmouv^Chaofepit,— Mortrit 

N   2 

190  S  A  U  ]^  I  N. 

able  prosecution  of  his  mathematical  studies^  oce^iona%^ 
interrupted  by  literary  controversies  witb  Rousseau  and 
otbenk  He  was  a  man  of  a  daring  and  impetuous  spirit^ 
and  of  a  lof^  and  independent  mind.  Saurindied  at  Paris' 
io  ,1737.  Voltaire  undertook  the  vindication  of  bis  menMiy^ 
but  has  not  been  sufficiently  successful  to  clear  it  from  every 
unfistvourable  impresaion.^  It  was  even  said  lie  had  bee» 
guilty  of  criooes,  bybis  own  confession,  that  ought  to  have 
been  punished  with  death. 

Saurin*s  mathematical  and  philosophical  papers  printed 
in  the  Memoirs  of  the  Academy  of.  Sciences,  wbieh  are 
numerous,  are  to  be  found  in  the  volumes  for  the  years  fol- 
lowing; viz.  1709,  1710,  17  IS,  1716,  1718,  1720,  I722y 
1723,  1725,  1727.  He  left  a  son,  who  acquired  some  re- 
putation as  a  dramatic  writer  and  lyric  poet.^ 

SAUSSAY  (Andrew  du),  doctor  of  law  and  divinity, 
curate  of  St  Leu,  at  Paris,  official  and  grand  vicar  in  the 
same  city,  and  afterwards  bishop  of  Toul,  was  bom  about 
1595,  at  Paris.  He  was  preacher  in  ordinary  to  Louis  XIIL 
who  bad  a  great  esteem  for  him,  and  by  whose  CMrder  he 
wrote  tbe  ^^  Marty rologium  Galiicanum,''  1638,  2  vols.  foL 
M.  du  Saussay  succeeded  Paul  de  Fiesqoe  in  the  diocese  of 
Toul,  164^,  and  discovered  great  zeal  in  the- governnoent 
of  his  church,  and  died  Septembers,  1675,  at  Toul,  aged 
eighty.  He  left  many  works  besides  that  above  mentioned, 
which  contain  great  learning,  but  shew  very  little  critici^ 

SAUSSUtlE  (Horace  Benedict  be),  an  eminent  na*^ 
turalist,  was  born  at  Geneva  in  1740.  Hi»  father,  an  en«* 
lightened  agricultiirist,  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for;Bome 
essays  on  rural  economy,  resided  at  Conches,  on  the  bank9 
of  the  Arve,  about  half  a  league  from  Geneva.  Botany  waa 
his  first  study,  and  this  made  bim  acquainted  with  Haller, 
whom  he  visited  in,  1764,  during  his  retreat  at  Bex.  He 
was  further  excited  to  study  the  vegetable  kingdom  in  con*- 
sequence  of  his  connection  with  C.  Bonnet,  who  marriedi 
bis  aunt,  and  who  soon  discovered-the  talents  of  his  nephew^ 
Bonnet  was  then  engaged  in  e^camining  the  leaves- of  plants^ 
Saussure  also  turned  his  attenticm  to  these  vegetable  organv 
and  published  ^^  Observatfons  on  the  Skin  of  Leaves*'  aboucr 
the  year  1760* 

At  this  time  the  prolessorshi]^  of  philosophy  at  G«fi«w 

6  A  U  S  8  U  R  E.  1*1 

kecame  Tftoaut^  and  Saussure,  who  was  then  onljr  twenty- 
one^  obtained  the  chair.  While  in  this  office,  he  com- 
menced  his  journeys  among  the  mountains,  to  examine  the 
mibstaoces  of  which  the  elevated  ridges  of  our  globe  are 
composed,  and  during  the  first  fifteen  or  twenty  years  of 
his  professorship,  he  was  alternately  employed  in  fulfilling 
the  duties  which  his  -  sitnataon  imposed,  and  in  traversing 
the  different  mountains  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Geneva. 
He  even  extended  his  excursions  on  one  side  to  the  Rhine, 
and  on  the  other  to  Piedmonts  About  this  time,  too,  ht 
travelled  to  Anvergne,  for  the  purpose  of  examining  some 
extinguished  volcanos;  and  soon  after  he  undertook  a  tour' 
to. Paris,  Holland,  England,  Italy,  and  Sicily.  In  these 
journeys  his  constant  object  was  the  study  of  nature.  He 
always  carried  with  him  the  instruments  necessary  for  ob«- 
servations,  and  never  set  out  without  having  formed  for 
himself  a  regular  plan  of  experiments. 

In  1779,  he  published  the  first  volume  of  *^  His  Travels 
in  tbe  Alps,"  which  contains  a  detailed  description  of  the 
environs  of  Greneva,  and  an  account  of  an  excursion  as  far 
as  Chamouni,  a  village  at  the  foot  of  Mont-Blanc.  All 
naturalists  have  read  with  pleasure  tbe  description  )ie  has 
given,  in  this  volume,  of  his  Magnetometre,  The  more  he 
exanained  the  mountains,  the  more  he  felt  the  importance 
of  mineralogy :  to  enable  him  to  study  this  branch  of  science 
with  still  greater  advantage,  he  learnt  the  German  language. 
The  hew  mineralogieal  knowledge  which  he  acquired  may 
be  easily  seen  by  comparing  the  latter  volume  of  bis  travels 
with  tbe  first. 

In  the  midst  of  his  numerous  excursions  in  tbe  Alps^  and 
even  during  the  time  of  the  troubled  politics  of  Geneva  in 
1782^  he  found  opportunities  to  make  his  hygrometrical 
experiments,  the  result  of  which  he  published  in  1783, 
under  the  title  of  "Essays  on  Hygrometry."  We  are  in- 
debted to  him  for  the  invention  of  tbe  bygrometre,  although 
Deluc  had  already  invented  bis  whalebone  bygrometre, 
wbich  occasioned  a  dispute  between  bim  and  Saussure.  In 
1786,  be  .gaTe  up  bis  professorship  in  favour  of  his  disciple 
Pictet  The  second  volume  of  tbe  Travels  of  Saussure  was 
published  in  1786;  and  contains  a  description  of  the  Alps, 
which  surround  Mont-Blanc.  Some  years  after  the  publi- 
cation of  this' volume,  Saussure  was  received  asaforeigd 
associate  in  tbe  academy  of  sciences  at  Paris;  but  our  au- 
diof  not  pnly  honoured,  but  wa$  desirous  of  serving  his 

np  8  A  y  s  s  u  ji  E. 

country.  He  founded  the  Society  of  Artf,  tjQ  which. Gq^ 
neva  is  greatly  indebted,  and  presided  in  this  society  to 
the  very  last,,  its  prosperity  being  one. of  his  principal  phr 
jects.  He  also  shewed  his  z^al  to  serve  his  country  wbil^ 
he  was  member  of  the  Council  pf  Five  Hundred,  and  of 
the  National  Assembly  of  France.  It.  was  frqm  hi^  ^sidur 
ou^  labour  in  that  Assembly  that  his  health  Qrst  began  to 
fail  I  and  in  1794  a  paralytic  stroke  deprived. him  of  the  use 
of  one  side  of  his  body.  It  was,  however,  after  this  acci- 
dent that  he  drew  up  the  two  l^st  volumes  of  his  Travels^ 
which  appeared  in  1796,  They  contain  an  accppnt  of  hi$ 
travels  in  the  mountains  of  Piedmont,  Switzerland,  and  in 
particular  of  his  ascent  to  the  summit  of  IVIont  Blaqc, 

He  gave  the  last  proof  pf  his  atti^cbment  tp  science  in 
publishing  the  ^^  Agenda,'!  ^hich  completes  the  fpurtl^  vor 
lume.  During  his  illness  he  also  published  his  observation^ 
^^  on  the  Fusibility  of  Stones  with  the  Blowpipe  ;*'  and  h^ 
directed  the  ^^  experioients  on  the  height  of  the  bed  of  the 
Arve.*'  When  be  was  at  the  baths  of  Plombieres  for  hi^ 
health,  he  observed  the  mountains  atva  distance,  and  pror 
cured  specimens  of  the  strata  he  perceived  in  the  ipost  $teep 
ropks.  He  had  announced  to  the  public,  tha^t  he  ip^ended 
\o  complete  his  travels  by  his  ideas  on  th^  pripiitive  state  of 
the  earth  i;  but  jthe  more  new  facts  hp  acquired,  and  the 
more  he  meditated  on  this  subject,  the  less  could  he  deter:^ 
mine  with  regard  to  those  great  revolutions  which  have  pre-* 
ceded  the  present  epoch.  In  general,  he  was  a  Neptunian, 
that  is  to  say,  he  attributed  to  water  the  revolutions  of  thif 
globe.  He  admitted  it  to  be  possible  that  elastic  fluids,  iq 
disengaging  themselves  from  the  cavities,  ufight  ^-^ise 

Though  his  health  w?is  gradually  imp^iired  by  degrees, 
he  still  retained  the  hope  of  re-establishing  it,  but  strength,  ^ 
and  life  forsook  him  by  slow  and  painful  steps,  and  he  die4 
March  22,  1799,  lamented  by  his  family  and  his  country.* 

SAUVAGES  (Francis  Boissier  de),  the  inventor  of 
modern  nosology,  was  born  at  Alais,  in  Lower  Languedpc, 
iMay  12,  1706.  He  appears  to  have  owed  little  to  his  first 
tutors,  but  his  own  talents  enabled  him  to  mal^e  a  rapid 
progress  in  literature  and  philosophy.  With  a  ytew  to 
study  physic,  he  went  to  Montpellier  in  ,1722,  and  receive^ 
fbe  degree  of  doctor  in  1726.    The  thesis  whi9h  he  df^ 

\  Life  by  SenDebier;  a  most  extravagant  panegyrje. 

X     . 

S  A  U  V  A  G  E  S.  18? 

fended  on  this  occasion  was  on  a  singular  subject^  ^  Si  I'a- 
mour  petit  ^tre  gu^ri  par  ies  remedes  tir^s  des  plantes?^' 
To  determine  whether  love  can  be  cured  by  herbs  seems 
rather  a  trial  of  skilly  than  a  serious  discussion.  It  procured 
him,  however,  the  name  of  the  Iqverdoctoir,  ai^d  it  is  said 
that  he  wrote  some  poems  on  the  same  subject.  In  1730,^ 
he  went  to  Paris  with  a  vi^w  to  farther  improvement 
in  hi»  profession,  and  afterwards  returned  to  IVIontpeU 
lier, ']wbere  he  obtained  a  professorship  in  173^.  His  re- 
putation for  ingenuity  of  speculation  and  extensive  reading 
for  some  tikne  retarded  his  practice,  but  these  speculationa 
were  not  allowed  much  weight  iq  the  treatment  of  bis  pa- 
tients.  In  1740,  he  was  appoinjted  demonstrator  of  tho 
plants  in  the  botanic  garden,  and  in  1752  he  was  made  pro* 
fessor  of  botany.  He  married  in  1748,  and  had  two  sons 
^nd  four  daughters,  who  survived  him.  A  serious  disease^ 
whipb  continued  nearly  two  years,  proved  fatal  in  the  midst 
of  bis  useful  and  honourable  career,  in  the  month  of  Fe- 
bruary,  1767,  in  the  sixty- first  year  of  his  age. 

Sauvages  was  much  loved  by  his  pupils,  to  whom  he 
cp^irounicated  freely  all  that  he  knew,  and  received  with 
equal  readiness  whatever  information  any  one  was  enabled 
to  give  hig^.  •  He  an  able  mathematician,  au  accurate 
observer  of  phi^nomena,  apd  ingenious  in  devising  expert* 
men^s ;  but  had  too  much  bias  to  systeips,  sq  ,that  he  did 
not  always  consult  f/acts  upinfluenced  by  prepossession.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  most  learned  societies  of  Europe,  viz* 
of  the  Royal  Society  of  London^  of  those  of  Berlin,  Upsal^ 
Stockholm,  and  Montpellier,  of  the  Academy  ^^  Nature 
Curiosorum^''  of  the  Physico- Botanical  Academy  of  Flo- 
rence, land  of  the  Institute  of  Bologna.  He  obtained  the 
prizes  given  by  many  public  bodies  to  the  best  essays  ou 
given  subjects ;  ^nd  a  collection  of  these  prize-essays  was 
published  at  Lyons  in  1770,  in  two  volumes,  with  the  title 
of  "  Chef  d'CEuvres  de  M.  de  Sauvages." 

His  works  were  ye^y  numerou/s  on  varioufi  medical  sub<- 
jects,  and  he  published  a  valuablje  botanical  work,  '/  Me« 
thodi^s  foliorum,  sen  Plantar  Florap  lyionspeliensisjuxta  folio- 
rum  ordinem,''  containing  about  500  plants,  omitted  in 
Magnoi*s  ^^  Botanicon  Monspeliense;*'  but  that  on  which  his 
fame  most  depends  was  his  system  of  nosology.  This  was 
preceded  by  a  small  work,  entitled  *^  Nouvelles  classes  des 
Maladies,^'  &c.  .1732,  12mo;  and  after  considering  the 
aubject  for  thirty  years,  he  produced  his  complete  system. 

184  SA0VAGES. 

^  Nosologica  methodica,  ^stens  mdrbortim  classed,  genera^ 
et  species/'  &c.  1763,  5  vols.  Svo,  and  after  his  deatb| 
J  768,  2  vols.  4to.  Since  the  ap(>earance  of  this  Otork,  the 
aobject  has  been  ably  cultivated  by  Linnseus,  by  Vogel,  by 
l^agar,  and  lastly,  by  Dr.  Cullen,  to  whose  arrangemeafc 
many  give  the  preference.* 

SAUVEUR  (JosEPji),  an  eminent  French  matbematipian,! 
was.born^at  La  Fleehe,  March  24,  1 6 53,  He  wai  totally 
dumb  till  he  was  seven  years  of  age ;  and  ever  after  was 
obliged  to  speak  very  slowly  and  with  difficulty.  He  very 
early  discovered  a  great  turn  for  mechanics,  aqd  when  sent 
to  the  college  of  tb(d  Jesuits  to  learn  polite  literature,  made 
very  little  progress,  but  read  with  greediness  books  of 
arithmetic  and  geometry.  He  was,  however,  prevailed  on 
to  go  to  Paris  in  1 670,  and,  being  intended  for  the  church, 
applied  himself  for  a  time  to  the  study  of  philosophy  am) 
theology;  but  mathematics  was  the  only  study  he  culti- 
vated with  any  success ;  and  during  his  eourse  of  philoso- 
phy, he  learned  the  first  six  books  of  Euclid  in  the  space  of 
a  month,  without  thb  help  of  a  master. 

As  heliad  an  impediment  in  his  voice,  he  was  advised  by 
M.  Bossuet,  to  give  up  the  church,  and  lo  apply  himself 
to  the  study  of  physic  i  but  this  being  against  the  inclii^a- 
tion  of  his  uncle,  from  whom  b^  drew  his  principal  re- 
sources, Sauv^ur  determihed  to  devote  himself  to  bis  fa- 
vourite study,  so  as  to  be  able  to  teach  it  for  his  support. 
This  scheme  succeeded  so  well,  that  he  soon  became  the^ 
fashionable  preceptor  in  mathematics,  and  at  twenty-three 
years  of  age  he  had  prince  Eugene  for  his  scholar. — He 
had  not  yet  read  the  geometry  of  Oes  Cartes ;  but  a 
foreigner  of  the  first  quality  desiring  to  be  taught  it,  be 
tfiade  himself  master  of  it  in  an  in<ipnceivably  small  space 
of  time. — Basset  being  a  fashionable  game  at  that  time, 
the  marquis  of  <Dangeau  asked  him  for  ^ome  calculatiods 
relating  to  it,  which  gave  suqh  satisfaction,  thai  Sauveut^ 
bad  the  honour  to  explain  them  to  the  king  and  queen. 

In  1681  he  was  sent  with  M.  Mariotte  to  Chantilli,  to. 
make  some  experiments  upon  the  waters  there,  in  which 
be  gave  great  satisfsiction.  The  frequent  visits  be  made 
to  this  place  inspired  him  with  the  design  of  writing  a  trea- 
tise on  fortification ;  and,  in  order  to  join  practice  with 
theory,  he  went  to  the  siege  of  Mons  in  1691,  where  bd 

>  ]ik>y,  Diet,  Hut.  ck  Medioine^^Diot,  Hitt. 

S  A  U  V  E  U  R.  tSS 

continued  all  the  while  in  the  trenches.  With  the  ssttie 
rhw  also  be  visited  all  the  towns  of  Flanders ;  and  on  his  re^ 
turn  he  became  the  mathematician  in  ordinary  at  the  court^ 
with  a  pension  for  life.  In  1680  he  had  been  chosen  to 
teach  mathematics  to  the  pages  of  the  Dauphiness.  In 
16S6  be  was  appointed  mathematical  professor  in  the  Royot 
College.  And  in  1696  admitted  a  member  of  the  Academy 
of  Sciences,  where  he  was  in  high  esteem  with  the  mem« 
bers  of  that  society.  He  became  also  particularly  ac« 
quainted  with  the  prince  of  Cond^,  from  whom  be  received 
many  marks  of  favour  and  affection.  In  1703,  M.  Vauban 
having  been  made  marshal  of  France,  he  proposed  Sau<«» 
▼enr  to  the  king  as  his  successor  in  the  office  of  examinef 
of  the  engineers ;  to  which  the  king  agreed,  and  honoured 
bim  with  a  pension,  which  our  author  enjoyed  till  bit 
death,  which  happened  July  9,  1716,  in  the  stxty-fourthf 
year  of  his  age. 

Sauveur '  was  of  an  obliging  disposition,  and  of  a  good 
temper;  humble  in  his  deportment,  and  of  simple  manners. 
He  was  twice  married.  The  first  time  he  took  a  precaution 
more  like  a  mathematician  than  a  lover ;  for  he  would  not 
meet  the  lady  till  he  had  been  with  a  notary  to  have  the 
conditions  he  intended  to  insist  on,  reduced  into  a  written 
form ;  for  fear  the  sight  of  her  should  not  leave  him  enough 
master  of  himself.  He  had  children  by  both  his  wires ; 
and  by  the  latter  a  son,  who,  like  himself,  was  dumb  for 
the  first  seven  years  of  bis  life. 

An  extraordinary  part  of  Sauveur^s  character  is,  that 
diough  he  had  neither  a  musical  voice  nor  ear,  yet  he 
studied  no  science  more  than  music,  of  which  he  composed 
an  entire  new  system.  It  was  he  also  who  first  invented  the 
monochord  and  the  echometer.  He  pursued  his  researches 
even  to  the  music  of  the  ancient  Greeks  and  Romans,  to 
the  Arabs,  and  to  the  very  Turks  and  Persians  themselves; 
and  was  the  inventor  of  the  term  Acoustics,  now  generally 
adopted  to  signify  the  theory  of  sounds  atid  their  proper- 
ties.  But  Dr.  Burney  does  not  speak  very  highly  of  some 
of  his  musical  theories. 

Sauveur*s  wHtings,  wliich  consist  of  pieces  rather  than 
of  set  works,  are  ail  inserted  in  the  volumes  of  the  memoirs 
of  the  Academy  of  Sciences,  from  1700  to  1716,  on  vari-» 
OHs  geometrical,  mathematical,  philosophical,  and  musical 
subjects.  ^ 

\  Miosmii  vol,  iy,«THiitUm'i  Dict-^aniey's  Hist,  of  Moiio* 


S  A  V  A  G  E- 

SAVAGE  (Henky),  an  English  divine,  was  bora  alKMVt 
1604,  of  a  good  family,  in  the  parish  of  Eldsfield,  Wori 
pestershire.  He  entered  of  Baliol  college,  Oxford,  as  a 
commoner  in  1621,  took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  in  Nov.  1625, 
in  1628  was  made  probationer  fellow,  and  in  1630  com-r 
pleted  his  roaster's  degree.  On  the  commencement  of  the 
rebellion,  he  travelled  into  France  with  Williain  lord 
Sandys,  whose  sister,  the  lady  Mary,  be  afterwards  mar- 
ried. Soon  after  his  .return  he  obtained  the  mastership  of 
his  college,  Feb.  20,  1650,  being  at  that  time  bachelor  of 
divinity,  and  next  year  took  his  doctor's  degree  in  the 
same  faculty.  Notwithstanding  this  compliance  with  the 
ns^ufping  powers,  he  was,  on  the  restoration,  made  chap*^ 
lain  in  ordinary  to  his  majesty,  prebendary  of  Gloucester 
in  1665,  and  rector  of  Biadoii  near  Woodstock  in  Oxford- 
shire. He  died,  master  of  Baliol  college,  June  2,  1672, 
and  was  buried  i^  the  chapel. 

Dr.  Savage  had  a  controversy  with  John  Tombes,  on  in- 
fant bapjtism,  and  with  Dr.  Cornelius  Surges  on  church- 
refori|>ations,  which  produced  some  pamphlets  of  little 
eonse^uence  now ;  bis  principal  work  was  his  history  of 
Balliol  college,  entitled  ^*  Balliofergus,  qr  a  commentary 
vpon  the  foundation,  founders,^  and  affairs  "of  Balliolcol- 
lege,*'  1668,  4to.  Wood  says,  he  had  no  natural  geny  for 
a  work  of  this  kind,  and  has  committed  many  blunders ; 
and  it  may  be  added,  that  bis  style  is  uncommonly  vague^: 
diffusive,  and  pedantic.  Hi^  aim  was  to  appear  great  ia 
little  things,  and  the  gravity  with  which  he  discusses  the 
origin,  derivation,  &c.  of  the  name  Katherine,  whether  it 
should  \)e  spelt  with  a  K  or.a  C,  at  what  time  the  letter  k 
'  was  introduced,  and  the  double  /  in  Balliol,  is  truly  won-* 
derful.  By  his  wife,  lady  Mary  Sandys,  he  left  issue 
Henry,  Edwin,  John,  Katherine,  and  Thomas,  and  bad 
buried  two  daughters  in  1670  and  1671,  in  St.  Mary  Mag- 
dalen^s  church,  Oxford.  His  widow  died  in  an  obscure 
bouse  in  St.  Ebbe's  parish,  between  the  church  ai)d  West- 
gate,  May  15,  1683,  and  was  b pried  in  St.  Mary  Magda- 
len's church.' 

SAVAGE  (John),  D.  D.  the  benevolent  president  of  the 
famous  club  at  Rpyston^,  an4>  sl^  Mr.  Cole  says,  the  only 

•  •  

"^  0f  this  club,  ^ee  an  account  by  the  list  of  members, .  we  find  Ralph 

Mr.  Goagh-in  Gent.'  Mag.  LIII.  p.  Freeman  and  Christopber  Anstey^  both 

814.  ,  Dr.  Sayage,    however,  was   not  D.  D.     The  club  likewise  had  iti»  cbaQ** 

the  only  elergymab  belonging  to  if.    In  lain,  and  a  well-stored  wine-cellar*! 

>  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  n;-^faaimen*8  Hist,  of  Oxf.-^W«td's  MSS.  in  Mtt».  AshmoU 


l^vgyman  ever  {tdmitted  into  it,  was  a  member  of  Ema^ 
iiuel  college,  Cambridge,  where  he  took  his  degrees,  and 
was  D.  D.  of  both  universities.  He  was  rector,  first  of 
Bygrave,  then  of  Clothall,  Herts,  and  lecturer  of  St.  George^ 
Hanover-square,  London.  In  his  younger  days  he  ha4 
traveiled  with  James,;  fifth  earl  of  Salisbury,  who  gave  him 
the  great  living  of  Clothall,  where  Dr.  Savage  rebuilt  the 
rectory-house.  In  his  more  advanced  years  be  was  sq 
lively,  pleasant,  and  facetious,  that  he  was  called  the 
f^Aristippus"  of  the  age.  One  day,  at  the  levee,  George  L 
asked  him,  ^'  How  long  he  had  stayed  at  Rome  with  lord 
Salisbury  ?•'  Upon  his  answering  how  long,  "  Why,'*  said 
tbe  i^ing,  ^f  you  stayed  long  enough,  why  did  you  not 
convert  the  Pope  ?"  ^^  Because,  9ir/ •  replied  he,  ^*  I  had 
nothing  better  (o  offer  him.''  Having  been  bred  at  West* 
minster,  be  had  always  ^  great  fondness  for  the  spboo],  at* 
tended  at  all  their  plays  and  elections,  assisted  in  all  their 
public  exercises,  grew  young  agaiU)  and,  among  boy?^ 
Yfas  9  great  boy  himself.  He  used  to  attend  the  schools, 
to  fi|f  qish  the  lads  with  extempore  epigrams  at  the  flections, 
lie  died  March  24,  1747,  by  a  fall  down  the  stairs  belong- 
ing to  the  scaffolding  for  lord  Lovat's  trial ;  and  the  king^i^ 
pcholars  had  so  great  a  regard  for  him,  that,  after  his  de- 
Cease,  they  made  ^  collection  among  themselves,  and,  at 
their  own  charge,  erected  a  sqfiall  tablet  of  white  marble  to 
his  memory  in  the  East  cloister,  with  a  Latin  inscription*- 
Besides  a  visitation  and  an  assize  sermon,  Mr.  Cole  attri- 
l^ntes  the  following  works  to  him  :  1.  <^  The  Turkish  ijisr 
tory  by  Mr.  KnoUes  and  sir  Paul  Rycaut  abridged,'*  1701^ 
9  vols.  8vo.  This  was  shewn  to  sir  Paul,  who  approved  of 
it  so  much,  that  he  designed  to  have  written  a  preface  to 
i^  had  not  death  prevented  him.  2.  ^'  A  Collection  of 
Letters  of  the  Ancients,  whereby  is  discovered  the  morality, 
gallantry,  wit,  humour,  manner  of  arguing,  and  in  a  word 
(he  genius  of  the  Greeks  and  Romans,**   1703,  8vo.^ 

SAVAGE  (Richard),  an  eminent  instance  of  the  use*- 
l^ssness  and  insignificancy  of  knowledge,  wit,  and  genius, 
without  prudence  and  a  proper  regard  to  the  common 
maxims  of  life,  was  born  in  1698.  He  was  the  son  'of 
Anne  countess  of  Macclesfield,  by^  the  earl  of  Rivers.  He 
might  have  been  considered  as  the  lawful  issue  of  the  earl 
of  Macclesfield;  but  bis  mother,  in  order  to  procure  a 

)  Nichols's  Bowyer.-*Cole'«  MS  Athenae  in  Brit,  Mtti. 


si^ptitratioH  from  her  husband,  made  a  public  eodfeMiott  of 
aduhery  in  this  instance.  As  soon  as  this  spurious  ofFgpring 
was  brought  to  light,  the  countess  treated  him  with  every 
kind  of  unnatural  cruelty.  Slie  committed  him  to  the  care 
of  a  poor  woman,  to  educate  as  her  own.  She  prevented 
the  earl  of  Rivers  from  making  him  a  bequest  in  his  will  of 
6000/.  by  declaring  him  dead.  She  endeavoured  to  send 
hitn  secretly  to  the  American  plantations ;  aiul  at  laftt,  to 
bdry  him  iti  poverty  and  obscurity  for  ever,  she  placed  him 
as  an  apprentice  to  a  shoemaker  in  Holbom.  About  tbiif 
tiihe  his  nurse  died ;  and  in  searching  her  effects,  which 
^^  Ttnagined  to  be  his  right,  he  found  some  letters  whieh 
infbrmed  him  of  his  birth,  and  the  reasons  for  which  it  was 
concealed.  He  now  left  his  low  occupation,  and  tried 
every  method  to  awaken  the  tenderness,  and  attract  th^' 
regard,  of  his  mother:  but  all  bis  assiduity  was  without 
effect ;  for  be  could  neither  soften'  her  heart,  nor  open  hey 
hand,  and  he  was  reduced  to  the  miseries  of  want;  By 
the  care  of  the  lady  Mason,  mother  to  the  countess,  he 
had  been  placed  at  the  grammar-school  at  St.  Alban'^, 
where  he  had  acquired  all  the  learning  which  his  situation 
allowed  ;  and  necessity  now  obliged  him  %o  becoine  an 

The  first  effort  of  his  uncultivated  genius  was  a  poem 
stgainst  Hoadiy,  bishop  of  Bangor ;  of  which  the  author 
was  afterwards  ashamed.  He  then  attempted  to  write  for 
the  stage,  but  with  little  success :  yet  this  attempt  was  at- 
tended with  some  advantage,  as  it  introduced  him  to  the 
acquaintance  of  sir  Richard  Steele  and  Mr.  Wilfcs.  Whilst 
he  was  in  dependence  on  these  gentlemen,  he  was  an  asii- 
duons  frequenter  of  the  theatres^  and  never  absent  from  a 
play  in  several  years^  In  1723  be  brought  a  tragedy  on 
the  stage,  in  which  himself  performed  a  part,  the  subject 
0{  which  was  **  Sir  Thomas  Overbury."  If  we  consider 
the  circumstances  under  which  it  was  wriftten,  it  will  JBLffonT 
at  once  an  uncommon  proof  of  strength  of  genius,  and  an 
(evenness  of  mind  not  to  be  ruffled.  Whilst  he  was  em- 
ployed upon  this  work,  he  was  without  a  lodging,  and 
ofton  without  food  ;  nor  had  he  any  other  convenitehces  for 
study  than  the  -fields  or  the  street ;  and,  when  he  had 
formed  i  speech,  he  would  step  into  a  sbof),  abd  beg  the 
use  of  pen,  ink,  and  papen  The  profits  of  this  plajr 
amounted  to  about  200/. ;  and  it  procured  him  the  notice 
and  esteem  of  many  persons  of  distinction,  some^rays  qf 

SAVAGE,  189 

l^diiHis  gfiaimenng  tbr<>ugli  ail  the  clouds  of  poverty  and 
oppr^ssioD.  Buty  wb^n  the  world  was .  beginning  to  be#- 
hoild  htm  with  a  more  favourable  eye,  a  misfortune  hefei 
bim,  by  which  not  only  his  reputation,  but  his  life,  was  in 
danger*  In  a  night-ramble  he  fell  into  a  coffee-bouse  of 
iU<-famei  near  Charing- Cross;  when  a  quarrel  happened, 
and  one  Mr.  Sinclair  was  killed  in  the  fray.  Savage,  with 
bis  companion,  was  taken  into  custody,  tried  for  murdeiv 
and  capitally  convicted  of  the  offence.  His  mother  was  so 
inhuman,  at  this  critical  juncture,  as  to  use  all  means  to 
prejudice  the  queen  against  him,  and  to  intercept  all  the 
hopes  he  bad  of  life  from  the  royal  mercy ;  but  at  last  the 
countess  of  Hertford,  out  of  compassion,  laid  a  true  ac- 
count of  the  extraordinary  story  and  sufferiags  of  poor  Sa- 
vage before  her  majesty ;  and  obtained  his  pardon. 

He  now  recovered  his  liberty,  but  had  no  means  of  sub« 
lusteiice;  and  a  scheme  struck  him,  by  which  he  might 
compel  his  mother  to  do  something  for  him,  and  extort 
that  from  her  by  satire,  which  she  bad  denied  to  natural 
affection.  The  expedient  proved  successful;  and  lor4 
Tyreonnel,  on  his  promise  to  lay  aside  his  design,  received 
him  into  bis  family,  treated  him  as  his  equal,  and  engaged 
to  allow  him  a  pension  of  200L  a-year.  In  this  gay  period 
of  life,  when  he  was  surrounded  by  affluence  and  pleasure,, 
be  published  '^  The  Wanderer,  a  moral  Poem/'  1729^ 
which  was  approved  by  Pope,  and  which  the  author  him- 
self considered  as  his  master-piece.  It  was  addressed  to 
the  earl  of  Tyrconnel,  with  the  highest  strains  of  panegy*- 
ric.  These  praises,  however,  in  a  short  time,  he  found 
himself  inclined  .to  retract,  being  discarded  by  that  noble* 
man  om  account  of  bis  imprudent  and  licentious  behaviour. 
He  now  thought  himself  again  at  liberty  to  expose  the 
4Earuelty  of  his  mother,  and  accordingly  published  *^  The 
Bastard,  a  Poem.''  This  bad  an  extraordinary  sale :  and^ 
its  appearance  happening  at  a  time  when  the  countess  was 
at  Bath,  many  persons  there  in  hei;  hearing  took  frequent 
opportunities  of  repeating  passages  from  it,  until  shaope 
obliged  her  to  quit  the  place. 

.  Some  time  after  this.  Savage  fofmed  a  resolution  of  ap<» 
plying  to  the  queen  :  she- had  given  him  bis  life,  and  he 
hoped  her  goodness  might  enable  him  to  support  it.  He 
published  a  poem  on  her  birth-day,  which  he  entitle 
^  The  Volunteer  Laureat"  She  graciously  sent  him  fifty 
poandsj  adtfa  aa  intimation  that  be  might  annually  expect 

m  S  A  V  A  G  fi. 

the  same  bounty.  His  condact  with  regard  to  this  peiisfiofi 
was  very  characteristic  ;  as  soon  as  be  bad  receited  it,  be 
imtnedi&tely  disappeared,  and  lay  for  some  time  out  of  the 
reach  of  his  most  intimate  friends.  At  length  he  wits  see^ 
again,  pennyless  as  before,  but  never  itiformed  any  person 
where  he  had  been,  nor  was  his  retreat  ever  discoverecl^. 
His  perpetual  indigence,  politeness,  and  wit,  still  raised  him 
^ew  friends,  as  fast  as  his  misbehaviour  lost  him  his  old 
ones;  and  sir  Kobert  Walpole,  the  prime  minister,  was 
<warmly  solicited  in  hisfatour.  Promises  were  given,  but 
ended  in  disappointment  ^  upon  which  he  published  a 
poem  in  the  *^  Gentleman's  Magazine,'^  entitled|  "  The 
Poet's  Dependence  on  a  Statesman." 

His  poverty  Still  increasing,  he  only  dined  by  accident, 
when  he  wasf  invited  to  the  tables  of  his  acquaintance,  fronft 
which  the  meanness  of  his  dress  often  excluded  him.    Hav- 
ing no  lodgings,  be  passed  the  night  often  in  mean  houses',, 
which  are  set  open  for  any  casual  wanderers,  sometimes  in 
cellars,  amongst  the  riot  and  fijth  of  the  meanest  and  most 
profligate  of  the  rabble;    and  sometimes,-  when   he  wa& 
totally  without  money,  walked  about  the  streets  till  he  was 
weary,  and  lay  down  in  the  summer  upon  a  bulk,  and,  in 
the  winter,  with  his  associates  in  poverty,  among  the  ashed 
of  a  glass-house.     His  distresses,  however  afflictive,  never 
dejected  him.     In  his  lowest  sphere,  his  pride  kept  up  bis 
spirits,  and  set  him  on  a  level  with  those  of  the  highest 
rank.     He  never  admitted  any  gross  familiarity,  or  sub-^ 
mitted  to  be  treated  otherwise  than  as  an  eqUaL    ThisT 
wretched  life  was  rendered  more  unhappy^  in  1738,  by 
the  death  of  the  queen,  and  the  loss  of  his  pension.     Hi^ 
distress  was  now  publicly  known,  and  bis  friends,  there- 
fore, thought  proper  to  concert  some  measures  for  pro- 
curing him  a  permanent  relief,     tt  was  proposed  that  be 
i^hould   retire   into  Wales,  with   an  allowance  of  SoL  peif 
annum,  to  be  raised  by  subscription,  on  which  he  was  to^ 
live  privately  in  a  cheap  place,  and  lay  aside  all  his  aspir«^ 
ing  thoughts. . 

This  ofl^'er  he  seemed  to  accept  with  great  joy,  and  set 
out  on  his  journey  with  fifteen  guineas  in  his  purse.  Hiai 
friends  and  benefactors,  the  principal  of  whom  was  Pope^ 
expected  now  to  hear  of  his  arrival  in  Wales  ;  but,  on  the 
1 4th  day  after  his  departure,  they  were  surprised  with  H' 
letter  from  him,  acquainting  them  that  he  was  yet  upon 
tha  road>  and  without  money,  and  could  noi  proceed  with-^ 

SAVAGE*  19l 

^\ii  t  remittance.  The  money  was  sent,  by  which  he  was 
enabled  to  ireacK  Bristol ;  whence  he  was  to  go  to  Swansea 
by  water.  He  could  not  immediately  obtain  a  passage^ 
and  therefore  was  obliged  to  stay  some  time  at  Bristol; 
where,  with  his  usual  facility,  he  made  sin  acquaintance 
with  the  principal  people,  and  was  treated  with  all  kinds  of 
civifity.  At  last  he  reached  the  place  proposed  fdr  hi^  re- 
sidence ;  where  he  stayed  a  yeaf^  and  completed  a  tragedy; 
which  he  had  begun  in  London.  Ht  was  now  desiipous  of 
coming'  to  town  to  bring  it  on  the  stage :  but  his  friends, 
and  jparticularly  Pope,  who  was  his  chief  benefactor,  op« ' 
posed  the  design  very  strongly ;  and  advised  him  to  put  it 
into  the  hands  of  Thomson  and  Mallet,  to  fit  it  for  tbef 
stage,  and  to  allow  his  friends  to  receive  the  profits,  out  of 
which  an  annual  pension  shoi;iId  be  paid  him^  The  pfopo^^ 
sal  he  rejected,  Quitted  Swansea,  and  set  off  for  London  i 
but,  at  Bristol,  a  repetition  of  the  kindness  he  h^d  formerly 
found,  invited  him  to  stay.  He  stayed  so  long,  that  by 
his  imprudence  and  misconduct  he  wearied  out  all  hi9 
friends.  His  wit  had  lost  its  novelty ;  and  his  irregular 
behaviour,  and  late  hours,  grew  very  troublesome  to  mea 
of  business.  His  money  was  spent,  his  cloaths  worn  out^ 
ahd  his  shabby  appearance  made  it  difficult  for  him  to  ob^ 
tain  a  dinner.  Here,  however,  he  stayed,  in  the  midst  of 
poverty,  hunger,  and  contenapt,  till  the  mistress  of  a  coffee- 
house, to  whom  he  owed  about  8/.  arrested  him  for  the 
debt.  He  could  find  no  bail,  and  was  therefore  lodged  in 
prison.  During  his  confinement,  he  began,  and  almost 
finished,  a  satire,  entitled  ^^  London  and  Bristol  delinev 
ated  ;*'  in  order  to  be  revenged  on  those  who  had  no  more' 
generosity  than  to  suffer  a  man,  for  whom  they  professied 
a  regard,  to  languish  in  a  gaol  for  so  small  a' sum. 

vWhen  he  had  been  six  months  in  prison,  he  received  a 
letter  from  Pope,  on  whom  bis  chief  dependance  now- 
rested,  containing  a  charge  of  Very  atrocious  ingratitudes- 
Savage  returned  a  very  solemn  protestation  of  his  inno- 
ceiice^  and  he  appeared  much  disturbed  at  the  accusation* 
In  a  few  days  after,  he  was  seized  with  a -disorder,  which 
at  first  was  not  suspected  to  be  dangerous;  but,  growing 
daily  mor^  languid  and  defected,  at  last,  a  fever  seizing 
him,  be  expired,  August  1,  1743,  in  his  forty-sixth  year, 
and  was4>urTed  lu  the  church-yard  of  St.  Peter,  at  the  eX'» 
p^Qce  of  the  g.ioler.  Thus  lived,  and  thus  died,  Richard 
Savage^  leavini;  behind  him  a  character  strangely  chequered 


with  vices  apd  good  qualities.  H.«  was;  howtev^r,  UQ^owbt^ 
^dly  a  man  of  excellent  parts ;  and,  bad  be  received  thp 
full  benefits  of  a  liberal  education,  and  had  his  natural 
talents  been  cultivated  to  the  best  advantage,  he  mighl 
have  made  a  respectable  figure  in  life.  He  was  happy  in 
91)  agreeable  temper,  and  a  liyely  flow  of  wit,  which  made 
his  company  much  coveted ;  nor  was  bis  judgment, .  both 
of  writings  and  of  men,  inferior  to  his  wit ;  but  he  was. too 
inuch  a  slave  to  his  passions,  and  bis  passions  were  too 
easily  excited.  He  was  warm  in  his  friendships,  but  im-^ 
placable  in  his  enmity ;  and  his  greatest  faulty  which  is  in«- 
(jleed  the  greatest  of  all  faults,  was  ingratitude.  He  seemed 
to  think  every  thing  due  to  his  mei^it,  and  tbi^t  he  waa 
little  obliged  to  any  one  for  those  favours  which  he  thpu^t 
it  their  duty  to  confer  on  him :  it  is  therefore  the  less 
to  be  wondered  at,  that  he  never  rightly  estimated  tba 
I(indnes^  of  his  many  friends  and  benefactors,  or  pre^^ 
served  ^  grateful  and  due  sense  of  their  generosity  to wardii 

The  works  of  this  original  writer,  after  having  long,  lain 
dispersed  in  magazines  and  fugitive  publications,  were 
collected  and  published  by  T.  Evans,  bookseller,  in .  the 
Strandy  in  an  ejegant  edition  iu  two  volumes^  octavo,*  to 
f^hicb  are  prefixed  the  admirable  ^'  Memoirs  of  Savage," 
written  by  Dr*  Samuel  Johnson.  They  have  since  been  in« 
^oiporated  in  the  "  English  Poets*"  * 

SAVARON  (John),  a  celebrated  president  and  lieute^ 
Qant*general  in  the  seneschalship  and  presidial  court  of 
Clermont  in  Auvergne,  was  born  there  about  the  begin- 
ftipg  of  the  seventeenth  century.  He  had  an  extensive 
]|oowledg;e  of  the  belles  iettres  and  law,  and.  was  one  of  the 
most  learned  men  and  eloquent  magistrates  of  his  time^ 
Be  attended  the  states-general  held  at  Paris  in  li614,  as  a 
deputy  from  the  Tiers  Etat  of  the  province  of  Auvecgne^ 
Md  defended  its  rights  with  aseal  and  firmness  against  the 
nobility  and  the  clergy.  He  afterwards  pleaded  with  great 
i;redit  in  the  parliament  of  Paris,  and  died  at  a  very  ad^ 
vanced  age  in  16B2,  leaving  many  learned  works  much 
esteemed.;  the  principal  are,  an  edition  of  ^<  Sidonius; 
Apollinaris,"  16Qi},  4to.  with  noites.  <'  Cler-^ 
mont,  Capitale  d'Auvergne,*'  the  most  complete  edition  o£ 
which  is  by  Peter   Dursmd,    1662,   folio.    |<Trait6  dea 

^  Life  by  J>r.  Johnson. 

!3  JL  V  A  R  O  N.  \9$ 

^  Dud^'*  Uly.  **  Traiti  da  is  SouveralntA  du  Roi  et  de 
son  Roiaiime  aux  Deputes  de  la  Noblesse/'  161 5^  8vo,  two 
parts ;  a  carious  and  scarce  work.  **  Chronologies  des  Etats 
Gin^rauxy*'  8vo ;  the  object  of  which  is  to  prove  that  the 
Tiers  Etat  has  always  bad  admittance  there,  ft  seat,  and  a 
deliberative  voice.  ^ 

SAVARY  (Francis),    seigneur  de  Breves,    a  learned 
Frenchman  who  had    the  merit  of  introducing   oriental 
printing  into  bis  country  about  the  beginning  of  the  se- 
venteenth century,  was  the  French  ambassador  at  Con- 
^ntinople  for  twenty^two  years.     On   his  return,  about 
1611,    Henry   IV.    sent    him    to  Rome    as   ambassador 
in   the   pontificate  of  Paul  V.  where,    in    1613,    he   ap* 
pears  to  have  established  a  printing-*office ;  for  in  the  title 
of  a  translation  of  Bellarmin's  conclusion,  and  a  Psalter  into   ' 
Arabic,  they  are  said  to  come  ex  typographia  Savariana. 
Savary  is  said  to  have  cast  the  types,  and  employed  on , 
th^e  two  works,  as  correctors,  Scialac  and  Sionita,  two 
Maronites  from  mount  Lebanon.      In  1615,    Savary  re- 
turned to  Paris,  bringing  with  him  Sionita  and  the  printer 
PauHn,  who,  in  the  same  year,  printed  in  small  quarto,  in 
Turkish  and  French,  the  "Treaty  of  1604,  between  Henry 
the  Great,  king  of  France,  and  the  sultan  Amurath,''  &c. 
The  following  year  appeared  an  Arabic  Grammar,  edited 
by  Sionita  and  Hesronita.     It  appears  that  Savary  had  the 
liberality  to  lend  his  types  to  those  who  were  desirous  of 
printing  works  in  the  oriental  languages.  He  diedin'1627, 
when,  we  are  told,  the  English  and  Dutch  made  offers  for  ^ 
the  purchase  of  his  types,  and  the  oriental  manuscripts 
wtitch  he  had  collected  in  the  Levant ;  but  the  king  of 
France  bought  them,  and  sQon  after  a  new  establishment 
appeared  at  Paris  for  oriental  printing,  all  the  credit  of 
wbtch  was  given  to  the  cardinal  Richelieu,  while  the  name 
of  Savary  was  not  once  mentioned.     Sic  vos  non  vobis^  fcc. 
Thetiie  types  are  said  to  be  still. extant  in  the  royal  print* 
hig  office.     Savary  published  an  account  of  his  travels, 
ttom  which  we  learn,  that  be  projected  certain  conquests 
iti  the  Levant,  for  the  extension  of  the  commerce  of  his 
country,  and  the  propagation  of  Christianity.   The  number 
of  oriental  M8S.  wbiph  he  brought  from  the  Levant  amounts 
to  ninety-seven.' 

\  •  • 

>  KKstMo,  taI.  XVU.  *  Mcfc  Birt. 

yot.xxvn.  o 

194  .  S  A  V  A  R  Y.  ^ 

*  SAVARY  (James),  an  useful  French  writer  upon  the 
subject  of  trade,  was  born  at  Duu6  in  Anjou  Sept.  22, 
1622.  He  was  sent  to  Paris,  and. put  apprentice  to  a  mer- 
chant; and  carried  on  trade  tiH  1658,  when  he  left  off  the 
practice,  to  apply  with  more  attention  to  the  theory.  It 
is  said,  that  he  bad  acquired  a  very  competent  fortune;, 
but^  in  1667,  when  the  king  rewarded  with  certain  privi- 
leges and  pensions  such  of  his  subjects  as  had  twelve  chiU 
dren  aliv6,  Savary  wa^  not  too  rich  to  put  in  his  claim.  He 
was  afterwards  admitted  of  the  council  for  the  reformation 
of  commerce ;  and  the  orders,  which  passed  in  1 670,  were 
drawn  up  from  his  instructions  and.  advice.  Being  re- 
quested by  the  comrpissioners  to  digest  his  principles  into 
a  volume,  he  published  at  Paris,  in  1675,  4to,  "LeParfait 
Negociant,  ou.  Instruction  generate  pour  ce  qui  regarde 
le  Commerce  des  Merchandises  de  France  et  des  Pays 
Strangers."  This  went  through  many  editions,  the  best  of 
which  is  that  of  1777,  2  vols.  4to :  aud  has  been  translated 
into  almost  all  European  languages.  In  1688,  he  pub-^ 
li&bed  ^'  Avis  et  Conseiis  sur  les  plus  impbrtantes  matieres 
du  Commerce,"  in  4to ;  which  has  been  considered  as  a 
second  volume  to  the  former  work,  and  often  re-printed.' 
He  died  in  1690;  and,  out  of  seventeen  children  which 
he  had  by  one  wife,  left  eleven. 

Two  of  the  sons,  James  and  Philemon,  became  after- 
waros  writers  on  the  subject.  James  Savary  being 
chosen  in  1686  inspector  general  of  the  manufactures  at 
the  custom-house  of  Paris,  took  an  account  of  all  the  se- 
veral sorts  of  merchandise  that  passed  through  it ;  and 
ranged  in  alphabetical  order  all  the  words  relating  to  ma- 
nufactures and  commerce,  with  definitions  and  explications^ 
merely  at  first  for  his  private  use,  but  being  told  how  use-, 
ful  such  a  work  might  prove,  if  extended  and  methodized^ 
he  employed  his  brother  Philemon  to  assist  him,  but  died 
in  1716,  leaving  it  unfinished.  Philemon  at  length  pub-' 
lished  it  at  Paris  in  1723,  under  this  title,  ^'  Dictionnaire 
Universel  du  Commerce,"  in  2  vols,  folio;  and,  animated 
by  the  favourable  reception  given  to  this  work,  spent  three 
other  years  in  making  it  more  complete  and  perfect ;  and 
finished  a  third  volume,  by  way  of  .supplement  to  the  two 
former,  which  appeared  in  1729.  This  wa5  after  his  deaths 
which  happened  in  1727.  This  "Dictionary  of  Com- 
merce" has  been  universally  spoken  of  as  a  very  Excellent 
work,  and  has  been  often  jeprinted.    The  best  edition  ia 

S  A  V  A  R  Y.  155 

that  fedited  by  Philibert,   at  Copenhagen,*  1759— 66^   5" 
vols.  fol.  * 

SAVARY  (Nicholas),  a  French  traveller,  was  born  at 
Vitre  in  Brittany^  and  pursued  bis  studies  at  Rennes  with 
considerable  distinction.  In  1776,  he  visited  Egypt,  at 
which  place  be  remained  for  the  space  of  three  years» 
Whilst  here  he  paid  particular  attention  to  the  manners  of' 
the  inhabitants,  a  knowledge  of  the  Arabic  tongue,  and  an 
investigation  of  antiquities.  From  Egypt  be  went  to  the 
islands  of  the  Archipelago,  over  most  of  which  he  travelled, 
and  examined  them  with  careful  attention.  On  his  return 
to  France,  in  1780,  he  published,  "  A  translation  of  the 
Koran,  with  a  sketch  of  the  life  of  Mahomet.''  He  also 
published  an  extract  from  the  above  work,  which  he  called 
'^  La  Morale  de  Mahomet."  His  principal  work  was 
**  Letters  on  Egypt,"  which  have  been  well  received,  and 
translated  into  different  European  languages.  Yet  it  is 
objected  to  this  work,  and  with  great  appearance  of  reason^ 
that  the  author  has  yielded  too  much  to  the  powers  of  a* 
lively  imagination,  and  that  he  has  given  rather  a  fasci- 
nating than  a  correct  picture.  '  Volney's  Travels  may  serve 
to  restore  the  likeness,  and  correct  Savary's  exuberances* 
Encouraged,  however,  by  the  success  of  this  work,  Savary 
published  his  <^  Letters  on  Greece,"  which  is  likewise  an ' 
agreeable  and  entertaining  performance.  Soon  after  this 
period  he  died,  at  Paris,  in  1788.  He  was  a  m^n  of  eon-* 
siderable  talents,  an  excellent  taste,  and  a  lively  fancy ;  and, 
although  many  of  his  positions  have  been  controverted,  as 
well  by  Volney,  as  by  other  writers  on  the  same  subjects, 
his  works  are  written  in  a  style  and  manner  which  render 
them  highly  interesting  to  a  large  class  of  readers. ' 

SAVILE  (Sir  George),  marquis  of  Halifiix,  a  celebrated 
statesman,  but  of  equivocal  character,  was  descended  from 
an  ancient  family  in  Yorkshire.  He  was  the  son  of  sir 
William  Savile,  bart.  and  Anne,  daughter  of  Thomas  lord 
Coventry,  lord  keeper  of  the  great  seal.  He  was  born 
probably  about  1630.  Upon  the  death  of  his  father,  he 
succeeded  to  the  title  of  baronet,  and  soon  distinguished 
himself  by  his  abilities  in  public  affairs  ;  and  being  zealous* 
in  bringing  about  the  restoration,  was  created  a  peer,  in 
consideration  of  his  own  and  his  father's. merits.  In  1668 
he  wa^appointed  of  that  remarkable  committee,  which  sat 

*  Kiccf 00,  tols.  IX  aud  X.-— Diet.  HUt,  f  Diet.  Hist. 

Q  2 

tH  S  A  V  I  L  E. 

alBrook-baH  fortbe  ^Examination  of  the  accounts  of  the 
money  which  had  been  given  during  the  Dutch  war^  of 
which  no  mennber  of  the  House  of  Commons  was  admitted. 
In  April  1672  be  was  called  to  a  seat  in  the  privy  council ; 
andy  June  following,  went  over  to  Holland  with  the  duke 
of  Bttckingham  and  the  earl  of  Arlington,  as  ambassador 
extraordinary  and  plenipotentiary,  to  treat  about  a  peace 
with  France,  when  he  met  with  great  opposition  from  hia 

In  1675  be  op(K>sed  with  vigour  the  non-resistuvg  test- 
bill;  and  was  removed  from  the  council-board  the  year 
following  by  the  intei^st  of  the  earl  of  Danhy,  the  trea-- 
surer.     He  bad  provoked  this  lord  by  one  of  those  witti- 
cisms in  which  he  dealt  so  largely.     In  the  examination 
before  the  council  concerning  the  revenue  of  Ireland,  Iprd 
Widrington  confessed  that  be  had  made  an  offer  of  a  coh-^- 
siderable  sum  to  the  lord  treasurer,  and  that  his  lordship 
had  rejected  it  very  mildly,  and  in  such  a  manner  as  not  to. 
discourage  a  second  attempt.     Lord  Halifax  observed  upon 
this,  that  ^^  it  would  be  somewhat  strange  if  a  man  should 
ask  the  use  of  another  man's-  wife,  and  the  other  should 
indeed  refuse  it,  but  with  great  civility.'*     His  removal; 
was  very  agreeable  to  the  duke  of  York,  who'  at  that  time 
had  a  more  violent  Aversion  to  him  than  even  to  Shaftesbury 
himself,  because  he  had  spoken  with  great  firmness  and' 
spirit  in  the  House  of  Lords  against  the  declaration  for  a 
toleration.     However,  upon  a  change  of  the  ministry  in 
1679,  his  lordship  was  made  a  member  of  the  new  counciL 
The  same  year,  during  the  agitation  of  the  bill  for  the  ex« 
elusion  of  the  duke  of  York,  he  seemed  averse  to  it;  but 
proposed  such  liniit^iions  of  the  duke's  authority  when  the 
crown  should  devolve  upon  him,  as  should   disable  him 
from  doing  any  harm  either  in  church  or  state ;  such  as  the 
takiqg  out  of  bis  bands  all  power  in  ecclesiastical  matters^ 
the  disposal  of  the  public  money,  and  the  power  of  peace 
or  w^r,  and  lodging  these  in  the  two  Houses  of  Parliament ; 
and  that  the  parliament  in  being  at  the  king's  death  should 
continue  without  a  new  summons,  and  assume  the  adminis^^- 
tration;  but  his  lordship's  arguiag  so  much  against  the 
danger  of  turning  the  monarchy,  by  the  bill  of  exclusion^ 
jtito  an  elective  government,  was  thought  the  more  dirtra- 
ordidary,  because  he  made  an  hereditary  king  the  sabjeet 
of  his  mirth,  and  had  often  said  *^  Who  takes  a  coachman 
to  drive  him,  l^eo^use  bis  father  was  a  good  coachman  V* 

s  A  y  I  L  E-  m 

Yet  ht  was  now  jealoos  oF  a  small  flip  in  the  sAcceMion ; 
tboagfa  lie  at  the  seme  ttoie  studied  to  infuse  into  some 
persons  a  zeal  for  a  commonwealtfa ;  and  to  these  tie  pre-* 
tended,  that  be  preferred  limitatioiK  to  an  exclusion,  be- 
Cftuae  the  otie  kept  up  the  monarcby  still,  only  passing 
over  one  person;  whereas  the  other  really  introduced  a 
commonwealth,  as  soon  as  there  was  a  popish  king  on  thi; 
throne.  And  it  was  said  by  some  of  his  frienda,  that  the 
limitations  proposed  we^re  so  advantageous  to  public  liberty, 
that  a  man  might  be  tempted  to  wish  for  a  pojHsfa  king,  in 
Older  to  obtain  them.  (Jpon  this  great  difference  of  opi<^ 
nion,  a  fiaction  was  quickly  formed  in  the  new  connc:il; 
lord  Halifax,  with  the  earls  of  Essex  and  Sunderland,  de- 
dsiring  for  limitations,  and  against  the  exclusion,  while 
the  earl  of  Shaftesbury  was  equally  zealous  for  thejatter ; 
and  when  the  bill  for  it  was  brought  into  the  House  of 
liords,  lord  Halifax  appeared  with  great  resolution  at  the 
head  of  the  debates  against  it.  This  so  highly  exasperated 
the  House  of  Commons,  that  they  addressed  the  king  to, 
remove  him  from  bis  councils  and  presence  for  ever :  bu!^ 
he  prevailed  with  his  majesty  soon  after  to  dissolve  that 
parliaiOient,  and  was  created  4in  eari.  However,  upon  his 
majesty^s  deferring  to  call  a  new  parliament,  according  to 
his  promise  to  his  lordsfhip,  his  vexation  is  said  to  hav6 
been  so  great  as  to  affect  hts  health,  and  he  expostulated 
severely  wi^  those  who  were  sent  to  him  on  that  affair, 
refusing  the  pott  both  of  secretary  of  state  and  lord- lieute- 
nant of  Ireland.  A  parliament  being  called  in  168D,  h^ 
still  opposed  the  exclusion-bill,  and  gained  great  reputa- 
tion by  his  management  of  the  debate,  though  it  occasioned 
tt  new  address  from  the  House  of  Commons  to  remove  him. 
Hawever,  after  rejecting  that  bill  in  the  House  of  Lord% 
his  lordship  pressed  them,  though  without  success,  to  pro- 
ceed to  limitations ;  and  beg^n  with  moving  that  the  duke 
might  be  obligedto  live  five  hundred  miles  out  of  England 
during  the  king's  life.  In  August  1682,  he  was  created  a 
marquis,  and  soon  after  made  privy-seal,  and,  upon  kin^ 
James's  accession,  president  of  the  council.  But  on  re- 
itisiog  his  consent  to  the  repeal  of  the  tests,  he  was  told 
by  ttmt  monarch,  that,  though  he  could  never  forget  bis 
paet  services,  yet,  since  he  would  not  comply  in  that  pointy 
iie  was  resolved  to  have  unanimity  in  his  councils,  and^ 
AeMiore,  dismissed  him  from  ail  |n^lic  employments.  H^ 
m/ma  ^ti/$mwp4k  oonsutod  by  Mr.  Sidney,  whether,  he.  would 

198   -  S  A  V  I  L  E. 

advise  the  prince  of  Orange's  coining  oyer;  but,  this 
matter  being  only  hinted^  be  did  not  encourage  a  farther  . 
explanation,  looking  upon  thei  attempt  as  impracticabie, 
since  it  depended  oi^do  many  accidents.  Upon  the  arrival 
of  that  prince,  he  was  sent  by  the  king,  with  the  earls  of 
Kochester  and  Godolphin,  to  treat  with  him,  then  at  Hun^ 

'    In  that  assembly  of  the  lords  which  m^t  after  king  James's 
withdrawing  himself  the   first  time   from  Whitehall,  the 
marquis  wais  chosen  their  president;  and,  upon  the  king's 
return  from  Feversham,  he  was  sent,  together  with  the, 
carl  of  Shrewsbury  and  lord  Delamere,  from  the  prince  of 
Orange,  ordering  his  majesty  to  quit  his  palace  at  White- 
hall, and  retire  to  Hull.     In  the  convention -parlii(ment, 
b^  was  chosen  speaker  of  the  House  of  Lords ;  and  strenu- 
ously  supported  the  motion  for  the  vacancy  of  the  throne, 
and  the  conjunctive  sovereignty  of  the  prince  and  princess, 
upon  whose  accession  he  was  again  made  privy-seal.     But, 
in  the  session  of  1689,  upon  the  inquiry  into  the  authors 
^of  the  prosecutions  against  lord  Russell,  Algernon  Sidney, 
3&C.  the  marquis,  having  concurred  in  these  councils  in 
1683,  now  quitted  the  court,  and  became  a  zealous  op* 
poser  of  the  measures  of  the  government  till  his  death, 
which  happened  in  April  1695,  and  was  occasioned  by  a 
^gangrene  in  a  rupture   he  had  long  neglected.     There 
seems  little  in  his  conduct  that  is  steady,  or  in  his  charae« 
ter  that  is  amiable.     Towards  his  end  he  showed  some  signs 
of  repentance,  which,  according  to  Burnet,  were  transient. 
*^  He  was,"  says  that  writer,  "  a  man  of  great  aqd  ready 
wit,  full  of  life  and  very  pleasant,  much  turned  to  satire ; 
he  let  his  wit  turn  upon  matters  of  religion^  so  that  he 
passed  for  a  bold  and  determined  atheist,  though  he.oftctn 
protested  to  me,  that  he  was  not  one,  and  said,  he  be* 
lieved  there  was  not  one  in  the  world.     He  confessed  be 
could  not  swallow  down  all  4;hat  divines  imposed  on  the 
world ;  he  was  a  Christian  in  submission ;  be  believed  as 
much  as  be  could ;  and  hoped,  that  God  would  not  Ifiy  it 
to  his,  charge,  if  he  could  not  digest  iron  as  an  ostrich  did, 
^or  take  into  his  belief  things  that  must  burst  him.     If  he 
bad  any  scruples,  they  were  not  sought  for  nor  oberished 
by  him;  for  he  never  read  au  atheistical  book  in  hi^. life. 
In  sickness,  Tknew  him  very  much  affected .  with  a  sense 
.of  religion  :  I  was  then  often  with  him,  he. seemed  full  of 
|;9Qd  purpqsesy  bu(  they  went  off  with  his  sickness.:  h^  W9^ 

S  A  V  I  L  E.  199 

coBtanaally  talking  of  inorality  aikl  friendship*  He  was 
punctual  in  bis  payments,  and  just  in  all  private  dealings; 
buktf  with  relation  to  tne  pablic,  be  went  backward  aiid 

*  forward  and  changed  sides  so  often;  that  in  the  conclusion 
Jio  side  trusted  him ;  be  seemed  full  of  commonwealth  no^ 
tions,  yet  he  want  into  the  worst  part  of  king  Charles's 
reign.  The  liveliness  of  his  imagination  was  always,  too 
hard  for  his  judgment.  His  severe  jest  was  preferred  by 
him  to  all  arguments  whatever;  and  he  was  endless  ill 
council ;  for,  when  after  much  discourse  a  point  was  settled^ 
if  b0  could  find  a  new  jest,  whereby  he  could  make  that 
which  was  digested  by  himself  seem  ridiculous,  he  could 
not  bold,  but  would  study  to  raise  the  credit  of  his  wit^ 
though  it  made  others  call  his  judgment  in  question.  When 
he  talked  to  me,  as  a  philosopher,  of  the  contempt  of  the 

, world,  I  asked  him  what  he  meant  by  getting  so  many 
new  titles,  which  I  called  the  hanging  himself  about  with 
beUs  and  tinsel ;  be  had  no  other  excuse  for  it  but  this, 
that,  if  the  world  were  such  fools  as  to  value  those  matters^ 
a  man  most  be  a  fool  for  company :  he  considered  them 
but  as  rattles,  yet  rattles  please  children ;  so  these  might 
be  of  use  to  bis  family." 

By  his  first  wife,  daughter  of  Henry  Spencer,  earl  of 
Sunderland,  he  had  a  son  William,  who  succeeded  him ; 
and  by  a  second  wife,  the  daughter  of  William  Pierrepoint| 
second  son  of  Robert  earl  of  Kingston,  he  had  a  daughter 
Gertrude,  who  was  married  to  Philip  Stanhope,  third  earl 
of  Chesterfield,  and  was  mother  to  the  celebrated  earl,. who, 
says  Maty,  may  be  perhaps  justly  compared  to  his  grand* 
father  in  extent  of  capacity,  fertility  of  genius,  and  bril- 
liancy of  wit.  They  bpth,  adds,  he,  distinguished  them- 
selves in  parliament  by  their  eloquence  i  at  court,  by  their 
knowledge  of  the  world ;  in  company,  by  their  art  of  pleas- 
ing. They  were  both  very  useful  to  their  sovereigns, 
though  not  much  attachied  either  to  the  prerogative  or  to 
the^  person  of  any  king.  They  both  knew,  humoured,  and 
despised  the  different  parties.  The  Epicurean  philosophy 
was  their  common  study.  William,  the  second  marquts  of 
HaUfax,  died  in  1699,  when  the  dignity  became  extinct  in 
his  family,  but  was  revived  in  1700  in  the  person  of  Charles 
Montague.  The  marquis  William  left  three  daughters: 
Anne,  married  to  Charles  Bruce,  earl  of  Aylesbury ;  Do- 
rothy, to  Richard  Boyle,  the  last  earl  of  Burlington^  and 
Mary,  tp  Sackville  Tuftou^  earl  of  Thanet, 

jMfr  S  A  y  I  L  E. 

.  George,'  marquit  of  Halifax,  was  the  author  of  mm^ 
tracts,  written  with  considerable  spirit  and  eieg-idce.  Be« 
^ides  his  ^^  Character  of  a  Trtmfner/' -he  wrote  *^  Advice  tOt 
A  Daughter ;"  ^^  The  Anatomy  of  an  £«|uivaleiit  ;*'  <*  A 
Letter  to  a  Dissenter,  upon  his  Majesty V  late  Glorious  De:t 
claration  of  Indulgences  ;'*  '^  A  rough  Eiraiigbt  of  a  new 
Model  at  Sea,  in  1694;"  <<  Maxims  of  State,"  All  which 
ir^re  prin^d,^)getber  after  his  death;  and  the  third  edi« 
tioncame  out  in  1717»  8vo.  Since  these,  Uiere  was  alto 
published  under  bis  name,  ^*  The  Character  of  king  Charles 
the  ^Second ;  to  which  is  subjoined,  Maxims  of  State,  &c/*  . 
1750^  Bvo,  ^^  CharaGter  of  Bishop  Burnet,"  printed  at  the 
end  of  his  *^  History  of  his  own  Times ;"  *^  Historical  Obser^ 
cations  upon  the  Reigns  of.  Edward  L  H.  III.  and  Richard 
IL  with  Remarks  upon  their  faithful  Counsellors  and  ftilse 
Favourites^"  16^9.  He  also  left  memoirs  of  his  own  times, 
from  a  journal  which  he  kept  every  day  of  all  the  center^ 
aations  which  he  had  with  Charles'  II.  and  the  most  distin<^ 
guished  men  of  his  time.  Of  these  memoirs  two  lair  oopiei 
were  made,  one  of  which  fell  into  the  hands  of  Daniel  earl 
tf  Nottingham,  and  was  destrt^yed  by  him.  The  other 
devolved  on  the  marquis's  grand- daughter,  lady  Burling^ 
ton,  in  whose  possession  it  long  remained;  but  Pope,  as 
the  late  lord  Orford  informed  Mr«  Malone,  finding,  on  a 
perusal  of  these  memoirs,  that  the  papists  of  those  dayt 
were  represented  in  mi  unfavourable  light,  prevailed  on  faef 
to  burn  them ;  and  tBus  the  public  have  been  deprived  of 
probably  a  curious  and  valuable  work.  ^ 

SAViLE  (Sir  Henry),  a  most  learned  nMrn^  and  a  gteat 
henefhctor  to  the  learning  of.  his  country,  was  tbe  son  of 
Kenry  Savile  o£  Bradley,  in  the  tmirnship  of  Steiakind,  in 
the  parish  of  Halifax,  Yorkshire,  by  £Uen>  daughter  of 
Robisjt  Ramiden.  He  was  born  at  Bradley,  Nov.  30,  1 54d, 
and  ficst  entered  of  Brasen*nose  college,  Oxford,  iirhenct» 
he  was  elected  to  Merton^coUege  in  15€1,  where  he  took 
the  degrees  in  arts^  and  was  ehosen  fellowt  When  he 
proceeded  master  of  arts  in  1570,  he  read  .for  that  degree 
on  the  Almagest  of  Ptotemy,  which  pmcnred  him  the  re- 
putation of  a.  man  wonderfully  skilled  in  mathematics  and 
the  Gre^k  language;  in  the  former  of  whicbi  he  volun^ 
tarily  read  a  public  lecture  in  the  university  for  some  ttme^ 

1  Birch's  Live8.—Roya1  and  Noble  Aatbora,  hf  Mr.  F«rk.«»Mslsne'f  l^k  ^f 
Drydeii.— Ck^sierfield's  Itf  emoirii  by  Dr.  Matf .  ' 

K  A  V  I  LE.  wn 

HivHig  now  gr«ftt  interest,  be  wiit  elecltd  pfoctor  ttv  ttn^ 
yecrs  togeiher,  1575.  and  1576,  an  honour  not  veryooni*^ 
inon,  for  bs  the  proctors  were  ttieti  chosen  out  of  the  wfaolii 
body  of  the  aniversiiy,  by  the  doctors  and  diastera,  and  the 
elemion  was  not,  as  now,  confined  to  particular  eoUegei^ 
none  bat  men  of  learning,  and  soch  as  had  considerable 
interest,  durst  aspire  to  that  honour.  In  1679  be  Tisiied 
the  coMtinent,  became  acquainted  with  varioas  learned 
foieigners,  and  obtained  many  taluable  MSS,  or  copies  of 
them,  tie  is  said  to  have  returned  a  man  of  high  aecomJ> 
plisbflsents,  and  was  made  totor  in  the  Greek  tfemgtte  «e 
queen  Etiaabeth,  or,  as  it  is  otherwise  expressed,  te  read 
Oreek  and  mathematics  with  her  majesty,  who  had  a  great 
^teem  for  him.  In  1595  be  wasmade  warden  of  Merton** ' 
ooUege,  which  he  governed  sia  and  thirty  years  with  .grefit . 
credit^  and  gi^atty  raised  its  reputation  lor  learning,  b^ 
a  jttdiciottH  patronage  of  stedents  most  distinguished  for 
lalents  and  industry.  In  1596,  he  was  chosen  provost  of 
£ton«eollege,  of  which  society  also  he  increased  the  fame 
by  filling  it  with  the  most  learned  men,  among  whom  waft 
the  ever-ademorable  John  Hales.  It  is  said,  however,  thai 
be  ineurred  some  odium  among  the  younger  scholars  by 
1ms  severity,  and  his  dislike  of  those  who  were  thought 
uprightly  wi)s.  He  used  to  say,  *<  Give  me  the  plodding 
aittdent.  If  I  would  look  for  wits,  I  would  go  to  Newgate, 
there  be  thewits.**  John  Earle,  afterwards  bishop  of  Salis- 
bury, was  the  only  scholar  he  ever  accepted  on  the  reoom- 
nendation  of  being  a  wk.  James  I.  upon  his  accession  tA 
the  crown  of  England,  e^tpressed  a  .particular  regard  for 
him,  and  would  have  preferred  him  either  an  church  or 
state;  hot  sir  Henry  declined  it,  and  only  accepted  the 
^nourof  knighthood  from  his  majesty  at  Windsor  on  Sept. 
diy  1604.  His  only  son  dying  about  that  time,  he  devoted 
his  fortune  entirely  to  the  promoting  of  learning.  In  1619 
he  founded  two  lectures,  or  professorships,  one  in  geome- 
try, the  other  in  astronomy,  in  tlie  university  of  "Oxford ; 
which  he  endowed  each  with  a  salary  of  160/.  a  year,  be* 
sides  a  legacy  of  600/.  for  purchasing  more  lands  for  the 
aaine  use.  In  the  preamble  of  the  deed,  by  which  a  salary 
was  anne^^d  to  tl^se  two  professorships,  it  is  expressly 
a»id  that  ^  geometry  was  almost  totally  unknown  and  aban- 
doned in  England."  Briggs  was  his  first  professor  of  geo<» 
sietry;  but  Anbr^y  say^,  on  the  authority  of  bishop  Ward, 
Haat  be  first  'sent  ior  Cnater  fer  that  pvi^se^  who,  coming 

S0«  S  A  VILE. 

<Wiih  bij  sector  and  quadrant,  *' fell  to  resolving  of  ^rl»- 
angles  and  doing  a  great  many  fine  things;  Said  the  gra^e 
knight,  <  Do  you  call  this  reading  of  Geometric  ?  This  k 
«bewing  of  tricks,  man/  and  so  dismissed  him  with  scome, 
and  sent  for  Briggs/'  -  Sir  Henry  also  furnished  a  library 
mth  mathematical  book?  near  the  mathematical  school,  for 
ibe  use  of  bis  professors ;  and  gave  100/.  to  the  matfaema* 
ileal  chest  of  bis  own  appointing;  adding  afterwards  a 
legacyof  40/.  a  year  to  tbe  same  chest,  to  the  universitj 
and  to  his  professors  jointly.  He  likewise  gave  120/.  to^ 
•wards  tbe  new^buildrng  of  tbe  schools ;  several  rare  manu- 
scripts and  printed  books  to  the  Bodleian  library ;  and  a 
good  quantity  of  matrices  and  Greek  types  to  tbe  printing«> 
press  at  Oxford.  Part  of  tbe  endowment  of  tbe  professor- 
ships was  tbe  manor  of  Little  Hays  in  Essex.  He  died,  at 
Eton-college,  Feb.  19,  1&21-2,  and  was- buried  in*  tbe 
chapel  there,  on  the  south  side  of  the  communion  table, 
near  the  body  of  bis  son  Henry,  with  an  inscription  on  a 
black  marble  stone.  The  university  of  Oxford  paid  him 
tbe  greatest  honours,  by  having  a  public  speech  and  verses 
made  in  bis  praise,  which  were  published  soon  after  in  4to, 
under  the  title  of  ^*  Ultima  Linea  Savilii,"*and  a  sumptu- 
ous honorary -monument  was  erected  to  bis  memdry  on  tbe 
south  wall,  at  tbe  upper  end  of  the  choir  of  Merton- college 
chapel.  Sir  .  Henry  Savile,  by  universal  consent,  rlinks 
among  tbe  most  learned  men  of  bis  time,  and  tbe  most 
liberal  patrons  of  learning;  and  with  great  justice  the 
bigbest  encomiums  are  bestowed  on  him  by  ail  the  learned 
of  bis  time :  by  Isaac  Casaubon,  Mercerus,  Meibomius^ 
Joseph  Scaliger,  and  especially  the  learned  bishop  Mon^ 
tagu  ;  who,  in  bis  "  Diatribqe"  ^ppon  Selden's  "  History  of 
Tithes,"  styles  bim  *^  tbat  magazine  of  learning,  whose 
memory  shall  be  honourable  amongst  not  only  the  iearned, 
but  the  righteous  for  ever.^' 

We  have  already  mentioned  several  noble  instances  of 
his  muntficence  to  the  republic  of  letters  :  and  his  works 
.exhibit  equal  zeal  for  the  promotion  of  literature.  In  1581, 
lie  published  an  English  version  of,  1.  '^  Four  Books  of 
tbe  Histories  of  Cornelius  Tacitus,  and  the  Life  of  Agri<? 
cola;  with  notes  upon  them,"  folio,  dedicated  to  quieen 
Elizabeth.  Tbe  notes  were  esteemed  so  valuable  as  to  be 
.translated  into  Latin  by  Isaac  Gruter,  and  published  :at 
Amsterdam,  1649,  in  12mo,  to  which  Gruter  subjoined  a 
jlreatise  of  our  author,  pu\>Usbed  in  1598,  under  the  titl^^ 

S  A  V  I  L  E.  'HOt 

2.  -'f  A  View  of  certain  Military  Ma^tersi  or  .commentaries 
^nnicerning  Roman  War&re;''  whicb,  soon  after  its;  first 
appearance,  was  translated  injto  Latin  by  Marquardusfre- 
t^rus,  and  printed,  at  Heidelberg  in  1601/  but  having  be* 
come  ex^cietedidg  scarce,  was  reprinted  by  Gruten  In  1,596, 
he  published  .a  collection  of  the  best  ancient  writers  .o(  our 
£ogU^b  history,  entitled,  3.  **  Rerum  Anglicaram  Scrip* 
tores  post  Bedam  praecipui,  ex  vetustissimis  codicibus.none 
primum  in  lucem  editi  f*  to  which  he  added  chronological 
tables. at  ^he  end,  from  Julius  Caesar  to  the  coming. in  of 
William  the  Conqueror.  This,  was  reprinted  at  Francfort 
in  1601,  which  edition  has  a  complete  index  to  it.  The 
collection  contains  William  of  Malmsbury's  history  of  the 
kings  of  England,  and  the  lives  of  the  English  bishops ;  the 
histories  of  Henry  of  Huntingdon  ;  the  annals  of  Roger  de 
Hoveden ;  the  chronicle  of  Ethel werd,  and  the  history  of 
Ingnlphus;  with  a  dedication  to  queen  Elizabeth,  &e. 
Wharton,  in  the  preface  to  his  "  Anglia  Sacra,*'  objects 
only  to.  Malmsbury's  history,  whiph  he  says  was  printed^ 
frpm  an  incorrect  MS.  4.  He  undertook  and  finished  an 
edition,  mo^t.  beautifully  printed,  of  *^  St.  Chrysostom't 
Works",  in  Greek,  printed  in.  1613,  8  vols,  folio.  In  the 
preface,  he  says,  ^^  that,  having  himself  visited,  about 
twelve  years  before,  all  the  public  and  private  libraries  in 
Britain^  and  copied  out  thence  whatever  he  thought  useful 
jto  his  design,  he  then  sent  sonie  learned  men  into  France^ 
Germany,  Italy,  apd  the  East ;  to  transcribe  such  parts  as 
be. had  not  already,  and  to  collate  the  others  with  the  best 
manuscripts."  At  the  same  time,  he  makes  his  acknow«> 
ledgnient  to  several  great  men  for  their  assistance;  as 
Thuanus,  Vdserus,  Schottus,  Isaac  Casaubon,  Fronto  Du- 
casus,  Janus  Gruterus,  Hoeschelius,  .&c.  In  the  eighth 
volume  are  inserted  sir  Henry  Savjle's  own  notes,  with  those 
of  the  learned  John  Boi^,  Thomas  Allen,  Andrew  Downes, 
and  other  learned  men.  The  whole  charge  of  this  edition, 
including  the  several  sums  paid  to  learned  men,  at  home 
and  abroad,  employed  in  finding  out,  transcribing,  and 
collating,  the  best  manuscripts,  is  said  to  have  amounted 
(to  no  less  than  8000/. ;  but,  as  soon  as  it  was  finished,  the 
.bishops  and  clergy  of  France  employed,  somewhat  unfairly, 
as  has  been  said,  Fronton  .Due,  or  Fronto  Ducasus,  .who 
was  a  learned  Jesuit,  to  reprint  it  at  Paris,  in  10  vols,  folio, 
with  a  Latin  translation,  which  lessened  the  price  of  sir 
Hen  ry'-s,  edition  ;  yet  we  are  told,  that  lhe..thousand  copies 

te4  S  A  V  I  L  t. 

which  lie  printed  were  all  sold*.  In  16 IB,  he  fmblkh^d  a 
Latin  work,  written  by  Thomas  Bradwardin,  abp.  of  Can-* 
terbury,  against  Pelagitis,  entitled,  5.  **  Se  Causa  Dei 
contra  Pelaginm,  et  de  virtnte  causarum  ;**  to  which  he 
prefixed  the  life  of  Bradwardin.  This  book  was  printed 
from  six  M8S.  carefully  collated.  6.  **  Naeianzen's  Sce- 
litentics,"  1610.  Towards  this,  says  Oldys,  he  was  fk- 
Tonred  with  the  MS  epistles  of  Nazianzen  out  of  the  Bod- 
leian library,  "  which  was  a  singular  courtesy,  and  done  be* 
cause  of  his  affection  to  the  storing  and  preserving  of  th^ 
library,"  as  if  any  thing  could  have  been  refused  to  such  a 
benefactor.  7.  •*  Xenophon's  Institution  of  Cyrus,'*  Gr. 
161S,  4to.  In  1621,  he  published  a  collection  of  his  own 
mathematical  lectures.  8*  **  Prselectiones  Tredecim  in 
princtpium  Elementorum  Euclidis  Oxoni«  habitse,**  4to. 
&.  **  Oratio  coram  Elizabeth^.  Regina  Oxoniae  habita,  anno 
1S!>2,"  Oxon.  16^8,  4to;  published  by  Dr.  Barlow  from 
the  original  in  the  Bodleian  library,  and  by  Dr.  Lamphire, 
in  the  second  edition  of  **  Monarchia  Britannica,**  Oxford, 
1681,  Bvo.  10.  He  translated  into  Latin  king  James'sr 
**  Apology  for  the  Oath  of  Allegiance."  Six  letters  of  his, 
written  to  Hugo  Blotius^  and  Sebastian  Tenguageliu*, 
keepers  of  the  imperial  library,  were  published  in  Lambe- 
ciu8*s  •*  Bibliotheca,**  vol.  III.;  four  are  printed  among 
••  Camdeni  Epistote,^  and  others  are  in  the  Cotton  and 
Harleian  MBS.  He  was  also  concerned  in  the  new  trans* 
lation  of  the  Bible,  executed  by  command  of  James  1.  be- 
ing One  of  the  eight  persons  at  Oxford  who  undertook  to 
translate  the  four  Gospels,  Acts,  and  Revelations.  He  left 
behind  him  several  MSS.  some  of  which  are  now  in  the 
Bodleian  library,  such  as  1.  "Orations."  2.  "Tract  of 
the  original  of  Monasteries."  S.  "Tract  concerning  the 
Union  of  England  and  Scotland,  written  at  the  command 
ef  Iring  James  I.'*  He  wrote  notes  likewise  upon  the  mar^ 
^in  of  many  books  in  his  library,  particularly  of  Eusebius's 

*  Tint  mnk  reqnirtd  ^ocb  lon^  and  bek^re  ChrfSQitcm  wat  fiohhed.  wbeai 

close  appUcariou,  that  sir  Henr3''s  lady  ^ir   Henry   lay   sick,    said,    "  If  sir 

thoug1)t  herself  neglected,  and  coming  Harry  djed,  she  would  burn  Chrysos- 

«t>  hiai  MM  day  nito  bis  study,  she  torn  for  kiHiog  berhuaband.**    Wiwdh 

said,  **  Sir  Henry,  I  would  I  mere  «  Mr,  Bois  bearing j    told  bar,   **  Tbsit 

book  too,  and  then  you  would  a  little  would  be  a  great  pity,  for  be  was  one 

taore  respect  me."'     To  which   one  of  the   sweetest  preacher^  since  fbn 

'stMMitng  by,  TflpSed,  «  Yon  must  tivea  iqiosllcs'  tines  $'»  with  wfaich  the 

be  an  almanack,  madam,  that  he  might     to  satisfied,  that  she  said,  «  i|^  moiM 
tAiaflge  etrery  year :"  which  answer  dis*     not  do  it  for  all  tbe  world." 
flMfBd  lMr««-llM  Ml«  My,  a  IKUi 

S  A.V  I  L  E.  ^$ 

^  £c€lefiastical  History/*  which  were  afterwsirdft  used^  and 
thankfully  acknowjedged,  by  Valesius,  io  bis  editioa  of 
that  work  in  1659.  He  is  mentioned  a9  a  member  of  the 
society  of  Antiquaries,  in  the  introdnctioQ  to  the  ^^  Arcb«« 
cHogia,*'  and  indeed  there  was  no  literary  honour  at  that 
time  of  which  he  was  not  worthy* 

He  had  a  younger  brother,  TjSOMAS  Savilb,  who  was 
admitted  probationer-fellow  of  Merton  college,  Oxford,  iu 
1580;  afterwards  travelled  abroad  into  several  countries; 
upon  his  return,  was  chosen  fellow  of  Eton  college ;  and 
died  at  London  in  1592-3,  whence  his  body  was  removed 
to  Oxford,  and  interred  with  great  soiemnity  in  tbe  choir 
of  Merton  college  chapel.  He  was  a  man  of  great  learning, 
and  an  intimate  friend  of  Camden ;  among  whose  letters 
there  are  fifteen  of  Mr.  Savile^s  U>  him. 

There  was  another  Henry  Savile,  related  to  tbe  above 
family,  and  familiarly  called  Long  Harry  Savile,  who  en* 
tered  a  student  of  Merton  college  in  1587,  during  the  war«^    , 
denship  of  sir  Heury,  and  was  soon  after  made  one  of  the 
portion  tats,   commonly  called  postmasters.    After  taking 
the  degree  of  B.  A.  he  left  Merton  college,  and  removed  to 
St  Alban-hall,  where  in  1595,  he  took  the  degree  of  M.  A. 
Under  the  inspection  of  his  learned  kinsman,  he  became  an/ 
eminent  scholar,  especially  in  the  mathematics,  physic  (in 
which  iuculty  be  was  admitted  by  the  university  to  ptac-» 
tise),  chemistry,  painting,  heraldry,  and  antiquities.    After- 
wards,  in  (Mrder  to  extend  his  knowledge,  he  travelled  into 
Italy,  France,  and  Germany,  where  he  greatly  improved 
himsel£    He  is  said  to  have  written  several  things,  but  npne 
have  been  poblished.     He  gave  Camden  the  ancient  copy, 
of  Asser  Menevensis^  which  he  published  in  160S,  and  , 
which  contains  the  leg^idary  story  of  the  discord  betweeou 
the  ilew  scholars  which  Grimbald  brought  with  him  to  Oxh 
ford,  at  the  restoration  of  the  university  by  king  Alfred, 
&c.     This  Henry  Savile  lived  some  years  after  his  re^tarn 
firom  the  continent,  in  the  parish  of  St  Martin's  in  the 
Fields,  London,  and  dying  there  April  29,  1617,    aged 
forty «nine,  was  buried  in  the  chancel  belonging  to  the  pa- 
lish church,  where  was  a  monument  to  his  memory.  Among 
the  Cotton  MSS.  is  a  letter  from  him  to  Camden,.  *^con^ 
cerning  antiquities  near.  Otley  in  Yorkshire*'^. 

There  still  remains  one  of  this  family  to  be  noticed,  sir 
JbHN  Savile,  elder  brother  to  sir  Henry,  who  wad  born  at 
Bradley  in  1 545^  and  entered  a  coauxioaer  e£  Brasenioae  ^ 

206  SAVri'E. 


college  about  1561^  whence,  without  taking  a  degree,  Tie' 
went  to  the  Middle  Temple  for  the  study  of  the  law.     Be-  * 
ing  called  to  the  bar,  he  became  autumn  reader  of  that 
bouse  in  1586,  steward  of  the  lordship  of  Wakefield,  Ser- 
jeant at  law  in  1594,  one  of  the  barons  of  the  exchequer* 
in  1598,  and  at  the  same  time  one  of  the  justices  of  assize. 
In  July  1603,  a  little  before  his  coronation,  king  James 
conferred  the  honour  of  kiiightbood  on  him,  being  one  of 
the  judges  who  were  to  attend  that  solemnity.     He  died  at 
London,  Feb.  2,  1606,  aged  sixty-one,  and  was  buried  at 
St.  Dunstan's  church,  Fleet-street,  but  his  heart  was  bu- 
ried in  Methley  church,  Yorkshire,  where  is  a  monument 
to  his  memory,  erected  by  his  son.    Camden  acknowledges » 
the  assistance  he  received  from  sir  John  Savile  in  his  his- 
torical labours.     He  left  at  his  death  several  pieces  fit  for 
publication,  but  none  have  appeared,  except  "  Reports  of 
divers  cases  in  the  courts  of  common  pleas  and  exchequer,' 
from  22  to  36  Elizabeth,"  a  thin  folio,  printed  first  in  1675, 
and  again  in  1688.' 

SAVONAROLA  (Jerome),  a  celebrated  Italian  monk, ' 
was  born  at  Ferrara  in  1452.     In  1466  he  became  a  Domi-' 
nican  at  Bologna,  and  afterwards  preached  at  Florence,  but 
with  very  little  success,  and  left  the  place.     In  1489  he 
was  invited  by  Lorenzo  de  Medici  to  return  to  Florence, 
where  he  became  a  very  popular  preacher.   By  pretensions 
to  superior  sanctity,  and  by  a  fervid  eloquence,  he  hiir- 
ried  away  the  feelings  of  his  hearers,  and  gained  an  ascen« 
dancy  over  their  minds  by  his  prophecies,    which   were 
directed  both  against  church  and  state.     Having  by  these 
means  acquired  a  powerful  influence,  he  began  to  tiespise 
the  patronage  of    Lorenzo,    and  avoided  his  presence.* 
After  the  death  of  Lorenzo,  he  placed  binbself  at  the  head' 
of  a  popular  party  in  Florence,  who  aimed  at  the  establish-^ 
ment  of  a  free  constitution.     Savonarola  seems  to  have  pro- 
mised them  something  between  a<  republic  and  a  theocracy. 
By  such  means  his  party  became  very  formidable  ;  and  ta 
flatter  them  yet  more,  he  denounced  terrible  judgments  to 
the  court  of  Rome,  and  to  the  rest  of  the  Italian  states.     In' 
1498  many. complaints  having  been  carried  to  Rome,  in 
which  hevifas  accusterd  of  having  reproached,  in  his  sermons,' 
the  conduct  of  that  court  and  the  vices  of  the  clergy,  he' 

•  •  •  • 

1  Ath.  Ox.  to).  J. — Biog.  Brit.— rWalson's  Halifax.— Harwood's  AUimni  Eto*  ' 
nens^s,  p.  9  and  62.— -P^Ksk's  Desiderata.— ^rype*8  Wbitgift,  p.  344.— ^Letten 
l^y  £i»iB«at  Bi»r«ms,  lai^  9  vob»  aTiK«-*Wood^  A«im1s.      > 

SAVON  A  R  O  L  A,  207- 

was  publicly  exconunonicated,  which  at  ^  first  he  tegaMed 
so  far  as  to  abstain  from  preaching,  bat  finding  that  silence' 
was  considered  as  submission,  and  would  ruin  his  cause,  he 
resumed  his  function,  and  renewed  his  invectives  against- 
th6  pope  and  the  court  of  Rome.     But  when  the  pope 
Alexander  threatened  to  interdict  the  city,  the  magistrates 
commanded  him  to  desist  from  preaching.     At  length  be 
procured  the  assistance  of  a  friar  of  his  own  convent,  named 
Fra.  Domenico  da  Pescia,  who  proposed  to  confirm  his 
master^^  doctrines  by  the  ordeal  of  walking  through  the 
flames,  provided  any  one  of  their  adversaries  would  do  the' 
same.     The  challenge  was  accepted  by  a  Franciscan  friar, 
and  a  day  was  appointed  for  the  trial.     Savonarola,  findiug' 
tl^at  the  adverse  party  were  not  to  be  intimidated,  proposed 
that  Domenico  should  be  allowed  to  carry  the  host  with 
him  into  the  fire.  This  was  exclaimed  against  by  the  whole 
assembly  as  an  impious  and  sacrilegious  proposal.     It  was, 
however,  insisted  upon  by  Domenico,  who  thereby  eluded 
the  ordeal.     But  the  result  was  fatal  to  the  credit  of  Savo- 
narola, who  was  deserted  by  the  populace,  apprehended' 
and  dragged  to  prison,  and  condemned, to  be  first  stran- 
gled and  then  burnt,  which  sentence  was  put  into,  ex  ecu-- 
tipn  on  the  23d  of  May,.  1498. 

Various  opinions  have  been  entertained  of  this  man's 
real  character.     Some  of  the  friends  of  liberty  and  protes- 
tantism have  considered  him  as  a  man  who  had  elevated 
views  and  good  intentions,  though  perverted  by  a  spirit 4>f 
fanaticism  y  and  there  seems  no  reason,  to  doubt  that  be  was 
really  a  friend  to  the  liberty  of  Florence^  and  felt  an  honest 
indignation  at  the  profligacy  of  the  court  of  Rome,  and 
th^~  corruption  of  the  catholic  church.    For  these  last  rea- 
sons, some  have  even  admitted  him  among  the  reformers ' 
and  martyrs.     But  his  title  to  this  honour  seems  veryques-i 
tionable,  and  the  character  of  a  leader  of  a  party  is  as  dis- 
cernible in  his  conduct  as  that  of  a  reformer.    There  are  a ; 
great  number  of  his  sermons  remaining,  and  other  works 
in  Latin  and  Italian^  most  of  them  on  religious  subjects. 
His  life,  inserted  in  Bates's  "  Vitae  Selectorum,"  was  written 
in  Latin  by  John  Francis  Picus  de  Mirandola,  prince  of 
Concordia.     Queti  published  an  edition  of  it,  to  which  he- 
added  notes,  with  the  Latin .  translation  of  some  of  Savo- 
narola's works,  and  a  list  of.  tl^edi.'    . 

I  TirtkboMhi.— lUwoe'f  Lorenao.— Gen»  Diet. 


SAWYBE  (Sir  Robert),  an  emiBefit  lawj^er  in  %ht  «e^ 
venteenth  century^  was  a  member  of  M^dalen  college^ 
Cambridge,  where  he  took  his  degree  of  M*A.  in  1655^ 
Md  was  the  saoie  year  admitted  ad  gundan  at  Oxford.  He 
was  afterwards  a  benefactor  to  the  library  of  his  colleger- 
After  studying  law  at  the  Inner  Temple^  he  was  admiuedl 
to  the  bar,  and  bad  a  large  share  of  practice  at  LoAdot), 
and  on  the  Oxford  circuit.  In  1661  be  was  knighted,  aiidb 
in  Feb.  1680,  was  appointed  attorney-general.  As  a  Iawye€ 
he  formed  himself  after  the  lord  chief  ^justice  Hale,  undef^; 
whom  he  practised,  and  of  whom  he  was  a  just  admirer^ 
Like  that  excellent  person,  he  was  a  man  of  gei^eral  learn-*' 
ing,  and,  according  to  Granger,  of  an  integrity  that  nothing: 
could  corrupt ;  but  bishop  Burnet  represents  him  as  a  duU 
hot  man,  and  forward  to  serve  all  the  designs  of  the  court. 
Had  this  been  always  the  case,  however,  king  James  would 
not  have  dismissed  him  from  the  office  of  attorney  general^ 
which  he  did  in  1687,  because  he  perceived  that  sir  Ro* 
bert  could  not  have  been  prevailed  upon  to  mould  tlie  laws 
to  such  purpose  as  were  never  intended  by  the  legislature* 
On  the  other  hand,  Granger,  allows  that  be  was  justly  cen- 
sured for  his  harsh  treatment  of  lord  Russel  on  his  trial, 
and  it  is  certain  that  he  supported  some  of  king  JamesV 
arbitrary  measures,  being  the  manager  in  depriving  the 
city  of  London  of  its  charter.  At  the  time  of  the  revolu- 
tion, be  sat  as  member  of  parliament  for  the  university  of 
Cambridge,  and  was  expelled  the  house  for  -being  con- 
cerned, as  attorney <> general,  in  the  prosecution  of  sir  Tho- 
ibas  Armstrong,  who  was  executed  for  being  one  of  ti^ 
conspirators  in  the  Rye-house  plot.  In  the  next  sessiona: 
he  was  re-chosen,  and  appears  to  have  sat  quietly  for  the. 
Remainder  of  his  life.  He  died  in  1692,  at  HigbclearJif 
Hampshire,  where  be  had  an  estate,  and  rebuilt  the  parish 
church.  His  only  daughter  married  the  earl  of  Pembfoke» 
and  died  in  1706.  Under  his  name,  and  those  of  Heneage 
Finch,  sir  George  Treby,  and  Henry  Pollexfen,  were  pub-^ 
lisbed^in  1690,  tblio,  *^  Pleadings  and  arguments  with  other 
proceedings  in  the  court  of  king's  bench  upon  the  Quo 
Warranto,  touching  the  charter  of  the  city  of  London,  wttia 
the  judgment  entered  thereupon."^ 

SAXE  (Maurice,  Count  of),  a  celebrated  com«a»nder» 
was  born   October  19,  1696,  at  Dresden,    and   was  the 

1  Aih.  Ox.  Tol.  II.-^Buraet's  Own  Timtoi.«^-<:idU>s  liS  AOieiMB  la  Brit.  Mat. 
^MSraaf  er.— Nortb't  Life  of  Lor4  Keep«r  Oailford,  p.  SS7. 

S  A  X  E.  20$ 

ustiiml  son  of  Frederick  Augustus  II.  king  of  Poland,  and 
Aurora,  oountess  of  Konigsmarc.  He  gave  evident  (5roofii 
of  his  taste  for  military  affairs  from  his  childhood ;  was 
taught  to  read  and  write  with  the  utmost  difficnlty ;  nor 
could  he  ever  be  prevailed  upon  to  study  a  few  hours  in 
the  morning,  otherwise  than  by  a  promise  that  hts  should 
ride  on  horseback  in  the  afternoon.  He  liked  to  have 
Frenchmen  about  him,  for  which  reason  their  language  was 
the  only  foreign  one  which  he  willingly  learnt  grammati^ 
eally.  He  attended  the  elector  in  all  his  military  expedi- 
tions ;  was  at  the  siege  of  Lisle  in  1708,  when  only  twelve 
years  old,  and  mounted  the  trenches  several  times  both  at 
the  city  and  at  the  fortress,  in  sight  of  the'king,  kis  father, 
who  admired  his  intrepidity.  Nor  did  he  discover  less  cou- 
rage at  the  siege  of  Tournay,  the  year  following,  where  he 
twice  narrowly  escaped  death ;  and  iat  the  battle  of  Mai-' 
plaquet,  far  from  being  shocked  by  the  dreadful  carnage 
which  attended  the  engagement,  he  declared  in  the  even- 
ing, -••  that  fee  was  well  pleased  with  the  day."  In  1711, 
he  followed  the- king  of  Poland  to-Stralsund,  where  he 
swam  over  the  river,  in  sight  of  the  enemy,  with  his  pistol 
in  his  band,  during  which  time  he  saw,  without  any  seem- 
ing emotion,  three  officers  and  above  twenty  soldiers  fall 
by  hi»  side.  When  he  retired  to  Dresden,  the  king,  who 
had  been  witness  to  bis  courage  and  abilities,  raised  a  com- 
pany of  bdrse  for  him.  Count  Sa^e  spent  the  whole  win- 
ter in  teaching  his  regiment  some  new  evolutions,  which 
he  bad  invented,  and  marched  them  against  the  Swedes 
the  year  following.  Tliis  regiment  suffisred  much  at  the 
battle  of  Gadelbush,  where  he  made  them  return  three 
times  to  the  attack.  This  campaign  being  ended,  mad.  de 
Konigsmarc  married  him  to  the  young  countess  de  Loben, 
a  rich  and  amiable  lady,  whose  name  was  Fiitorta,  which 
name,  count  Base*  afterwards  said,  contributed  as  much  td 
frr  bis  choice  on  the  countess,  as  her  beauty  and  large  for- 
tune. Thi»  lady  brought  him  a  son,  who  died  young,  andf 
the  coant  having  at  length  a  disagreement  with  her,  pro- 
cured his  marriage  to  be  dissolved  in  1721,  but  proniised; 
Ae  coantess  never  to  marry  again,  and  kept  bis  word.  She 
married  a  SaKon  officer  soon  after,  by  whom  she  had  three 
ttbildren,  and  they  li^ed  in  harmony  together.  It  was  with 
gfreat  reluctance  that  the  countess  had  consented  to  her 
tnarriage  being  dissolved,  for  she-  loved  count  Base ;  and 
the  ^  latter  frequently  repented  afterwards  of  having  taken 
Vol.  XXVII.  •    P 

SlO  S  A  X  E. 

such  a  step.  He  continued  to  signalize  bioti^lf  in  the  war 
against  Sweden,  was  at  the  siege  of  Stralsund  in  December 
1715,  when  Charles  XII.  was  blocked  up,  and  bad  the 
satisfaction  of  seeing  him  in.  the  midst  of  his  grenadiers* 
The  behaviour  of  this  celebrated  warrior  inspired,  count 
Saxe  with  a  high<legree  of  veneration,  which  be  ever  re* 
tained  for  bis  memory.  He  served  against  the  TurJcs  in 
Hungary  in  1717,  and  on  bis  return  to  Poland  in  1718^ 
received  the  order  of  the  white  eagle  from  the  king.  In 
1720,  be  visited  France,  and  the  duke  of  Orleans,  tbeji  re- 
gent, gave  him  a  brevet  of  marechal  de  camp.  Count  Saxe 
afterwards  obtained  leave,  from  bis  Polish  majesty  to  serve 
it)  France,  where  he  purchased  a  German  regiment  in  1722, 
which  afterwards  bore  his  nam^.  He  changed  the  ancient 
exercise  of  this  regiment  for  one  of  bis  own  invention  ;  and 
the  chevalier  Folard,  on  seeing  this  exercise,  foretold  im- 
mediately, in  his  Commentary  on  Polybius,  torn.  Ill.b.  ii. 
chap.  14,  that  count  Saxe  would  be  a  great  general.  >Dur«» 
ing  bis  residence  in  France,  he  learnt  mathematics  ami  the 
art  of  fortification  with  astonishing  facility,  till  1725,  wh«n 

Srince  Ferdhiand,  duke  of  Courland,  falling  dangerously 
.  1  in  the  month  of  December,  he  turned  his  thoughts  to 
obtaining  the  sovereignty  of  Courland.  With  this  view,  fae 
set  otit  for  Mittau,  and  arrived  tbere,'  May  18,  1726.  He 
was  received  with  open  arms  by  the  states,  and  had  seve^^ 
ral  private  interviews  with  the  duchess,  dowager  of  Cour- 
land, who  had  resided  there  since  her  husband's  decease. 
This  lady  was  Anne  Iwanaw,  second  daughter  of  the  cz,ar 
twan  Alexiowitz,  brother  of  Peter  the  Great.  Count  Saxe^ 
having  communicated  his  design  to  h^r,  soon  engaged  her 
in  his  interests  ;  and  she  acted  with  such  indefatigable  ar* 
dour,  and  conducted  affairs  so  well,  that  be  was  unani- 
Qiously  elected  duke  of^  Courland,  July  5,  1726»  This, 
choice  being  opposed  by  Poland  and  Russia,  the  duchess 
supported  count  Saxe  with  all  her  interest,  and  even  went 
to  Riga  and  Petersburg,  where  she  redoubled  her  soliqita- 
tions  in  favour  of  the  late  election.  There  seems  indeed 
to  be  no  doubt,  but  that,  if  the  count  bad  ret^urned  her 
paasion,  he  would  not  only  have  maintained  his  ground  in 
Courland,  but  shared  the  throne  of  Russia,  which  this  prin- 
cess afterwards  ascended ;  but,  during  his  st^y  at  Mittau^ 
an  affair  of  gallantry  between  him  and  one  of  her  ladies 
broke  off  the  marriage,  and  induced  the  duchess  to  abao- 
Aou  him.    From  that  moment  tHe  count's  affairs  took  aa 

SAX  E.  211 

linhappy  turn,  and  he  was  forced  to  go  back  to  Paris  iit 
1729.     The  following  remarkable,  circumstance  occurred 
during  the.  course  of  ^is  enterprise :  Having  written  from 
Courlandto  France  for  a  supply  of  men  and  money,  made* 
moiselle  le  Couvreur,  a  celebrated  actress,  who  was  at  that 
time  attached  to  him,  pawned  her  jewels  and  plate,  i^nd 
sent  him  40,000  livres.     When  count  Saxe  returned  to 
Paris,  he  applied  himself  to  obtain  a  complete  knowledge 
of  the  mathematics,  and  acquired  a.  taste  for  mef:hanic^» 
He  refused  the  command  of  the  Polish  army  oSered  him 
by  the  king,  his  brother,  iu;  1733,  and  distinguished  him*- 
self  on  the  Rhine  under  marechal  Berwick,  particularly  at 
the  lines  of  Etlingen,  and  th^  siege  of  Philip^burg,  a^ter 
which   he  was  made  lieutenant-general  Aggust.  1,    1734* 
Hostilities  having  recommenced  on  the  death  of  the  empe* 
rpr  Charles  VI.  count  Saxe  took  Prague  by^assault^  Nov. 
26,  1741,  then  Egra  and  Ellebogen,  raised  a  .regiment  of 
Hulians,    and  brought  back  marechal  de  BrogUo^s  arqiy 
upon  the  B^hine,  where  h^  fixed  various  posts,  and  ^seized 
the  trenches  of  Lanterburg.     He  was  appointed  marechal 
of  Flrance,  March.  26,   17^4,    atud   commanded  the  main 
body  of  the  army  in  Flanders,  where  he,  so  exactly  ob- 
served the  motions  of  the  enemies,  who  were  superior,  ia 
number,,  and  made  use  of  such  excellent  ma,noeuvres,  that 
he  reduced  tnem  to  remain  inactive,  for  they  were  afraid 
to  undertake  any  thing.  .  This  caoapaign  in  Flanders  did 
count  Saxe  great  honour,  and  was  considered  as  a  chef- 
d'oeuvre  of  tlie  military  art. ,   Pe  wonthe  famous  battie.of 
Fontenoi,  undei^  the  king's  compaand^  May  U>  1745,  where^ 
though  sick  and  weak,  he  gave  his  orders  with  such  pre- 
sence of  mind,  vigilance,  qourage,  and  judgment,  as  n^ade 
him  the  adnriiration  of  the  whole  army.     This  victory  was 
followed  by  the  capture  of  Tournay,  whiqh  the  French  be- 
sieged ;  of  Ghent,  Bruges,  Oudenarde,  Osteqd,  Ath,,&c«; 
and  at  the  time  that  the  campaign  was  supposed  tovbe 
finished,  he  took  Brussels,  February  28,  1746.     Nor  was 
the  next  campaign  less  honourable  to  count  Saxe.     He 
won  the  battle  of  Raucoux,  Oct.  1 1,  the  same  year,  1746  ; 
'  and  bis  majesty,  to  reward  such  a  constant  series  of  glo- 
rious services,  declared  him  marechal  general, of  his  camps 
and^nrmies,  Jan.  12,  1747..    Marechal  Saxe  carried  troops 
into  Zealand,  gained  the  battle  of  Lanfeldt,  July  2  follow- 
ing, approved  the  siege  of  Bergen-op-Zoom,  of  which  M. 
de  Loewen  made  himself  roasted,  and  took  Maestrecbt, 

P  3 

212  S  A  X  E. 

May  ly  1748.  In  consequence  of  these  victories  a  peace 
was  concluded  at  Aix-la-Chapelle^  Oct.  18,  the  same  year^ 
Marecbal  Saxe  went  afterwards  to  Chambord,  which  the 
king  had  giten  him,  ordered  his  regiment  of  Hullans  thU 
ther^  and  kept  a  s^ud  of  wild  horses,  more  proper  for  lio^ht 
cavalry  than  those  used  by  the  French.  ,He  visited  Berlin 
some  time  after,  and  was  magnificently  entertained  by  hi» 
Prussian  majesty.  On  his  return  to  Paris,  he  formed  a  plan 
for  the  establishment  of  a  colony  in  the  island  of  Tobago ; 
but  gave  it  up,  when  he  found  that  England  and  Holland 
opposed  it.  Count  Saxe  died,  after  a  nine  days^  illness,  at 
Chambord,  Nov<  30,  1750,  in  the  fifty -fourth  year  of  his 
age.  He  ivrote  a  bbok  on  the  art  of  war,  called  ^^  Mes 
Reveries,"  of  which  a  very  splendid  edition,  with  his  life, 
was  published  in  1757,  2  vols.  4to.  There  is  also  an  Eng- 
lish translation  of  it.  His  **  Life"  was  printed  in  1752,  3 
vols.  12mo,  reprinted  often. 

Count  Saxe  was  a  man  of  ordinary  stature,  of  a  robust 
censtitutioh,  and  extraordinary  strength.  To  an  aspect, 
noble,  warlike,  and  nlild,  he  joined  many  excellent  quali- 
ties of  disposition.  AfFabJe  in  his  manners,  and  disposed 
to  sympathize  with  the  unfortunate,  his  generosity  some- 
times tarried  him  beyond  the  limits  of  his  fortune.  He 
was  remarkably  careful  of  the  lives  of  his  m^n.  One  day 
a  general  officer  was  pointing  out  to  him  a  post  which  would 
bare  been  of  great  use ;  ^  It  will  only  cost  you,"  said  he, 
^<  a  dozfen  grenadiers:"  "That  would  do  very  well,"  replied 
the  marshal,  "  were  it  only  a  dozen  lieutenant-generals.'' 
He  had  been  edu€iated  and  died  in  the  Ltuheran  religion. 
*^  It  is  a  pity  (said  the  queen  of  France,  when  she  heard  of 
Ills  death)  that  we  cannot  $2iy  o,  smg]e  De-profundts  Jor  a 
iban  who  has  made  us  sing  so  many  Te  Diums^  Religion 
had  not  much  influence  on  his  general  conduct,  but  on  his 
death-bed  he  is  said  to  have  reviewed  bis  errors  with  remorse, 
«knd  expressed  much  penitence.' 

SAXI,  or  SAS8I  (Joseph  Anthony),  an  ecclesiastical 
historian,  was  born  at  Milan  in  1673.  He  for  some  time 
taught  the  belles  lettres  in  his  native  city,  and  afterwardi 
was  employed  as  a  missionary.  Iii  1703  he  was  admitted  a; 
doctor  of  the,  Ambrosian  college  at  Milan,  and  eight  years 
afterwards  was  appointed  director  of  that  college,  and  keeper 
0f  its  fine  library.     He  died  about  1756.     He  wa»  author 

»Dict.BUj,,       .  ,     .         :     ,, 

«  A  X  I.  iiS 

^  lOany  tbeologicftl^  bistioricaly  and  chronological  works, 
4aioDg  which  are,  1.  *^  Epistolaad  Card.  Quirium  de  Lite* 
ratura  Mediolanensiuoi,"  4to.  2.  '<  De  Scudiis  Medioia* 
nensium  Antiquis  et  Novis/'  Milan,  1729.  9u  <<  Arcbi* 
episcoporuin  Mediolanensiuin  Series  critico-chronologioa,*' 
ibid.  1756,  4to.  4.  '<  St.  Caroli  Borromei  Homilie,  prefa* 
tione  et  notis/*  1747,  &c.  5  toIs.  fol.  Some  of' the  works 
of  Saxi  have  been  inserted  in  the  collection  ^^  Rerum  ItaK** 
carum  Scriptore^"  by  Muratori.^ 

SAXI  US  (Christopher),  a  very  learned  philologer  and 
literary  historian,  wa$  born  at  Eppendorff,  a  village  betweM 
Chemnitz  and  Freyberg,  in  Saxony,  where  his  father  was 
a  clergyman,  Jan.  13^  1714.     His  proper  name  was  Chris* 
topher  Gqttlob  Sacb,  which,  when  he  commenced  author, 
he  Latinized  into  Sachsius,  and   afterwsrdff  into  Saxius, 
dropping  the  Gottlob  altogether.     His  father  first  gave  blm 
some  instructions  in  the  learned  languages,  which  he  after* 
wards  improved  at  the  school  of  Chemnitz,  but  more  effec* 
tually  at  the  electoral  school  of  Misnia,  where  he  also  stu* 
died  classical  antiquities,  history,  and  rhetoric,  and  in  1735 
went  to  Leipsic  with  the  strongest  recommendatioas  for  tn«> 
dustry  and  proficiency.     Here  he  studied  philosophy  under 
the  celebrated  Wolff,  but  as  he  had  already  perused  the 
writings  both  of  the  ancient  and  modern  philosophers  witk 
profound  attention,  he  is  said  to  have  had  the  courage  to 
differ  from  the  current  opinions.     Philosophy,  however,  as 
then  taught,  was  less  to  his  taste  than  of  antiqui- 
ties, classical  knowledge,  and  literary  history,  to  which  be 
'  determined  to  devote  his  days ;  and  the  instructions  of  pro* 
fessor  Christ,  and  his  living  in  the  house  with  Menkenius, 
who  had  an  excellent  library,  were  circumstances  which 
very  powerfully  confirmed  this  resolution.  He  had  not  been 
here  above  a  year,  when  two  young  noblemen  were  confided 
to  his  care,  and  this  induced  him  to  cultivate  the  modern 
languages  most  in  use.     His  first  disputation  had  for  its 
subject,    "  VindicifiB   secundum    libertatem   pro   Maronis 
JEneide,  cui  manuih  Jo.  Harduious  nuper  assertor  injece- 
rat,"  Leipsic,  1737.   Amongother  learned  men  who  iiighly 
applauded  this  dissertation  was  the  second  Peter  Burmann, 
in  the  preface  to  his  Virgil,  but  who  afterwards,   in    his 
character  as.  a  critic,  committed  some  singular  mistakes  in 
condemning  Saxius,  while  be  applauded  Sachsius,  not  know* 

>  Diet.  Hist. 

«1*  S  A  X  I  U  S. 

ing  that  they  were  one  and  the  same.  In  1738  Saxius  took 
'  bis  master^s  degree,  and  commenced  his  literary  career  by 
writing  a  number  of  critical  articles  in  the  "  Nova  acta 
eruditoram,"  and  other  literary  journals,  from  this  year  to 
1747.  This  employment  involved  him  sometimes  in' con- 
troversies with  bis  learned  brethren,  particularly  with  Peter 
Burmann,  or  with  foreign  authors  with  who^e- works  henad 
taken  liberties.  In  1745  he  visited  the  most  considerable 
parts  of  Germany,  and  Was  at  Franckfort  on  the  Maine 
during  the  coronation  of  the  Emperor.  In  1752  he  was 
appointed  professor  of  history,  antiquities,  and  rhetoric  at 
Utrecht,  and  on  entering  on  his  office  pronounced  an  ora* 
tion  on  the  science  of  antiquity,  which  was  printed  in  1753, 
4to.  .  After  this  his  life  seems  to  have  been  devotf  d  entirely 
to  the  duties  of  his  professorship,  and  the  composition  of  a 
great  many  works  on  subjects  of  philology  and  criticism, 
some  in  German,  but  principally  in  Latin.  The  most 
considerable  of  these,  the  only  one  much  knQwnin  this 
country,  is  his  "  Onomasticon  Literarium,"  or  Literary 
,  Dictionary,  consisting  of  a  series  of  biographical  and  criti- 
cal notices  or  references  respecting  the  most  eminent  writers 
of  every  age  or  nation,  and  in  every  branch  of  literature^ 
in  chronological  ordeir.  The  first  volume  of  this  appeared 
in  L775,  8vo,  and  it  continued  to  be  published  until  seven 
▼olumes  were  completed,  with  a  general  Index,  in  1790, 
To  this,  in  1793,  he  added  an  eighth  or  supplementary  vo- 
lume, from  which  we  have  extracted  some  particulars  of  his 
lif^,  as  given  by  himself.  This  is  a  work  almost  indispen- 
sable to  biographers,  and  as  the  work  of  one  man,  must 
have  been  the  production  of  inany  years'  Ubour  and  atteur 
tion.  Some  names,  however,  are  omitted,  which  we  m^gbt 
have  expected  to  find  in  it ;  and  the  English  series,  as  in 
every  foreign  undertaking  of  the  kind,  is  very  impeffect. 
We  have  seen  no  account  of  his  latter  days.  lie  lived  to  a 
very  advanced  age,  dying  at  Utrecht,  May  3,  1.806,  in  his 
ninety-second  year.*  "    ,  • 

SAXO  (Grammaticus),  a  Danish  historian,  is  supposed 
to  have  been  a  native  of  Denmark,  but  this  has  been  a 
disputed  point.  As  to  bis  name  Sachse^  it  is  evident  from 
inany  monuments  of  Danish  antiquity,  that  it  is  of  no  ob- 
scure or  late  origin  in  the  history  of  Denmark.  Saxo  him* 
self  calls  the  D^nes  his  countrymen,  Denmark  l^is  country; 

>  Saxii  Onomast.  toI.  VIIL-^Haclti  de  Vilis  Philolcgorum,  vol.  I. 

8  A  X  O;  215 

.  .  .  • 

tnd'speaking  of  the  kings^  he  terms  them  our  kings.  Some 
attribute  bis'oirigin  to  Ambria',  othefs  with  more  reason  tq 
Stalandia,  a  Danish  island.  The  natne  Scalandicus  is  also 
added  to  that  of  Saxo,  in  some  editions  of  his  works.  He 
has  been  called  Longus,  which  has  induced  some  to  attri- 
bute his  descent  to  the  noble  family  of  the  Langii.  Others 
have  rather  chosen  to  ascribe  this  name  to  the  height  of  his 
stature.  Saxo,  in  bis  preface,  speaks  of  his  ancestors  as 
having  been  distinguished  in  war,  which  indicates  that  they 
were  of  no  ignoble  race.  His  name  of  Grammaticus  was 
titular,  and  expressive  of  his  attainments  in  literature. 
There  are  difiFerent  opinions  concerning  the  year  of  his 
birth.  It  is,  however,  certain  that  he  flourished  in  the 
twelfth  century.  Carpzovius  endeavoured,  by  some  acute 
and  subtile  reasonings^  to  ascertain  the  date.  The  educa- 
tion of  Saxo  is  equally  involved  in  uncertainty.  Pontoppi- 
dan  supposes  that  he  studied  at  Paris,  and  there  acquired 
the  elegance  of  style  for  which  he  afterwards  was  distin-^ 
guished«  It  is  certain,  that  in  the  12th  century  the  Cimbri 
and  the  Danes  frequently  went  to  France  for  education.  It 
ma}',  howevei*,  be  doubted,  whether  in  the  rage  for  trifle 
which  then  prevailed  at  Paris,  Saxo  could  have  procured  a 
master  who  was  capable  of  instructing  him.  We  must  bQ 
rather  inclined  to  suppose  that  he  owed  his  attainments  tq 
his  own  industry  and  talents.  It  appears  that  he  applied 
to  theology,  for  we  find  him  appointed  capitular  in  the 
bishopric  of  Lundens,  and  afterwards  a  prefect  in  the  ca* 
thedral  of  Roschild.  While  he  filled  this  office  he  was  sent, 
in  1 161,  by  Absalon,  the  bishop  of  Roschild,  to  Paris,  with 
a  view  of  inviting  some  monks  from  St.  Qenevieve,  who 
might  correct  the  depraved  morals  of  those  which  belonged 
to  Eskilsco.  William  Abbas  accepted  the  invitation  of 
Saxo,  and  three  brothers  followed  him.  These  monks  in- 
troduced into  Denmark  the  monastic  discipline  which  had 
been  prescribed  by  St.  Augustine.  Various  opinions  have 
been  offered  about  the  date  of  Saxons  death.  Pontanus 
supposes  it  to  have  beenin  the  year  1208.  Some  conjecture 
the  time  to  bavebeen^  1190,  others  in  1201.  But,  when 
we  reflect  that  in  his  preface  he  speaks  of  Waldemar  II. 
who  ascended  the  throne  of  Dennoark  in  1203,  and  that 
Andrew  Suno,  to  whom  the  history  is  dedicated^  succeeded 
Absalon  in  the  bishopric  in  1202,  we  cannot  agree  with 
those  who  have  adopted  the  earlier  dates.  Thou|;h  some 
others  have  fixed  the  date  in  1204>  and  others  in  1206,  the 

316  S  A  X  O. 

general  opinion  is,  that  he  died  in  12O89  aged  upwardg  ctf 
seventy;  He  was  buried  in  the  cathedral  of  Roschild. 
Three  centuries  afterwards,  an  inscription  was  added  to  hia 
tomb  by  Lago  Urne,  bishop  of  Scalandre.  Though  more 
elegant  verses  might  have  been  invented,  says  Klotzius, 
none  could  have  been  more  true. 

Absalon,  bishop  of  Roschild,  first  instigated  Saxo  to  un<» 
dertake  the  history  of  Denmark,  and  assisted  him  with  his 
advice  and  with  books.  Saxo  employed  twenty  years  iii 
accomplishing  his  undertaking,  and  at  last  rendered  it  wor- 
thy the  expectations  of  Absalon :  who,  however,  died  be-^ 
fore  the  history  was  completed,  which  Saxo  inscribed  to 
Andrew  Suno,  who  was  the  successor  to  the  see.  After 
remaining  in  MS.  for  three  hundred  years,  Cfaristianus  Pe« 
traeus  undertook  the  publication,  having  received  the  ma<» 
nuscript  accurately  written  from  Bergeius  the  archbishop 
.  of  Lundens.  It  was  delivered  to  be  printed  to  Jodocus  Ba« 
dius  Ascensius,  and  was  published  at  Paris  in  1514,  and 
re-published  at  Basil,  in  i534>  by  Oporinus.  A  third  edi« 
tion  appeared  at  Francfort  on  the  Maine,  in  1576.  At  last, 
jStephanus  Johannes  Stephanius,  historian  to  the  king,  and 
professor  of  eloquence  and  history  in  the  university  of  Soraj 
with  the  aid  of  some  Danish  nobles,  and  the  liberal  con^ 
tribution  of  the  king,  was  enabled  to  publish  an  edition  of 
Saxo,  in  folio,  printed  at  Sora,  1644.  A  second  part  df 
the  volume  appeared  in  the  following  3^ar,  containing  the 
*^  Prolegomena,'*  and  copious  notes.  There  is  a  later  edi« 
tion  by  Christ.  Adolphus  Klotz,  printed  at  Leipsic  in 
177 J,  4to,  and  there  are  several  Danish  translations.  The 
credibility  of  Saxo  is  somewhat  doubtful,  but  his  style  it 
good,  and  much  praised  by  critics  of  authority.^ 

SAY  (Samu£L),  a  dissenting  minister  of  considerable 
talents,  was  born  in  1675,  and  was  the  second  son  of  the 
Kev.  Giles  Say,  who  had  been  ejected  from  the  vicarage 
of  St.  MichaePs  in  Southamptoh  by  the  Bartholomew-act 
in  1662  ;  and,  after  king  James  the  second's  liberty  nf  con- 
scieiice,  was  chosen  p^istor  of  a  dissepting  congregation  at 
Guestwick  in  Norfolk,  where  he  eontinued  till  bis  death, 
April  7,  1 6953,  Spme  years  after,  the  subject  of  this  article 
beiug  at  South wark,  where  he  bad  been  at  school,  and 
conversing  with  some  of  ^the  dissenters  of  that  place,  met 


1  From  the  last  edit,  of  thli  Diet,  probably  tak^n  from  Klotaiaa'f  Prolefpomeoi* 
^  — Diet.  HifU 

SAY.  sit 

with  a  woman  of  great  reputation  fof  pletf^  who  told  him^ 
with  jpy,  that  a  $eraion  on  P9.  cxix«  130^  preached  by  his 
father  thirty  years  before^  was  the  means  of  her  conversion. 
Being  strongly  inclined  to  the  ministry,  Mr.  Say  entered 
a$  a  pupil  in  the  academy  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Thomas  Rowe 
at  London  about  1692,  where  he  had  for  his  feliow^stu- 
dents  Mr.  (afterwards  Dr.)  Isaac  Watts,  Hughes  the  poet, 
and  Mr.  Josiah  Hort,  afterwards  archbishop  of  Tuam.  When 
he  had  finished  his  studies,  he  became  chaplain  to  Thomas 
Scott,  esq.  of  Lymioge  in  Kent,  in  whose  family  he  conti- 
nued three,  years.  Thence  he  removed  to  Andover  ip 
Hampshire,  then  to  Yarmouth  in  Norfolk,  and  soon  after 
to  Lowestoffin  Suffolk,  where  he  continued  labouring  in 
word  and  doctrine  eighteen  years.  He  was  afterwards  co- 
pastor  with  the  Rev,  Mr.  Samuel  Baxter  at  Ipswich  nine 
years;  and  lastly  was  called,  in  17S4,  to  succeed  Dr.  Ed- 
mund Calamy  in  Westminster,  where  he  died  at  hi^  house 
in  James-street,  April  12,  1743,  of  a  mortification  in  his 
bowels,  in  the  sixty-eighth  year  of  his  age. 

In  his  funeral* sermon,  preached  by  Dr.  Obadiah  Hughes, 
and  afterwards  printed,  a  due  elogium  is  paid  to  his  mini- 
sterial abilities ;  and,  soon  after  his  death,  a  thin  quarto 
volume  of  his  poems,  with  two  essays  in  prose,  '^  Ou  the 
Harmony,  Variety,  and  Power  of  Numbers,"  written  at 
the  request  of  Mr.  Richardson  the  painter,  were  published 
for  the  benefit  of  his  daughter,  who  married  the  Rev.  -Mr. 
Toms,  of  Hadleigh  in  Suffolk.  The  essays  have  been  much 
admired  by  persons  of  taste  and  judgment.  And  the  Gen- 
tleman^s  Magazine,  for  1780,  p.  568,  has  rescued  from 
oblivion  some  remarks,  by  the  same  judicious  hand,  from 
the  margin  of  a  copy  of  Mr.  Auditor  Benson's  *^  Prefatory 
Discourse  to  his  Edition  of  Johnston's  Psalms,  and  the 
Conclusion  of  that  Discourse,  1741.'' 
.  In  the  preface  to  his  works,  we  are  told  that  Mr.  Say 
*^  was  a  tender  husband,  an  indulgent  father,  and  of  a  most 
benevolent,  communicative  disposition,  ever  ready  to  do 
good,  and  to  distribute.  He  was  well  versed  in  astronomy 
and  natural  philosophy;  had  a  taste  for  music  and  poetry, 
was  a  good  critic,  and  a  master  of  the  classics.  Yet  so 
great  was  his  modesty,  that  he  was  known  only  to  a  few 
select  friends,  and  never  published  above  two  or  three  ser- 
mons, which  were  in  a  manner  extorted  from  him."  Among 
the  modern  Latin  poets  Broukhusius  was  his  favourite^ 
among  the  English,  Milton,  whose  head,  etched  by  Mr. 

ai  J  SAY. 

JUchairSsbn/  »  prefixed  to  fam  second  essay.  A  letter  froni 
Mr.  Say  to  Mr.  Hugfaies,  and  two  from  Mr.  Say  to  Mr.  Dun- 
coipbe,  with  a  Latin  translation  of  the  beginning  of  '<  Pa« 
radise  Lost,"  are  printed  among  the  "  Letters  of  Eminent 
Persons  deceased/,  vol.  I.  and  vol.  H.  His  characters  of 
Mrs.  Bridget  Bendysb,  grand-daughter  of  Oiiver  Cromwell, 
in  tl^e  appendix  to  vol.  IL  first  appeared  (without  a  name) 
in  Gent.  Mag.  1765,  p.  357.  In  the  same  volume,  p.  423, 
<*  The  Resurrection  illustrated  by  the  Changes  of  the  Silk- 
worm^', is  by  the  same  hand.  And  some  of  his  poetical 
pieces  are  in  'Nichpls's  "Select  Collection,  vol.  VL 

Mr.  Say  had  collected  all  the  forms  of  prayer  on  public 
occasions  from  the  time  of  archbishop  Laud,  which  after 
his  death  were  offered  to  the  then  archbishop  of  York  (Dr. 
Herring),  but  were  declined  by  him  as  "  never  likely  to  be 
employed  m  compositions  of  that  sort  for  the  public,  that 
work  being  in  the  province  of  Canterbury,"  Yet,  unlikely 
as  it:  seemed,  this  event  soon  happened.' 

;  SC ALA  (Bartholomew),  an  Italian,  eminent  as  a  states- 
man and  man  of  letters,  when  letters  were  just  reviving  in 
Europe,  was  born  about  1424,  some  say.  1430.  He  was 
oply  the  son  of  a  miller;  but,  going  early  to  Florence,  he 
fell  under  the  notice  of  Cosmo  de  Medici;  who,  observing 
uuconqmon  parts  in  him  and  a  turn  for  letters,  took  him 
;iinder  his  protection,  and  gave  him  an  education.  He  stu- 
died the  law  ;  and,  taking  a  doctor's  degree  in  that  faculty, 
frequented  the  bar.  After  the  death  of  Cdsmo  in  1464, 
Peter. de  Medici  shewed  the  same  regard,  for  hiin ;  and 
Scala,,  througti  his  means,  was  trusted  by  the  republic  in 
the  mos^  important  negociations.  In  1471,  the  freedom  of 
tbe  city  was  conferred  on  him  and  his  descendants ;  and  the 
year  after  he  obtained  letters  of  nobility;  he  was  then  se- 
cretary or  chancellor  of  the  republic.  In  1484,  the  Flo- 
rentines sent  a  solemn  embassy  to  Innocent  VIII,  to  con-> 
gcatulate  him  on  his  being  raised  to  the  potitificate ; .  when 
Scala,  one  of  the  embassy,  delivered  a  speech  so  very 
pleasing  to  the  pope,  that  be  was  made  by  hiofi  a  knight  of 
'the  golden  spur,  and  senator  of  Q,ome.  In  1486,  he  was 
made  holy-standard-bearer  to  the  republic.  He  died  at 
Florence  in  141>7  ;  and  left,  among  other  children,  a  daugb- 

•  • 

1  Geot.  Mag.     See  Index. — Abp.  Hemoj^s  Letters.^WiUon^t  Hi^t.  of  Di^*^ 
Hnting  ChurchcF. 

S  C  A  L  A.  ns 

ter.  named  AleKandra.  who  afterwards  bebame  fanioas  foe 
ber  learDing  and  skill  in  the  Greek  and  Latin  tongues. 

During  his  life-time  were  published  the  abovemeationed 
speech  to  pope  Innocent ;  another  speech  which  he  made 
as  chancellor  of  Florence,  ^^  Pro  Imperatoriis  militaribus 
signis  dandis  Constantio  Sfortise  Imperatori^'*  1481;  and 
^^  Apologia  contra  vituperatores  civitatis  Florentise/'  1^96^ 
in  folio.  His  posthumous  works  are  four  books,  ^^  De  His- 
toria  Flbrentina,"  and  "  Vita  di  Vitaliafni  Borromeo ;"  both 
printed  at  Rome  in  1677,  4to.  This  history  of  the  Floren-^ 
tine  r^p^blic  was  written  in' twenty  books,  and  deposited  in 
the  Medicean  library ;  but,  as  only  four  of  these  books  and 
part  of  a  fifth  were  finished,  no  more  have  been  thought  fit 
for  the  press.  He  was  the  author  also  of  "Apologues,** 
and  of  some  Latin  and  Italian  ^*  Poems/'  Some  few  of  his 
letters  have  been  published ;  and  there  are  eight  in  the 
colfection '  of  Politian,  with  whom  Scala,  as  appears  from 
the  correspondence,  had  the  misfortune  to  be  at  variance. 
Politian  probably  despised  him  for  being  his  superior  in 
evetry  thing  but  letters;  and  Scala  valued  himself  too  much 
on  his  opulence.  Erasmus  also  has  not  passed  a  very  fa- 
vourable judgment  on  him  :  he  represents  him  as  a  Cicero- 
nian in  his  style.  Scala*s  daughter  Alexandra,  above  men- 
tioned, was  no  less  distinguished  by  her  personal  beauty, 
than  i)l3r  literary  acquirements^  She  gave  her  hand  to  the 
Greek  Marullus  (See  Makullus);  and  Politian  is  numbered « 
among  her  unsuccessful  admirers;  a  circumstance  that  may 
in  some  degree  account  for  the  asperities  which  marked  his 
controversy  with  her  father.  She  is  said'  to  have  been  as« 
sisted  in  her  studies  by  John  Lascaris,  and  Demetrius  Cbal- 
condylks;  In  evidence  of  her  proficiency,  we  are  told 
thac*she  replied  t6  a  Greek  epigram,  which  the  gallantry  of 
Politian 'addressed  to  her,  in  the  same  language  and  mea- 
sure; and  in  a  public  representation  of  the  '*  Electra*'  of 
Sophocles  at  Florence,  she  undertook'  to  perform  the  prin- 
cipal female  character,  which,  according  to  Politian,  she 
did  with  great  success.     She  died  in  1506.^ 

SCALIGER  (Julius  C^sar),  a  very  learned  and  emi- 
nent critic,  was  born,  according  to  h^  son^s  account,  April 
23,  1484,  at  Ripa,  a  castle  in  the  territory  of  Verona,  and 
was  the  son  of  Benedict  Scaliger,  who,  for  seventeen  years, 
comrmanded  the  troops  of  Matthias,  king  of  Hungary,  to 

I  Tirabos'chf. — ^Geo.  Diet.— OreiswelPs  Politian.«->Roicoe'9  Lorenxo. 

SiO  S  C;A  L  I  G  E  R. 

whom  ha  WM  rejatied.  His  mother  was  Berenice  Lodronia, 
daughter  of  count  Paris.  From  the  same  authority  we 
learn,  that  Scaliger  was  a  descendant  from  the  ancient 
princes  of  Verona ;  bul  while  other  particulars  of  the  birik 
and  family  of  Scaliger  are.  called  in  question,  this  seems  to 
be  refuted  by  the  patent  of  naturalization  which  Francis  L 
granted  him  in  152B,  in  which  such  an  honourable  descent 
would  unquestionably  have  b^en  noticed,  whereas  in  this 

*  instrument  he  is  called  only  ^^  Julius  Csesar  della  Scala  de 
Bordons,  doctor  of  physic,  a  ns^tire  of  Verona*''  When 
therefore,  his  critical  asperities  had  raised  him  enemies, 
they  did  not  fail  to  strip  him  of  bis  royal  origin,  and  in- 
stead of  it,  asserted  that  he  was  the  son  of  a  school-master 
(some  say  an  illuminator)  of  Verona,  one  Benedict  Bor- 
den, who,  removing  to  Venice,  took  the  name  of  Scaliger, 
either  because  he  had  vl  scale  for  his  sign,  or  lived  in  a  street 
called  from  that  instrument;  and  although Thuanus  seems 

.  inclined  to  consider  this  story  as  the  fabrication  of  Augus- 
tine Niphus,  out  of  pique  to  Scaliger,  it  is  certain  that  the 
royal  origin  of  the  Scaligers  has  always  appeared  doubt- 
ful, and  we  have  now  no  means  to  remove  the  unc^* 

He  was  taught  LatiA  at  home,  and,  according  to  his  son^ 
bad  for  his  preceptor  John  Jocundus  of  Verona,  whom  he 
himself  in  various  parts  of  his  works  mentions  as  his  qaaater; 
but  even  this  circumstance  his  opponents  are  not  disposed 
to  credit,  and  tell  us,  that  as  he  was  the  descendant  of 
princes,  it  was  necessary  to  provide  him  with  a  preceptor 
like  Jocundus,  who  was  a  man  not  only  of  high  character, 
but  a  gentleman  by  birth.  They  also  add  some  circum- 
stances which  certainly  make  it  doubtful  whether  Scaliger 
really  was  taught  by  Jocundus,  because  it  was  neither  by 

-his  knowledge  of  Latin,  nor  by  philosophy  or  theology, 
that  Jocundus  acquired  his  reputation,  but  by  bis- skill  in 
the  fine  arts.  (See  JocuKDUS.)  It  appears,  however^  less 
questionable,  that  at  the  age  of  twelve  Scaliger  was  pre- 
sented to  the  emperor  Maximilian,  who  made  him  one  of 
his  pages,  and  that  he  served  that  emperor  seventeen  years, 
and  gave  proofs  of  his  valour  and  dexterity  in  several  exr 
peditions,  in  which  he  attended  his  master.  He  was  at 
the  battle  of  Ravenna  in  1512,  in  which  be  lost  his  father 
and  brother  Titus,  whose  bodies  he  conveyed  to  Ferrara, 
where  his  mother  resided,  who  some  time  after  died  with 

S  C  A  L  I  G  E  R.  Ml 

His  father  dying  in  narrovr  circuoistanceSy  Soaliger  found 
himself  almost  without  a  maintenance,  and  therefore  re- 
solved to  enter  into  the  Franciscan  order,  for  which  purpose 
be  went  to  Bologna,  and  applied  himself  vigorously  to 
study,  especially  to  logic  and  Scotus^s  divinity  ;  but  chang- 
ing his  views  of  the  ecclesiastical  profession,  he  agarn 
entered  into  the  army,  and  served  some  time  in  Piedmont. 
A  physician,  whdm  be  knew  at  Turin,  persuaded  hira  to 
study  physic ;  and  accordingly  he  prosecuted  it  at  his  lei* 
sure  hours,  while  he  was  in  the  army  :  he  likewise  learned 
the  Greek  language,  of  which  he  had  been  entirely  igno^ 
rant  till  then.  At  length,  frequent  attacks  of  the  gous 
determined  him,  at  forty  years  of  age,  to  abandon  a  mili- 
tary life,  and  devote. himself  entirely  to  the  profession  of 
physic.  In  this  he  had  already  acquired  both  skill  and 
fame,  and  the  bishop  of  Agen,  being  indisposed,  and  ap« 
prehending  some  need  of  a'  physician  in  his  journey  to  his 
diocese,  requested  Scaliger  to  attend  him.  8caliger  con<« 
sented  upon  condition  that  he  should  not  stay  at  Agen 
above  eight  days :  there,  however,  he  conceived  an  at*» 
lachment  for  a  young  lady,  said  to  be  not  more  than  thir-^ 
teen  years  of  age,  and  remained  at  Agen  waiting  for  her 
parents'  consent.  That  obtained,  he  married  her  in  1529, 
lived  with  her  twenty-nine  years,  and  had  fifteen  children 
by  her,  seven  of  whom  survived  him.  Whatever  bis  ori« 
gin,  he  must  have  beien  now  a  man  of  some  consideration, 
tor  this  lady  was  of  a  noble  and  opulent  family. 

After  his  settlement  at  Ag^n,  be  began  to  apply  himself 
seriously  to  those  general  studies  which  made  him  most 
known  in  the  literary  world.  He  learned  the  French  tongue^ 
at  bis  first  cominjg,  which  he  spoke  perfectly  well  in  thn&e 
months ;  and  then  made  himself  master  of  the  Gascon, 
Italian,  Spanish,  German,  Hungarian,  and  Sclavonian^ 
During  these  studies,  he  maintained  himself  by  the  prac* 
tice  of  physic.  It  is  probable  that  he  had  taken  a  doctor's 
degree  in,  this  faculty  at  Padua;  for,  the  letters  of  natu* 
ralieation,  which  were  granted  him  by  Francis  I.  in  1528> 
give  him  this  title.     As  he  begdn  his  studies  late,  it  was 

J'  roportionably  so  before  he  commenced  author,  none  of 
is  ivorks  having  appeared  until  he  was  forty»seven;  but 
he  soon  gained  a  name  in  the  republic  of  letters,  which 
was  jboth  great  and  formidable.  From  this  time^  compo- 
fcuion  and  controversy  employed  htm  till  his  death,  which 
happitaied  ia  14^58,    in  the  seventy-^fourlb  year   of  k^i 

^M  S  C  A  L  I  G  E  R. 

age.      His  epitaph  waS|    ^'Julii  Caesaris  Scaligeri  quod 

His  son  Joseph  has  described  him  as  a  man  with  many 
excellent  qualities  both  of  body  and  mind  ;  tall,  well-made^ 
of  a  noble  and  venerable  air,  and  yery  strong  and  active 
even  to  old  age ;  of  such  sagacity*^  that  he  could  divine 
the  characters  of  men  from  their  looks ;  of  a  prodigious 
memory ;  singularly  averse  to  every  departure  from  truth, 
and  so  charitable  that  his  house  was  a  kind  of  hospital  to 
the  indigent  and  distresfsed.  With  these  good  qualities, 
however,  he  had  an  insupportable  pride  and  vanity,  and 
a  fastidious  aud  petulant  temper,  which  was  excited  to  fury 
by  every  difference  from  his  opinions,  and  every,  the  least 
contradiction,  or  fancied  mark  of  disrespect.  This  ap- 
peared particularly  in  his  treatment  of  Erasmus,  wjho,  in 
his  "  Ciceronianus,  sivevde  pptimo  dicendi  genere,".  had 
ridiculed  certain  of  the  learned  in  Italy,  who  would  allow 
no  expressions  to  be  pure  latinity  but  what  were  to  be  i 
found  in  Cicero ;  and  had  even  criticised  the  style  of  Ci- 
cero himself,  for  whom,  nevertheless, '  he  had  the  pro- 
fouhdest  veneration.  This  provoked  Scaliger  to  publish 
two  orations  in  his  defence;  m  which  he  treated  his. an- 
tagonist with  the  utmost  virulence  of  contempt.  The  death 
of  Erasmus,  however,  which  happened  while  th^  second 
oration  was  printing,  appears  to  have  softened  Scs^liger^s 
heart,. and  he  wrote  a  poem,  in  which  he  expressed  great 
grief  at  his  dying  before  they  were  reconciled,  and  shewed 
a  willingness  to  acknowledge  bis  great  virtues  and.merit. 

Julius  CsBsar  Scaliger  was  certainly  a  man  of  extraordi- 
nary capacity,  and  of  great  talents  both  natural  and  ac- 
qtiired^  but  those  who  were  his  contemporaries,  or  who 
}ived  nearest  to  his  times,  have  spoken  of  him  in  language 
too  nearly  approaching  to  extravagance.  Colerus  dpes  not 
scruple  to  say,  that  he  was  the  greatest  philosopher  sinoe 
Aristotle,  the  greatest  poet  since  Virgil,  and  the  greatest 
physician  since  Hippocrates.  Lipsius  goes  a  little. farther, 
find  not  only  gives  us  Homer,  Hippocrates,  Aristotle,  and 
Scaliger,  as  the  four  greatest  men  that  ever  appeared,  but 
adds,  that  he  prefers  Scaliger  to  the  three  others.  The 
elder  Vossius  ascribes  to  him  a  sort  of  human. divinity  ;.and 
H^et  thinks  he  was  expressly  formed  by  nature  as  a  con* 
solation  for  our  degeneracy  in  these  latter  days.'  From 
these,  and  other  encomiums,  which  might  be  multiplied 
by  a  reference  to  the  works  of.  bis  contemporaries  and  im^ 

S  C  A  L-  I  G  EJEU  331 

tnedjate  successors,  it  is  le^ident  that  his  repataHon  was 
great  and  extensive ;  and  if  he  tfegaa  tgo  study  and  to  write 
so  late  in  life  as  has  been  report^d^  it  is  .«ai»y  to  believe  that 
his  endowcneqts  and  appiicatipQ^Qiu^t  have  been  of  the 
most  extraordinary  kind.  A:  list  >of  his  principal  worksy 
therefore,  seems  necessary  to  illugstrate  his  character..  !• 
*^  Exotericarum  exercitationum  liber  quintus  deci^tnus  de 
subtilitate  ^d  Hieronymum  Cardanum/'  Paris,  15,5,7^  .4to, 
often  reprinted  in  8vo.  He  calls  this  attack  on  Cacdao  the 
fifteenth  book,  because  he  had  written  fourteen  others 
under  the  same  title  of  "  J^xercitationes,"  which  had  no 
relation  to  Cardan..  [These,  however,  never  were  pub- 
lished. 2.  "  In  Theopbr^sti  libros  sex  de  cgusis  planta- 
rum  commentarii,"  Geneva,  1566,  folio.  3.  "Commen- 
tarii  in  Aristoteli  ail^qriptos;  libros  duos,  de  plantis,"  ,ibid^ 
1566,  folio,  4.  V^A|ristp(e]is  Hist.  Animalium  liber  decimus, 
ac  versione  et  comq^ntario,"  Lyons,  1584,  8vo.  This  was 
a  prelude  to  the  entijre  work  published  by  Maussac  at 
Toulouse,  in  1619,  fol.  "  AristoteJis  Hist.  Animalium,  Gr. 
&  Lat.  ex  versione  et  cum  comme.ntariis  J.  C.  Scaligerl" 
5.  "  Animadversiones  in  Theophrasti  historias  plantarum,'' 
Lyons,  1584,  8vo.  6.  "  Commentarii  in  Hippocratis  li- 
brum  de  Insomniis,'*  Gr.  &  Lat.  Lyons,  1538,  8vo,  re- 
printed several  times  after.  7.  "  De  causis  linguas  Latinas 
libri  XIII."  Lyons,  1540,  4to,  &c.  This  is  esteemed  one 
of  his  most  valuable  Works.  8.  "  J.  C.  Scaligeri  adversus 
Desiderium  Erasmum  orationes  duae  elpquentise  Komanas 
vindices,  cum  ejusdem  epistolis  &  opusculis,"  Toulouse, 
1621,  4to.  The  first  of  these  orations,  which  we  have  al- 
ready noticed,  was  printed  at  Paris  in  1531,  8vo,  andseejoas, 
therefore,  to  have  been  the  first  of  pur  authors  publica- 
tions, an  earnest  of  what  the  world  might  expect  both 
from  his  genius  aod  temper.  9.  "  Epistolae,"  Leyden,  1600, 
8vo.  10.  ^^  Epistolsc  nonnullaB  ex  manuscripto  Biblto- 
thecaeZ.  C.  ab  UfFenbach,"  printed  in  the  sixth  and  eighth, 
volumes  of  the  *'  Amcenitates  Litterarise,"  by  Schelhorn. 
They  all'relate  to  his  orations  against  Erasmus.  H.  "  De 
Analogia  sermonis  Latini,"  subjoined  to  Henry  Stephen^s ' 
"  Appendix  ad  Terentii  Varronis  assertiones  analogiae  ser- 
monis, Latini,"  1591,  8vo.  12.  "  Poetices  Libri  Sfeptem,,'% 
1561,.  fol.  and  several  times  reprinted  ;  this  is.  his  greatest 
critical  work,  in  which,  however,  many,  mistakes  and  many 
Ufltennble  opinionis  have  ,been  discovered  by  more  recent 
critics,     13,  **  Heroes,"  or  epigrams  on  Various  personage» 

«24  S  C  A  L  I  G  £  R. , 

of  antiquity,  Lyons/ 1539,  4to.  14.  "  Epidorpides,  seU 
carmen  de  sapientia  et  beatitudine,"  ibid,  1573,  8vo.  15. 
'<  Poemata  in  duas  partes  divisa,**  1574  and  1600,  8 vol 
16.  **' De  comicis  dimensionibus,"  prefixed  to  an  edition 
of  Terence  printed  at  Paris,  1552,  foL* 

SCALIGER  (Joseph  Justus),  son  of  the  preceding,  and 
heir  to  his  talents  and  temper,  was  born  at  Agen  in  1540 ; 
and,  et  eleven  years  of  age,  was  sent  with  two  of  his  bro- 
thers to  the  college  of  Bordeaux,  where  he  was  taught 
Latin.  Three  years  after,  on  the  appearance  of  the  plague, 
he  was  obliged  to  return  home  to  his  father,  who  theii 
superintended  his  education.  He  required  of  him  every 
day  a  short  exercise  or  theme  upon  some  historical  sub- 
ject, and  made  him  transcribe  some  poems,  which  he  him- 
self had  composed.  This  last  task  is  supposed  to  have  in- 
spired him  with  a  taste  for  poetry^  and  so  eager  was  he  to 
show  his  proficiency,  that  he  wrote  a  tragedy  upon  the 
story  of  Oedipus  before  he  was  seventeen.  His  father 
dying  in  1558,  he  went  to  Paris  the  year  following  to  study 
Greek,  and  attended  the  lectures  of  Turnebus  for  two 
months.  But  finding  the  usual  course  too  dilatory,  he  re- 
solved to  study  it  by  himself,  and  with  the  assistance  of 
some  knowledge,  of  the  conjugations,  attenripted.  to  read 
Homer  with  a  translation,  in  which  he  succeeded  very 
soon,  and  at  the  same  time  formed  to  himself  a  kind  of 
grammar,  with  which  he'  was  enabled  to  proceed  to  the 
other  Greek  poets,  and  next  to  the  historians  and  orators, 
and  by  persevering  in  this  course,  he  gained  in  the  space 
of  two  years  a  perfect  knowledge  of  the  language.  He 
afterwards  turned  his  thoughts  to  the  Hebrew,  whicli  he^ 
leajrned  by  bimselT  in  the  same  manner.  All  are  agreed 
indeed,  that  he  had  an  extraordinary  capacity  for  learning 
languages,  and  is  said  to  have  been  well  skilled  in  no  less 
than  thirteen.  He  made  the  same  progress  in  the  sciences, 
and  in  every  branch  of  literature;  and  he  at  length  obtained 
the  reputation  of  being  the  most  learned  man  of  his  age, 
and  his  biographers  have  handed  down  to  us  little  else  than 
the  progress  of  his  studies  and  the  chronology  of  his  publi- 
cations. In  1503  he  was  invited  to  the  university  of  Ley- 
den,  tq  be  honorary  professor  of  Bellas  Lettres,  on  which 
occasion,  if  we  may  believe  the  "  Menagiana,"  tienry  IV. 

1  Gen.  Bict.-'-l^iceroD,  vol.  £XlII.r-Life  by  b»  son  in  Bates'i  Vit»  Seieetoi- 
ru».— $.«xii  OuoiQiasticon. 

9.  C  A  I;  I  O  E  R,  9ii 

of  F<tTi0e  tr^ted  bim  with. great  ctMn^s$  add  ntsg^tdx^ 
Scaliger  had  determined  to  accept  the  offer ;  andf  waiting 
upon  the  king  to  acquaint  him  ivith  his  jonrnej^  and  th^ 
occasion  of  it,  \^  Well,  Mr.  Scaliger,**  said  his  maje^ty^ 
*^  the  Dutch  want  to  have  yoo  with  them,  and  tp  allow  you 
a  good  stipend :  I  am  glad  of/  it,"  adding  some  other  re* 
mAf]^  of  a  grosser  kind.  ,  Henry  was  no  patcoa  of  learning 
t>r  learned  men;  but  soo^  have  supposed  that  he  wished  to 
mortify  Scaliger,  who  had  already  shewn  too  much  of  his 
fatber^s  vanity  and  arrogant  spirit.  He  now  went  to  Ley-» 
den,  where  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his. life;  and  died 
there  of  a  dropsy,  Jan.  21,  1609,  without  having  ever  been 
married*  He  was  i  man  of  perfect  sobriety  of  mannersi 
and  whose  wbole  time  was  well  spent  in  study;*  He  had  as 
great  parts  as  his  father,  and  far  greatei:  Jeaming,  having 
been  trained  to  it  from  bis  infancy,  which  his  father  haa 
not.  He  had  a  profound  veneration  for  bis  fatter^  aad  unf 
fortunately  exteuded  it  to  an  imitation  of  bis  irritable  tem- 
per, and  disrespect  for  his  learned  contemporaries. ^  But  he 
was  often  a  discerner  and  encouriger  of  inetit*  While  at 
Ley  den  he  was  so  struck  with  the  early  apf>eahince  of  .ta« 
Lent  in  Grotius,  that  be  undertook  to  dinect  his  studies. 
Grotiqs  repaid  his  care  by  the  utmost  respect,  and  Scali* 
ger^s  counsels  were  commands  to  him.  ^  The  elder  Scaliger 
lived  and  died  in  the  church  of  Rome:  but  the  son  em« 
bfaced  the  principles  of  Luther,  and  relates  that  bis  fatber 
also  had  intentions  of  doing  so. 

The  works  of  Joseph  Scaliger  are  very  numerous  u^ 
Various :  but  his  ^^  Opus  de  Emeodatione  Temppnun^'^ 
printed  at  Paris  1583  in  folio,  is  his  greatest  performance^ 
\n  which  be  has  collected  every  thing  which  might  serve  to 
fstablish  the  principles  of  chronology,  and  was  the  first 
who  undertbok  to  forqti  a  complete  system.  He  has  in  this 
work  rendered  his  liame  memorable  to  posterity,  by  th^ 
invention  of  ttie  Julian  period^  whioh  consists  of  TdMyears, 
being  the  continued  ptoduct  of  the  three  cycles,  of  the 
sun  28,  the  moOn  19,  and  Roman  indiction  15.  This  pe^ 
riod  bad  its  biegtnning  fixed  to  the  764th  year  before  tfa^ 
^eation,  and  is  not  yet  completed,  and  comprehends  all 
other  cycles,  periods,  and  epochas,  with  the  times  of  all 
memorable  actions  and  histories.  Scaliger  has,  therefore, 
been  styled  the  father  of  chronology ;  and  his  '^  Thesauros 
Temporum,  complectens  Eusebii  Pamphili  Chronicon  cpm 
Isagogicis  Chronologic  Canonibus,**  in  which  be  has  €ot« 

You  XXVII.  Q 

^26  &"  C  A  L  I  G  E  It 



fecied  and  teformed' many  things  ih  bis" Opus  dte  En^efr* 
dbtione  Tenlpbrucn/*  seems  to  give  him  a  sufficient  claini 
to  the  title.  The  best  edition  6f  "  De  Emendatione  Tem- 
porum'*  is  that  of  Geneva,  1609,  folio;  o^f  the  "Thesaurus 
Temporum*'  that  cff  Amsterdatt),  1658,  in  2  vols,  folio. 

He  wrote  notes  and' animadversions  uport  almost  all  the 
Gredk  and  Latin  atfthors:  those  upon  Varro  "  de  Lingua 
Latina**  were  Written  by  him  at  twenty  years  of  age;  but 
scarcely  any  of  liis  editions  of  the  classics  are  now  held  in 
esteem.  Gerard  Vossius' observes,  that  his  conjectures  are 
too  bold,  and  quotes  Peter  Vicfcorius,  who  said,  that  Scali- 
ger  was  born  to  corrupt  the  ancients  rather  than  to  correct 
them.  It  is  certain,  at  least,  that  ht  dealt  too  much  in 
conjectural  criticisni,  although  be  often  shows  a  great  'de« 
gree  of  ingenuity,  even  in  the  most  fanciful  of  the  free- 
doms be  takes  with  bis  author^s  meanings  and  always  leaves 
the  reader  impressed  with  his  extensive  learning; 

He  wrote  some  dissertations  upon  subjects  of  antiquity  ; 
and  gave  specimens  of  bis  skill  in  all  branches  of  literature* 
He  made  a  Latin  translation  to  two  centuries  of  Arabian 
proverbs,  which  were  published  at  Leyden,  1623,  with  tb6 
notbs  of  Erpenius,  at  the  request  of  Isaac  Casaubon,  who 
tells  tis/,  that  he  employed  less  time  in  translating  it  than 
others  who  underistood  Arabic  would  have  done  in  reading 
it.  He  was  afso  obliged  to  write  some  controversial  pieces : 
and  bis  controversy  with  Scioppius,  concerning  the  biogra«^ 
phy  of  his  family  in  his  work,  entitled  ^'  De  vetustate  & 
splendore  gentis  Scalig^ranae,*'  is  a  wretclied  example  of 
literary  rancour  and  personal  obloquy.  His  "Poemata,** 
iir  which  there  is  not  much  poetical  spirit,  were  publisbect 
at  Leyden,  1615,  8vo;  his  **  £pistolds,*'  which  are  learned, 
and  cotitain  many  interesting  psfrticuUrs  of  literary  history, 
were  edited  by  Daniel  Heinsius,  at  the  same  place,  1637,^ 

8i^o.   '  .  \    * ;    ' 

.  There  are  two  *'  Scaligerana;'*  one  priritecf  at  the  Hagud 
in'  1666 ;  the  other  at  Groninlgeh  1669,  and  for  some  rea- 
son or  other  called  ^^  Scaligerana  Prima."  Desmaizeaux 
piiblished  a  neat  edition  of  tnem,  together  with  the  ^^  Thu- 
ana^*'  **  Perroniana,"  *'  Fitboeana,'*  and  "  Colomesiana,** 
at  Amsteirdam,  1740,  in  2  vols.  l2mo.' 

SCAMOZZI  (Vincent),  a  celebrated  architect,  was 
born  at  Vieeiiza  in  1550.     He  was  educated  under  bis 


>  Gen.  Diet.— Nieeroo,  volrXXIIl.— Batesii  Vile,  &c.— ^lii  Onomaat^ 

9  C  A  M  O  Z  2  I.  227 

tfither,  also  an  able  arcf)itect,  and  went  to  Venice  roFim* 
proveaient,  where  afterwacds,  on  Palladio^s  death,  be  be* 
came  the  first  architect,  and  was  employed  in  rarroas 
works,  particularly  the  additions  to  the  library  of  St.  Mark/ 
the  Olympic  theatre  at  Vicenza,  and  the  new  theatre  at 
Sabbioneta.  In  1615  he  published  iq  2  vols,  small  folio,  a 
work  entitled  "  L'Idea  dell'  Architettura  universalei"  in 
six  bdoks^  the  sixth  of  which,  containing  the  five  orders  of 
architecture,  is  most  esteemed.  The  Fre^ich  ha«^e  atrans;;* 
lation  of  his  works^  and  an  abridgment  by  J<i>ubert.  Sca- 
inozzi  also  published  '<  Discorsi  sopra  le  anticbita  di  Roma/' 
1583,  fol.  with  forty  plates.     He  died  in  1616.^  i  * 

SCAPULA  (John),  the  reputed  author  of  a  Greek  Lex-^ 
icon,., studied  first  at  Lausanne;  but  bas  his  narpe  reebrded 
in  the  annals  of  literature,  neither  on  account  of  his  talent^ 

t  '  * 

and  learning,  nor  for  his'  virtuous  industry,  but  for  a  gro^$ 
act  pf  di^ingenuity  and  fraud  which  be  coipmitted  agaiiiisc 
an  eminent  literary  character  of  the  sixteenth  centuYy^ 
Being  employed  by  Henry  Stephens^  the  celebrated  prin-t 
ter,  as  a  corrector  to  his.pressj  white  he  was.  publishing  hi$ 
"Thesaurus  Linguae  Graecie,"  Scapula  extracted  thpsQ 
words  and  explications  which  be  reckoned  most  usefui|. 
comprised  them  in  one  volume^  and  published  them  as  an. 
original  work)'  with  his  own  nanie.  The  compilaiioa  and 
printing  of  the  Thesaurus  had  cost  Stephens  immense  labour 
andexpence^  but  it  was  so. much  admired  by  the  learned 
men  to  whom  be  had  shown  it,  and  seemed  to  be  of  such 
essential  importaruce  to  the  acquisition. of  the  Greek  Ian-* 
guage,.  .that  he  reasonably  hope^  his  labour  would  b& 
crowned  with  honour,  and  that  the  money  he  had  expended 
would  hb  repaid  by  a  rapid  and  .extensive  sale. :  Before^ 
boweyer,  bis  work  came  abroad.  Scapulars  abridgment  ap- 
peared; which,  from  its  size,  price,  and  obvious  utility, 
was  qidckly  purchased,  while  the  Thesaurus  itself  lay  neg* 
lected  in  the  autbor^s .  haiids.  The  consequence  was  a^ 
bankruptcy  on  the  part  of  Stephens,  while  be  who  bad  oc^- 
casioiied  it  was^  enjoying  the  fruits  of  bis  treachery.  Sea* 
pula's.  Lexicon  was  first  published  in  15S0,  in  Mo.t  It  was 
afterward  enlarged,  and  published  in  folio.  It  has  gone 
through  several  editions,  th^  best. of  which  is  the  Elzevir 
of  1652,  some  copies  of  which  have  the  following  imprint, 
'^  Londini,  impeusis  Josues  Kirktou  et  Samuelis  Thomp- 

1  Tiraboscbi«  . 

325  SCAPULA, 

son;"  but  it  is  the  genuine  Elzevir  editioni  the  names  cff 
Kirkton  atkid  Thompson  being  appended  only  to  the  copies 
they  purchased  from  the  Leyden  proprietors.  Stephens 
charges  the  author  with  omitting  a  great  many  important 
articles,  and  with  misunderstanding  and  perverting  hit 
meaning,  and  tracing  out  absurd  and  trifling  etymologies 
which  be  himself  had  been  careful  to  avoid*  Dr.  Busby, 
to  much  celebrated  for  his  knowledge  of  tbe  Greek  ]an<» 

fuage,  and  his  success  in  teaching  it,  would  never  permit 
is  scholars  in  Westminster-school  to  make  use  of  Scapula.' 
SCARBOROUGH  (Sir  Charles),  an  emiaent  physi- 
cian  and  mathematician,  was  bom  about  1616.  After  th^ 
usual  classical  education  he  was  admitted  6f  Caius  college, 
Cambridge,  in  1632,  and  took  his  first  degite  in  arts  in 
1636.  He  was  then  elected  to  a  fellowship,  and  com** 
aaenciog  A.  M.  in  1640,  he  took  pupils.  In  the  meifin 
time,  intending  to  pursue  medicine  as  his  profession,  he 
applied  himself  to  all  the  preparatory  studies  necessary  for 
that  art.  Mathematics  constituted  one  of  these  studies : 
and  the  prosecution  of  this  science  having  obtained  him 
the  acquaintance  of  Mr.  (afterwards  bishop)  Seth  Ward, 
then  of  Emanuel  college,  they  mutually  assisted  each  other 
in  their  researches.  Having  met  with  some  difficulties  in 
Mr.  Ougbtred's  ^^Clavis  Mathematica,*^  which  appeared  to 
them  insuperable,  they  made  a  joint  visit  to  the  author, 
then  at  his  living  of  Aldbury,  in  Surrey.  Mr.  Oughtred 
(See  Oughtred)  treated  them  with  great  politeness,  being 
sauth  gratified  to  see  these  ingenious  young  men  apply  &> 
aeaiously  to  these  studies,  and  in  a  short  time  fully  resolved 
all  their  questions.  They  returned  to  Cambridge  complete 
masters  of  that  excellent  treatise,  and  were  the  first  tfant 
read  lectures  upon  it  there.  In  the  ensuing  civil  wars,  Mr- 
Scarborough  became  likewise  a  joint  sufierer  with  his  fiel- 
low-student  for  the  royal  cause,  being  ejected  from  his  fel- 
lowship at  Caius.  Upon  this  reverse  of  fortune  lie  witlt« 
drew  to  Oxford,  and  entering  himself  at  Merton  college^ 
was  incorporated  A*M.  of  that  univendly^  23dof  June,> 
1646.  The  celebrMed  Dr.  Harvey  was  then  warden  of 
that  college,  and  being  employed  in  writing  bis  treatiseL 
^^  De  Generatione  AnimaliUIti,^*  gladly  accepted  the  assisl>- 
ance  of  Mr.  Scarborough.  The  Jattcr  also  became  Ao 
quaiftted  with  sir  Christopher  Wreo,  then,  a  gentlematt 

>  Clark's  Bibljog.  Diet,  vol  IV.«.Bai)lei  JagmeDt.— Morboff  Polybiit 

S  C  A  R  B  O  R  O  UGH.  22f 

commoner  of  Wadhftm  college,  and  engaged  him  to  trans* 
bte.  *'  Qughtred's  Geometrical  Dialling'*  into  Latin,  which 
was  printed  in  1 649. 

Upon  leaving  Oxford,  and  taking  the  degree  of  doctor 
of  physic,  Dr.  Scarborough  settled  in  the  metropolis,  where 
he  practised  with  great  reputation.  In  the  College  of 
Physicians,  of  which  be  was  a  fellow,  he  was  particularly 
respected  as  a  man  of  uncommon  talents;  and,  in  1658, 
by  the  special  appointment  of  the  president,^he  introduced, 
with  an  elegant  Latin  speech,  the  marquis  of  Dorchester 
for  his  admission  into  the  college  that  year.  In  the  mean 
time  Dr.  Scarborough  began  to  read  his  highly  celebrated 
anatomical  lectures  at  Surgieons'  Hall,  which  he  continued 
for  sixteen  or  seventeen  years,  and  was  the  first  who  in- 
troduced geometrical  and  mechanical  reasonings  upon  the 

Such  extraordinary  merit  did  not  escape  the  notice  of 
king  Charles  IL,  who  conferred  on  him  the  order  of  knight- 
hood in  1669,  and  at  the  same  time  appointed  him  his 
principal  physician.  He  was  nominated  to  the  same  ho- 
nourable office  by  his  majesty's  brother,  which  he  held  both 
before  and  after  his  accession  to  the  throne ;  and  he  also 
served  king  William  in  the  ^ame  capacity.  He  was  like- 
wise Appointed  physician  to  the  Tower  of  London,  and  held 
that  office  till  his  death,  which  occurred  about  1696.  Sir 
Charles  Scarborough  was  married  and  left  a  son,  who  was 
created  doctor  of  civil  lavv  at  Oxford,  in  August  1702.  In 
1705,  this  gentleman  printed  in  folio,  from  his  father^s 
matiuscript,^^  An  English  Translation  of  Euclid's  Elements, 
with  excelljBnt  explanatory  notes."  Sir  Charles  also  wrote 
** A  Treatise,  upon  Trigonometry;*'  "A  Compendium ^of 
Lily's  Grammar  ;'^  and  **  An  Elegy  on  Mr.  Abraham 
C<5vi^ley."V     . 

SCAftHON  (Paul),  an  eminedt*  burlesque  French  wri- 
ter, was  the  son  of  Paul  Scarfon,  a  counsellor  in  parlia- 
tnent,  and  born  at  Paris  ia  1610.  Although  deformed,  and 
of  very  irregular  manners,  his  father  designed  him  for  an. 
ecclesiastic,  and  he  went  iii  Italy  for'  that  purpose,  in  his 
twenty-fourth  year,  whetice  he  returned  equally  unfit  for 
his  intended  profession,  and  continued  his  irregularities  un- 
til he  lost  the  use  pf  his  limbs,  and  could  only  use  big 

I  Biog.  Brit.  ▼•I.Vli.-^Siippleineat.— Knight's  Life  of  Colet.-*Atb.Oie.Yo|.  IK 
Cole's  MS  Atjiea«.CaiiUb«  in  Brit*  Mill. 

230  S  C  A  R  R  t)  N. 

h^pds  and  tongue.  This  happened  in  bis  twenty^»eTeotfa 
v€ar^  but,  melancholy  as  his  condition  was,  bis  burlesque 
humour  never  forsook  him  :  he  was  continually  talking  and 
w/iting  in  this  strain ;  and  his  house  became  the  rendez- 
vous of  all  tbe  men  of  wit.  Afterwards,  a  misfortune 
overtook  him :  his  fatheor,  who  had  hitherto  supplied  his 
wants,  incurred  the.  displeasure  of  cardii)al  Ricbelieu,  arid 
was  banished,  and  although  Scarron  presented  an  bumble 
ri^quest  to  Richelieu,  which  from  its  humour  j)leased 
tbaL  minister/  no  answer  appears  lo.  have  been  returned, 
and  both  Richelieu  and  his'fiitber  died  soon  after.  Scar^* 
ron  at  length,  helpless,  and  deformed  as  he  was^  c6o« 
ceived  thoughts  of  marriage;  and,  in  1651,  was  aotuatly 
married  to  mademoiselle  d'Aubign6,  afterwards  the  cele«» 
brated  madam  de  Maintenon,  wbp  lodged  near  him,  and 
was  about  sixteen  years  of  age.  ,  Uiiequal  a$  this  maldl 
Avas,  she  had  influence  enough  to  produce  some  salutary 
change  in  his  manners  and  habits,  and  her  wit  and  beauty 
^erv^d  to  increase  the  good  company  which  frequented  bia 
house,  Scarron, died  in  1660,  and  within  a  few  minutes  af 
las  deaths  when  his  acquaintance  were  about  him  all  in 
tears,  **  Ah  !  my  good  friends,"  said  he,  "  you  will  nevejr 
cxy  for  me  so  much  as  I  have  made  you  laugh.^' 
,  He  had  a  considerable  fund  of  wit,  but  could  never  pre- 
vent it  from  running  into  buffoonery,  which  pervades  his 
works  to  such  a  degree,  that  few  men  of  taste  or  deltdn^y 
have  be^u  able  to  peruse  them.  They  sunk  into  oblivion 
in  the  refined  age  of  Louis  XVI.  and  have, never  been 
efi^ctually  revived  since.  Yet  his  "  Virgil  Travestie"  aad 
lijjy  "Comical  Komance'*  are  occasionally  read.  The  whoje 
of  his  works  were  printed  at  Paris,  in  168^,  and  at  Auot- 
3ter4am  in.  1737. and  1752,  10  vols,  l^mo." 

SCHAAFx (Charles),  a  learned  German^  was  born  at 
Nuys,  in.  the  electorate  of  Cologne,  1646;  his  father  was 
a  n^jor  in  the  army  of  the  landgrave  of  Hesse  Cassel.,  He 
was  educated  for  the  church  at  Duisbourg;  and|  having 
made  the  Oriental  tongues  his  particular  study,  became 
professor  of  them  in  that  university  in  1677.  In- 1679  he 
removed  to  Leyden,  to  fill  the  same  post  for  a  larger  sti- 
pend ;  and  there  continued  till  1729,  'when  he  died  of  acx 
apoplexy.  He  published  some  useful  books  in  the  Oriei^ 
tal  way ;   as,   1.  *' Opus  Aramzeum,  coaiplecteos   Gram^ 

\  Morcri.«->Dict.  Hist. — D^IiraeliVCuriotitiCf,  vol.  II. 

«  C  H  A  A  F.  «3l 

w^Cdm  Chaldarcam  &  Syriacatn,'*  1686,  8vq.  2.  '<  No« 
Tum  Testamentuai  Syriacum,  cum  versione  Latina/'  1708, 
ilto.  The  Latin  version  is  that  of  Tremellius,  retouche<i» 
Leusden  laboured  jointly  with  bitn  in  this  work  till  ..death, 
which  happened  when  they  were  got  to  Luke  xv.  20  ;  and 
Schaaf  wrote  the  remainder  by  himself.  At  the  end  of  it 
is  subjoined,  ^^  Lexicon  Syriacum  Concordantiale.^*  3. 
V  Epitome  Gcammaticae  Hebraic®,"  1716,  8vo.  4.  '^  A 
Letter  in  Syriac  of  tlie  bishop  Mar  Thqmas,  written  froin 
Malabar  to  the  patriarch  of  Antioch,  and  a  Lfitin  version  by 
himseir,"  1714-,  4to.  .5.  *^  Sermo  Academicus  de  Lingua- 
mm  Orientaliom  scientia,"  an  Inauguratioa-Speech.  In 
1711  he  drew  up,  at  the  request  of  the  curators  of  the  aca- 
demy aj;  Leyden,  a  catalogue  of  all  the  Hebrew^  Chaldee, 
JSyriae,  and  Samaritan  books  and  manuscripts  in  the  li- 
Jbrary  there ;  which  was  joined  to  the  catalogue  of  that  li« 
brary,  published  in  1711.' 

SCHALKf^N  (Godfrey),  an  ingenious  painter,  wai 
iborh  at  J>ort,  in  1643.  His  father  placed  him  first  witl| 
.iM>lonion  Van  Hoogstraten,  and  afterwards  with  Gerar4 
Dow,  from  whom  he  caught  a  great  delicacy  of  finishing; 
but  bis  chief  practice  was  to  paint  candle-lights.  He 
placed  the  object  and  a  candle  in  a  dark  room ;  and  look- 
ing through  a  small  hole,  painted  by  day^light  what  he  saw 
in  the  dark  chamber.  Sometimes  he  drew  portraits,  and 
came  with  that  view  to  England,  but  found  the  business 
:too  much  engrossed  by  Kneller,  Closterman,  and  others^. 
Yet  he  once  drew  king  William;  but,.^as  the  piece  was  tQ 
\>e  by  candle-light,  he  gave  his  majesty  the  candle  to  hold^ 
till  the  tallow  ran  down  upon  his  fingers.  As  if  to  justify 
this  ilUbreeding,  he  drew  his  own  picture  in  the  same  situ- 
ation. Delicacy  was  no  part  of  his  character :  having 
•drawn  a  lady^who  was  marked  with  the  small-pox,  but  had 
handsome  hands,  she  asked  him,  when  the  face  was  finished| 
if  she  must  not  sit  for  her  hands :  "  No,'*  replied  Schalkea, 
^^  1  always  draw  them  from  my  house- maid.''  After  carry;- 
ing  on  his  business  for  some  time  in  England,  he  settled  at 
the  Hague,  where  he  died  in  1706.  Some  additional  anec- 
dotes of  him  may  be  found  in  our  authority.* 

SCHEELE  (Charles  William),  avery  learned  chemist, 
was  born  in  1742,  at  Stralsund  in  the  capital  of  Swedish 

1  Bibl.  German,  vol.  XXIL— KiceroD,  vol.  XXXIX.— Chaufepie* 
9  Wafpole'i  Anecdotet. 

f  $«  S  C  tl  IE  £  L  E. 

Ppmeraniai  where  bis  father  was  a  tradesman.  Having 
shown  an  inclination  to  learn  pharmacy,  be  was  bound  ap- 
prentice to  an  apothecary  at  Oottenburg^  with  whom  he 
lived  eight  years,  and  at  his  leisure  hours  contrived  to 
makd  himself  master  of  the  science  of  chemistry,  reading 
the  best  authors,  and  making  such  experiments  as  his  con- 
fined means  would  permit.  From  Gottenburg,  he  went  to 
MalmO,  and  two  years  after  to  Stockholm.  In  1773  be 
went  to  Upsal,  and  resided  for  some  time  in  the  house  of 
Mr.  Loock.  -Here  Bergman  first  found  him,  saw  bis  merit 
and  encouraged  it,  adopted  bis  opinions,"  defended  him 
Ivitb  -zeal,  and  took  upon  him  the  charge  of  publishing  his 
treatises.  Under  this  liberal  patronage  (for  Bergman  pro- 
cured trim  also  a  salary  from  the  Swedish  academy), 
Sdh)eele  produced  a  series  of  discoveries  which  at  once 
astonished  and  deKghted  the  world.  He  ascertained  the 
nature  of  manganese ;  discovered  the  existence  and  singu- 
laif'prdperties  of  oxymuriatic  acid :  and  gave  a  theory  of 
the  composition  of  muriatic  acid,  which  promises  fair  to 
be  the  true  one.  He  discovered  a  new  earth  which  was 
liflerwards  called  barytes ;  and  he  determined  the  consti* 
tuents  of  the  volatile  alkali.  All  these  discoveries  are  re- 
lated in  one  paper  published  about  1772.  He  discovered 
Jand  ascertained  the  properties  of  many  acids,  the  nature 
of  plumbago  and  molybdena;  analyzed  filuor  spar,  which 
lilid  eluded  the  searches  of  all  preceding  chemists ;  and 
deteriEdtned  the  constituents  of  tungstate  of  lime.  His 
t#o  e&s&ys  on  the  prussic  acid  are  particularly  interesting, 
end  display  the  resources  of  his  mind,  and  his  patient  in- 
dustry, m  a  very  remarkable  point  of  view;  His  different 
papers  oti  animal  substances  are  particularly  interesting, 
and  replete  with  valuable  and  accurate  information.  On 
<me  bCcasion,  in  bis  treatise  on  fire,  Scheele  attempted 
the  very  difficult  and  general  subject  of  combustion;  but 
Ills  attempt  was  not  crowned  with  success.  The  acuteness, 
\ay^^'se;t^  fvith  which  he  treated  it  deserves  our  admiration ; 
and  the  vast  number  of  new  and  important  facts,  which  he 
i>rotight  forward  in  support  of  his  hypothesis,  is  truly 
astonishing,  and  perhaps  could  not  have  been  brought  to- 
gether by  any  other  man  than  Scheele.  He  discovered 
oxygen  gas,  and  ascertained  the  composition  of  the  atmo- 
sphere, without  any  knowledge  of  what  had  been  previously 
done  by  Di^.  Priestley.  His  views  respecting  the  nature  of 
atmospheric  air  were  much  more  correct  than  those  of 

S  C  H  E  E  L  E.  at 

Priestley ;  and  his  experiments  onTt^etattoin  iind  rdspiration^ 
founded  on  those  viewi,  were  possessed  of  consideirable  va^ 
lite*  These  and  other  discoveries  wbidv  stamp  the  charae^-^ 
fer  of  Scheele  as  a  philosopher,  are  to  be  found  f;eneraliy 
in  the  transactions  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Stoekhohn.  Dr. 
Beddoes  published  an  English  tmnslation  of  most  of  hii 
dissertations,  with  useful- and  ingeuieus  notes.  There  it 
also  an  English  translation  of  his  dissertation  on  air  and 
fire,  with  notes  by  Ricb&rd  Kirwan,  esq. 
'  In  1777  he  was  appointed  by  the  medical  college  to  he 
apothecary  at  Hoping ;  and  in  this  situation  he  reinained 
until  his  death,  although  it  was  often  wished  that  he  had 
obtained  a  more  conspicuoufl  sittiation.  He  is  said  t6  hare 
been  offered  an  annuity  of  300/.  if  he  would  settle  irt  Eng^ 
land,  and  that  bis  death  only  preveiRed  his  accepting  it. 
On  May  19,  1786,  he  was  confined  to  his  bed ;  on  the  2Ist 
he  bequeathed  his  whole  property  to  the  widow  of  his  pre^* 
decessor  at  Koping,  whom,  when  bis  end  was  lipprOaohingp 
be  married  out  of  a  principle  of  gratitude,  tod  od  th'e  ^m6 
Any  he  died,  aged  only  forty-foun 

According  to  the  report  of  his  'firiends^  the  moral-  tht* 
racter  of  this  ingenious  man  was  irreproachable,  arid  though 
his  manners  were  reserved,  and  he  mixed  little  in  cOm<* 
pany,  be  was  of  a  very  friendljp'  and  communicative  dispo«i 
sition.  He  attained  high  fame  under  Tery  disadvantageout 
drcumstances.  He  understood  none  of  the  modern  lan- 
guages, except  the  German  and  Swedish,  so  that  he  had 
not  the  benefit  of  the  discoveries  made  by  foreigners',  unleiA 
by  the  slow  and  uncertain  medium  of  traifislations.  Hie 
important  services,  howevet,  which  he  rendered  to  natural 
philosophy,  entitled  him  to  universal  reputation,  and  h6 
obtained  it/ 

SCHEFFER  (John),  a  learned  German,  was  born  at 
Strasburg  in  1621,  and  probably  educated  there.  He  apv 
plied  himself  principally  to  the  study  of  Gteek  and  Latin 
antiquities,  and  of  history ;  arid  made  himself  a  tolerable 
Verbal  <^ritic  upon  Latin  and  Greek 'authors.  He  was  dri- 
ven out  df  his  own  country  by  the  wars ;  and,  as  Christina 
of  Sweden  was  at  that  time  the  general  patroness  of  all  men 
of  letters,  h^  withdrew  into  her  kingdom  in  1648.  He  waa 
made^  the  same  year,  professor  of  eloquence  and  politics 

1  CreU'B  Chemical  Joansl  in  Gent,  tlaf,  toI,  LIX«— Thomf oa's  Hist,  of  tiia 
Royal  Societj. 

134  S  t!  H  E  F  F  E  R. 

|it  Upsal ;  afterwards,  honorary  professor  royal  of  tlie  l&w 
of  nature  and  nations,  and  assessor,  of  tiie  royal  college  of 
dotiquities ;  and,  at  length,  librarian  of  the  university  of 
Upsal.  He  died  in  1679,  after  having  published  a  great 
Dpoiber  of  works.  Many  of  his  pieces  relate  to  Greek  and 
^oman  antiquities,  and  are  to  be  found  in  the  collection  of 
'Qrp&vius  and  Groooiiius.  He  wrote  notes  upon  many  an- 
jcient  authors;  upon  ^lian,  Phsdrus,  *<  Arriani  Tactica,^' 
of  which  last  he  made  also  a  Latin  version  ;  Petronius,  Hy^ 
gin^s,  Julius  Pbs^quens,  Justin,  &c.  •  He  was  one  of  those 
who  stoutly  defended  the  authenticity  of  that  fragment  of 
Petronius,  pretended  to  have  been  found  at  Trau  ;  which, 
however,  is  generally  jud^'ed  to  be  a  forgery,  and  accord* 
ingly  rejected  by  Burn^an  and  other  critics.* 

SCHEINER  (CHftiSTOPHER),  a  considerable  malbema- 
tician  and  astronomer,  was  born  at  Muadeilheim  in  Schwa- 
hen,  in  1575.  He  entered  into  the  society  of  the  Jesuits 
when  he  was  tviwnty;  and  aft<erwards  taught  the -Hebrew 
^oqgue  and  the  matbentatics  at  Ingolstadt,  Friburg,  Brisaq, 
and  Rome.  At  length,  he  became  rector  of  the  college 
of  the  Jesuits  at  Neisse  in  Silesia,  and  confessor  to  the 
archduke  Charles.  He  died  in  1650,  at  the  age  of  seventy** 
five*      . 

«  /Scbeiner  was  chiefly  remarkable  for  being  one  of  the 
first  who  observed  the  spots  in  the  sun  with  the  telescope, 
though  not  the  very  first;  for  his  6bservations  of  fbose 
spots  were  first  made,  at  Ingolstadt,  in  the  latter  part  of 
16 11«  whereas  Galileo  and  Harriot  both  observed  them  in 
the  latter  part  of  the  year  before,  or  1610.  Sobeiner  con* 
^inued  bis  observations  on  the  solar  phenomena  for  many 
years  afterwards  at  Rome,  with  great  assiduity  and  accu« 
racy,  constantly  making  drawings  of  them  on  paper,  de-* 
scribii^  their  places,  figures,  magnitude,*  revolutions,  and 
4>eriods,  so  that  Riccioli  delivered  it  as  his  opinion  that  there 
was  little  reason  to  hope  for  any  better  observations  of  those 
apots.  Des-  Cartes  and  Hevelius  also  say,  that  in  their 
judgment,  nothing  can  be  expected  of  that  kind  more  sa« 
jtiffaqtory.  These  observations  were  published  in  161^0,  in 
Ptt.e  volume  folio,  under  the  title  of  ^^  Rosa  Ursina/'  &c« 
Almost  every  page  is  adorned  with  an  image  of  the  sun 
|vitb  spots.  He  wrote  also  several  smaller  pieces  relating 
(o  mathematics  and  philosophy,  the  principal  of  whicli  are» 

1  G^n.  Diet.— Nicero9,  vol.  XXXIX, 

8  C  H  E  I  N  E-  R.  fiS» 

4..  **  OculuSi  sive  Fundamentum  Opticum/*  &c. ;  wKich 
was  T/eprinted  at  London,  in  1652,  in  4to.  2.  ^^So)  Eolip^ 
ticusy  Diaquisitiones  Mathematical."  3.  '*  De  Controver* 
siis  et  Novitatibos  Astronomicis.^*  * 

$GH£LHAMM£R  (Gonthier  Christopher),  a  cele^ 
Wated  German  physician  and  philosopher,  was  born  March 
3,  164.9,  at  Jena,  and  was  son  of  Christopher  Scfaelham- 
mex,  a. learned  professor  of  anatomy  and  surgenry  in  that 
city),  ajQd  at  Keil,  where  be  was  also  physician  to  the  duke 
pj^  Hoktein.  Gonihier  died  January  1 1, 1716,  in  his  sixty^ 
seventh  year,  leaving  ^^  Introdtictio  in  artem  medicam,*^ 
rl}aU.  17^6,  4to,  and  a  great  number  of  valuable  audlearn^ 
■^d  viForks  Qu  physic,  of  which  it  is  to  be  wished  that  aieom^ 
plete  collection  was  published.  He  published  also  sotHtS 
bot^uicaji  dissertations,  and  first  described  the  {Peculiar 
.cfaangjs  which,  .during  germination,  takes  place  in  she  co* 
tyledon  of  palms.  The  Schelhaoiaiera,  in  botany, '  was  so 
called  tn  honour  of  him*  His  life,  by  Scheffelias,  in  Latin, 
Visoiar,  1727,  8vo,  is  prefixed  to  the  letters  written  to  him 
by  several  of  the  literati.'        ,  . 

SCHEUCHZER  (John  James),  an  eminent  physician 
and  naturalist,  was  the  son  of  a  very. .learned  physician  of 
the  same  names  at  Zurich,  where  he  was  born,  August  2^ 
167^.  His  father  dying  in  the  prime  of  life,  he  appears 
to  have  been  left  to  the  care  of  bis  mother,  and  his  mater*^ 
pal  grandfather^  H«  was  educated  at  Zurich  under  tb^ 
ablest  processors,  of  whom  he  has. left  ua>a  list,  bmt  says 
that  be  might  with  great  propriety  add  bis  own  name  to 
the  number,  as  he  went  through  the  greater  part  of  his 
studies  with  no  other  guide  than  bis  own  judgment. «  In 
1692  be  commenced  his  travels,  and  remainisd  some  tim6 
at  Altdorf,  attending  the  lectures  of  Wagenseil,  Hoffman^ 
father  and  son,  Stqiun,  &c.  In  16^3  be  went  to^Uirecbt^ 
wh^re  he  took  his  degree  of  doctor  of  physic  in  Jan^  1694^  ld95  returned  to  Nuremberg  and  Altdorf  tostudy 
mathematics  under  Sturm  and  Eimmart.  To  Sturm  be  ad^ 
dressed  a  learned  letter  on  ^the  generation  of  ibssil  riiells, 
which  he  attempted  to  explain  on  mathematical  principles  i 
hut,  discovering  the  fallacy  of  this,  he  adopted  the  tfaeovy 
of  :Our  Dr.  Woodward,  whose  work  on  the  subject  oftra 
natural  history  of  the  earth  be  translated  into  Latin,  and 
published  at  Zurich  in  1.704.  .        . 

*  »  Martin's  Bipg.  Philos.— Button's  Diet. 
*  Diet  Hist.— Refes*8  Cyclopsdia,  art.  Sehelhammerx. 

«3$  8  C  B  E  U  C  H  Z  E  R. 

Returning  to  Zurich,  before  this  period,  he  was  appmnl- 
ed  6rst  physician. of  the  city,  with  the  reversion  of  the  pro- 
fessorship of  aiathematics.  He  now  began  to  write  various 
dissertations  on  subjects  t)f  natural  history,  particularly  that 
of  SwissCrland,  and  wrote  a  system  of  natural  history  In 
iGerman,  which  he  published  in  parts  in  the  years  1705,  €y 
and  7,  the  whole  forming  three  small  4to  volumes.  He 
published  afterwards  three  more  in  17 16,  1717,  and  1719, 
which  complete  the  natural  history  of  Swisseriand,  with 
the  exception  of  the  plants,  of  which  he  had  formed  an 
herbal  of  eighteen  vast  volumes  in  folio.  .  His  **  Nova  litte- 
raria  Helvetica"  began  in  1702,  and  were  continued  to 
1715.  In  1694  he  began  his  tours  on  the  Alps,  which  be 
repeated  for  many  years,  the  result  of  which  was  published 
iHider  the  title  of  ^*  Itinera  Alpina,V*  one  volume  of  which 
was  published  at  Londoin  in  1708,  4to,  and  four  at  Ley  den 
ID  17 13..  In  the  course  of  these  journeys,  he  improved  the 
geography  of  his  country,  by  a  small  map  of  Toggenbourg, 
and  by  bis  map  of  Swisseriand  in  four  large  sheets.  Amidst 
all  these  pursuits,  his  official  duties,  and  his  extensive  lite- 
rary correspondence^  he  found  leisure  to  gratify  bis  taste 
for  medallic  history,  and  translated  Jobert^s  work  on  that 
subject,  which  does  not,  however,  appear  to  have  been 
printedu  In  1712,  Leibnitz,  being  acquainted  with  his 
learning  and  fame,  procured  him  an  invitation  from  th^ 
csar,  Peter  the  Great,  to  become  his  majesty^s  physician, 
btUt  the  council  of  Zurich  induced  him  to  decline  the  offer, 
by  an  additional  salary.  Some  time  afterward,  he  obtained 
a  fianonry ;  but,  according  to  Meister,  his  colleagues  bad 
no  very  profojind  respect  for  him,  of  which  he  gives  the 
following  ludicrous  proof :  A  favourite  crane  belonging  to 
Pr.  Scheuchzer  one  day  made  her  escape,  and  the  doctoi^ 
^as  obliged  to  climb  the  roof  of  the  house  to  recover  her, 
which  he  did  at  no  small  risk.  The  canons  are  siiid  to  havl^ 
declared  on  this  occasion,  that  they  would  have  given  a 
pension  to  the  crane,  if  the  doctor  bad  broke  his  neck»  It 
appears  that  this  disrespect  was  mutual.  They  considered 
Scbeochzer  as  an  intruder,  and  he  despised  their  ignorancid 
in  condemning  the  Copernican  system,  and  the  theory  of 
Simammerdam,  as  profane  and  pernicious.  He  appears  to 
have  had  a  considerable  band  in  the  political  and  ecclesi- 
astical affairs  of  Zurich,  and  hkd  at  one  time  a  sharp  con« 
tjroversy  on  religion  with  a  Jesuit  of  Lucerne,  whom  Meis- 
ter describes  as  tbe  Don  Quixote  of  the  Romish  church.  . 

SCHEUCHZER.       «sr 

In  1731  appeared  bis  great  work,  *' Pbysica  eacritiF^'  in 
4  vols,  folio,  which  was  immediately  republished  in  FreiK^ 
•at  Amsterdam,  in  both  instances  enriched  with  a  profusion 
of  fine  plates  illustrative  of  the  natural  history  of  the  Bible. 
This  bad  been  preceded  by  some  lesser  works  on  the  same 
subject,  which  were  now  incorpcnrated.  He  did  not  long 
survive  this  learned  publication,  dying  at  Zurich  about  the 
end  of  June  i  733«  He  was  a  member  of  many  learned  so- 
icieties,  of  our  Royal  Society,  and  of  those  of  Berlin,  ViennSi^ 
'&c.  and  carried  on  a  most  extensive  correspondence  with  the 
principal  literati  of  Europe.  He  left  a  well-^chosea  and  na* 
pierous  library,  a  rich  museum  of  natural  history,  and  a  col- 
lection of  medals.  Besides-  the  works  we  have  incldentalljr 
noticed,  he  published,  1.  **  Herbarium  Diluviannm,''^^  Ztt- 
rich,  1709,  reprinted  and  enlarged,  at  Ley  den,  1?23,  fbtiQ. 
2.  *^  Piscium  querelas  et  viadiciae,^'  Zurich,  1708,  4to.  3« 
5^  Oratio  de  Matheseos  usu  in  Theologia,*'  ibid.  1711>  4to« 
4.  '<  Museum  Diluvianum,''  ibid.  1716,  8vo.  5.  <<  Homo 
diluvii  tenis,"  ibid.  1 726,  4to.  6.  ^*  De  Heivetii  aeribus, 
aquis,  locis,  specimen,^'  ibid.  1728,  4to.  He  also  wrote  in 
German,  a  treatise  on  the  mineral  waters  of  Swiisserland, 
Zurich,  1732j  4to.  In  1740,  Klein  published  ^^  Sciagra- 
phia  litbologtca  curiosa,  seu  lapidum  figuratorum  nomen^ 
cliator,  olim  4  Jo.  Jac.  Scheuchzero  conscriptus,  auctus  et 
iUostratus,''  4to.  Of  bis  <<  Physica  Sacra,*'  we  have  bo«* 
tiped  the  first  edition  publiriied  at  Augsburgh,  1731 — 1735^ 
four  vols,  folio,  or  rather  eight  volumes  in  four,  the  text 
of  .whicb  is. in  German  ;  this  edition  is  valued  on  account  of 
its  having  the  first  impressions  of  the  plates.  The  Amster- 
dam edition,  1732 — 38,  -8  vds.  has,  however,  the  advantage 
of  being  in  French,  a  language  more  generally  understooc^ 
wid  has  the  same  plates.  Sobeucbzer  had  a  brother,  pro- 
fess<Mr  of  natural  j^losophy  at  Zurich,  who  died*  in  1737^ 
tud  is  known  to  all  botanists  by  bis  laborious  and  teamed 
^' Agpt>stographia,"  no  .valuable  for  its  minute  descrtptionf 
of  grasses.  He  bad  a  son  rith  whom  we  seem  more  inte- 
rested, John  Gaspar  Scheu^hzer,  who  was  bom  at  Zurich 
in  1702,  and  after  studying  at  home  came  over  to  England, 
and  received  the  degree  of  M.  D,  at  Caflri>ridge,  during  die 
royad  visit  of  George  I.  in  1728,  and  died  at  London  April 
13,  .1729,  only  twenty «seven  years  old.  He  bad  mueh  of 
the  genius  and  learning  of  his£uniiy,  and  wias  a>good  tnti« 
quary,  medallist,  and  natural  historian.  He  tranidated  into 
Engjush  Koempfer*s  history  of  Japan,  1727^  2  vols.  foUo^  nA 


j&n  8  C  R  E  U  C  HZ  E  R. 

iad  begun  a  translation  of  Koempfer's  travels  in  Mtistovy, 
Penia,  &c.  but  did  not  live  to  complete  it.  H«  wrote  alsb 
ta  treatise  on  inoculation.  Some  part  of  the  correspondence 
of  this  learned  family  is  in  the  British  Mnseum.^  ^ 

SCHIAVONI  (Andrea),  named  Meduia,  an  eminent 
^artist^  was  born  in  1522,  at  Sebenico,  in  Dalmatia.  Ri^ 
purents,  who  were  poor,  placed  him  with  a  house*painter  ^t 
Venice,  where,  at  bis  leisure  hours,  he  acquired  a  superior 
taste^  by  stndyi^ng  the  etchings  and  compositions  of  Pai^mi-- 
.giano  ami  the  works  of  Giorgione  and  Titian  in  the  ^libUc 
buildings  of  the  city.  At  length,  Titian;  being  infoiKned 
of  his  unfortunate  situation  and  promising  talents;  xodk 
him  under  his  care,  and  soon  afterwards  employed  him  in, 
.the  Kbrary  of  St.  Marco,  where  Schiavoni  is  said  to  hhv^ 
painted  three  entire  cielings.  Feeling  his  strength,  he  tnen- 
ture.d  to  paint,,  in  competition  with  Tintoretto,  a  picturli 
for  the  church  of  the  Santa  Croce,  representing  thfe  visr- 
^tation  of  the  Virgin  to  Elizabeth;  and  though  h^'did'not 
equal  hia  antagonist,  yet  he  received  a  cohsidet-afUe  share 
of  applause.  Schiavoni  was  accounted  one  of  the  finest 
colourista  of  the  Venetian  school,  and  to  colouring  sacri- 
jBeed  almost  every  other  attribute  of  the  art ;'  yet  h^s  trbm- 
positJQPs  are  managed  with  great'  dexterity,  and  executed 
with  astonishing  freedom.  Two  of  bis  most  admired  ^orki 
are  in  the  church  of  the  Padri  Teatit)i  at  Rimini,  fepre- 
senting  the  Nativity  and  the  Assumption  of  the  Virgin,  and 
bis  *^  Perseus  and  Andromeda,*^  and  the  *<  Apostles  at  the 
-Sepulchre,'*  are  in  the  royal  collection  at  Windsor.  He 
died  at  Venice  in  1 582,  at  the  age  of  sixty.' 
.  SCHIAVONETTI  (Lewis),  a  very  ingenious  artist,  was 
born«  at  Bassano,  in  the  Venetian  territory,  Aprill,  1765* 
Hia  father  .wassa  stationer,  who  was  enabled  to  give  him  a 
useful,  but  limited  education.  From  his  infancy  he  had  a 
peculiar  taste  for  drawing ;  and  attained  such  proficiency, 
that  an  able  painter,  Julius  Golini,  to  whom  some  of  his 
productions  were  shewn,  undertook  to  instruct  him  in 'that 
art.  At  the  age  of  thirteen  Lewis  was  put  under  his  care, 
and  the  high  opinion  he  had  formed  of  the  boy^s  genius  wasr 
confirmed  by  the  rapid  progress  he  niade,  while  his  amiable 
disposition  endeared  him  so  tnuch,  that  he  loved  bith  zjs  hia 
own  son.  After  three  years  of '  useful  instruction,  be  had 
tbe  mififottune  to  lose  this  master,  who  expired  in  his  arms. 

.  1  Moreri.-i-Meister's  Homines  Illogtree  de  Soissc.— -Eloy,  Dict«  Hist,  de  Mede*^ 
cint;— Ayicough'f  Catalogue  of  HISS,        *  Argcnville^  tol  I.— StruU's  Diet 

SCHIAVO^ffr  Tl.  2J» 

Left  fo  pursue  his  own  course,  he  turned  his  views  to  Count 
Remaudiniy  whose  extensive  typographical  and  chalcogra- 
pfaical  concern  is  rendered  more  fanK>us  by.  the  giving  em- 
ployment to  Bartolozzi  and  Volpato ;  and  the  works  of  those 
artists  gave  fresh  impulse  to  the  youth's  ardour  for  imprdvie- 
ment.  About  this  time  he  became  acquainted  with  one 
Lorio,  an  indifferent  engraver,  with  whom  be  worked  about 
twelve  months,  when,  finding  he  had  exhausted  his  fund  of 
instructions,  be  resolved  to  alter  his  situation.  A  copy  of  a 
holy  family  in  the  litie  manner,  from  Bartolofzzi,  after  Car-: 
io  Maratta,  gained  him  immediate  employment  from  Count 
Remaudini,  and  attracted  the  notice  of  Mr.  Suntach,  aii 
engraver  and  printseller  in  opposition  to  Remaudini.  About 
this  time  came  to  Bassano  a  wretched  engraver  of  architec- 
ture, but  a-man  of  consummate  craft  and  address.  Hebe^ 
caii^e  acquainted  with  Schiav^neiti  at  Mr.  Suntach's,  and 
wa3  ultimately  the  means  of  bringing  him  to  England,  where 
he  became  acquainted  with  Bartolozzi,  apd  lived  in  his 
house  uptil  be  established  himself  on  his  own  foundation;; 
after  which  Scbiavonetti  cultivated  his  genius  with  a  shccess 
that  answered  the  expectations  which  were  first  formed  of 
it,  and  conducted  all  his  affairs  with  an  uprightness  &nd  in* 
t^rity  that  will  cause  bis  memory  to  be  equaUy  revered  as 
a  gentleman  and  an  artist.  .  He  died  at  Brompton,  Juiie  7; 
1810,  in  the  forty^fourth  year  of  his  age;  and  on  the  14th 
was  buried  in  Paddington  church-yard,  ifllh  a  solemnity 
worthy  of  his  talents  and  character. 

In  bis  person,  Mn  Scbiavonetti. was  rather  tall  and  weif 
inade,  and  his  amiable  modesty,  equability  of  temper,  at)d 
promptness  to  oblige,  won  the  good  will  of  all  who  saw  and 
conversed  with  him.  Many  a^ts  of  his  private  life  showed 
the  excellence  of  his  character ;  among  others,  as  soon  at 
he  began  to  derive  profit  from  his  profession,  be  devoted  a 
portion  of  it  to  the  support  of  his  relatives  in  It^ly;  and 
constantly  remitted  to  his  aged  parent  a  stipend  suffioienc 
to  etisure  him  comfort. 

Some  of  his  principal  performances  are,  the  "  Madre 
Dolorosa,'*  after  Vandyke:  the  Portrait  of  that  Master  in. 
the  character  of  Pariis :  Michael  Angelo's  celebrated  Cartoon' 
Of  the  Surprize  of  the  Soldiers  on  the  Banks  of  the  Arno : 
a  iieries  of  Etchings,  from  designs  by  Blake,  illustrative  of 
Blair's  Grave:  the  Portrait  of  Mr.  Blake,  after  PhiiHps,  fot 
the  same  work :  the.  Landing  of  the  British  Troops  in  Egypt, 
from  Eoutherbourg ;  and  the  Etching  of  the  Canterbury 
Pilgrimage,  from  Stothard*s  esteemed  picture* 

Hi  S  C  H  I  L  L  C  R. 

«  » 

him  from  reading  his  works,  and  is  said  to  bavtif  rodsed 
him  from  those  Habits  of  dissipation  in  which  he  had  in* 
dulgedy  and  to  which  he  was  in  great  danger  of  falling  ^ 
victim*  He  was  now  patronized  by  the  duke  qf  Saxe-Wei- 
mat,  who  conferred  on  him  the  title  of  aulic  counsellor,  and 
nominated  him  to  the  professorship  of  history  and  philoso* 
phy  at  the  university  of  Jena.  He  had  previously  written 
an  account  of  the  "  Revolt  of  the  Netherlands  from  the 
Spanish  government,^'  and  he  now  set  about  composing  hit 
**  History  of  the  thirty  Years'  War  in  Germany,'*  a  work 
which  has  been  much  admired  in  his  own  country.  At 
length  he  removed  to  Weimar,  where  the  pension,  as  ho* 
norary  professor  from  the  duke,  was  continued  to  him ;  and 
produced  the  ^^  History  of  the  mo$t  memorable  Conspirao^ 
cies,"  and  the  "  Ghost-Seer,"  which  displayed  the  peculiar 
tiirn  of  his  mind,  and  were  much  read.  In  the  latter  part 
of  bis  life  he  conducted  a  monthly  work  published  at  Tu- 
bingen, and  an  annual  poetical  almanac,  and  composed  a 
tragedy  entitled  "  The  Maid  of  Orleans."  He  was  the  au- 
thor of  other  dramatic  pieces^,  some  of  which  are  known, 
though  imperfectly,  in  this  country,  through  the  medium 
of  translation. '  He  died  at  Weimar,  May  9,  1 805,  and 
be  was  interred  with  great  funeral  solemnity.  In  his  private 
character  Schiller  was  friendly,  candid,  and  sincere.  Iii 
his  youth  he  affected  eccentricity  in  his  manners  and  appear* 
ance,  and  a  degree  of  singularity  seei^s  always  to  have  ad- 
hered to  him.  In  his  ^orks,  brilliant  strokes  of  genius  are 
unquestionably  to  be  found,  but  more  instances  of  extra- 
vagant representation  of  passion,  and  violation  of  truth  and 
naturae.  They  enjoyed  some  degree  of  popularity  here, 
during  the  rage  for  translating  and  adapting  German  playi 
for  our  theatres;  and  although  this  be  abated,  they  have  con- 
tributed to  the  degeneracy  of  dramatic  taste,  and  have  not 
produced  the  happiest  effects  on  our  poetry.* 

SCHILTER  (John),  an  eminent  jurist,  was  bom  atPe* 
gaw  in  Misnia,  Aug.  29,  1632,  and  studied  at  Leipsic  and 
Naumberg,  wherein  1651,  he  removed  for  two  years  td 
Jena,  and  then  completed  his  course  at  L^psic.  In  1655. 
he  took  the  degree  of  doctor  in  philosophy,  as  he  did  the 
same  in  the  faculty  of  law  at  Strasburgh  some  years  after. 
He  practised  for  some  time  as  an  advocate  ^t  Naumberg^ 
where  prince  Maurice  of  Saxe  made*  him  keeper  of  his  ar- 

1  Qent.  Mag.— 'Reel's  Cytlepcdia. 

SCHILTER.  .;a« 

iebfves,  and  intendant  or  director  of  the  territory  of  Sul  in 
the  county  of  Henneberg.  About  1686  he  accepted  an 
invitation  to  Strasburgb,  where  he  was  appointed  counsellor 
^nd  advocate  of  the  state,  and  honorary  professor  of^  the 
academy.  He  died  there,  May  14,  1705,  in  the  seventy- 
third  year  of  his  age.  He  wrote  a  great  many  volumes  on 
subjects  connected  with  antiquities  and  with  his  profession, 
Ihe  principal  of  which  are,  1.  ^'  Codex  juris  Alemannici 
feudalis,'*  1696,  3  vols.  4ta  2.  <^  Thesaurus  antiquitatuod 
Tentonicarum,"  1728,  3  vols.  foL  a  posthumous  publica- 
tion, edited  by  Scherzius  at  Ulm.  3.  *^  Institutiones  Ca« 
nonici,"  1721,  Svo,  in  which  he  endeavours  to  recopcile 
the  canon  law  to  that  iii  use  among  the  protestaut  churches. 
4.  <Mnstitution«s  juris  publici,*'  1696,  2  vols.  8vo,  one  of 
his  first,  and  a  very  learned  work.' 

SCHMIDT  (Christopher),  a  learned  German,  was  bora 
May  1 1,  1740,  at  Nordheim,  and  studied  law  at  Gottingen. 
In  1762  he  visited  St.  Petersburgh  in  company  whh  count 
Munich,  in  whose  family  be  had  been  tutor  for  some  time, 
hut  returned  to  his  studies,  and  took  his  law  degrees  atGot-* 
tinmen,  whence  he  removed  to  Helmstadt.  He  was  soon 
after  appointed  professor  in  the  Caroline  college  at  Bruns- 
wick, where  he  lectured  on  history,  public  law,  and  statis* 
ties  until  1779,  when  the  prince  made  him  a  counsellor  and 
keeper  of  the  archives  at  Wolfenbuttel.  In  1784,  the 
prince  added  the  title  of  aulic  counsellor.  He  died  in  180K 
In  bis  visit  to  Russia  he  contracted  a  fondness  for  that  coun-^ 
try  and  its  language,  and  employed  much  of  his  time  on 
its  history*  This  produced  various  works,  published  in 
German,  **  Letters  on  Russia,"  *^  Materials  for  a  knowledge 
of  the  Constitution  and  Government  of  Russia,'^  ^*  An  at* 
tempt  towards  a  new  introduction  to  the  History  of  Russia,? 
&c.  &c«  He  published  also  ^^  A  manual  of  History,"  ^'  His- 
torical miscellanies,"  and  "  A  History  of  Germany,^'  which 
IS  spoken  of  as  an  eloquent  and  useful  work.*       , 

SCHMIDT  (Erasmus),  an  excellent  Greek  scholar,  wat 
born  atDelitzch  in  Misnia,  1560,  and  became  eminent  for 
bis  skill  in  the  Greek  tongue  and  in  the  mathematics ;  botK 
which,  although  they  are  accomplishments  seldom  found 
in  tlie  same  person,  he  professed  .with  great  reput^^tion  for 
nany  years  at  Wittemberg,  where  he  died  in  1637,     He 

1  NiceroD,  toI.  IL— Mereri.— Pict.  Uiit— Saxii  OnoiBMt. 
f  IMct.  Bitt« 

K  3 

244  SCHMIDT. 

published  an  edition  of  •*  Pifldar*'  in  1616,  ito,  with  li 
Latin  version  and  learned  notes.  While  Heyiie  finds  many 
defects  in  this  edition,  he  honours  the  editor  with  the  title 
of  "  Editornm  Pindari  faci^le  ppineeps."  He  wrote  notes 
•alsd  upon  Lycophron,  Dionys4u«  Periegetes,  and  Hesiod ; 
»which  last  was  published  at  Geneva  in  1693;  an  excellent 
"  Concordance  to  the  Greek  Testament,**  fol.  the  best  edi- 
tion of  which  is  that  of  17 17  ;  and  a  "  Commentary  on  the 
New  Testame^n,"  much  espt-een^ed,  Argent.  1650,  fol.' 
-  SCHMIDT  (John  Andrew),  a  learned  Lutheran  di^ne, 
was  born  at  Worms,  in  1652.  In  his  twenty-seventh  year, 
lie  hurt  bis  right  arm  with  a  fail  so  much,  that  he  could 
never  recover  the  use  of  it :  he  learned  to  write,  however, 
«o  well  with  the  left,  as  to  be  able  to  compose  near  a  hun- 
dred publications,  without  the  help  of  an  amanuensis,  but 
they  are  chiefly  theses  upon  subjects  of  ecclesiastical  his-^ 
tory.  One  of  his  pieces  is  entitled  "  Arcana  dominationiv 
in  rebus  gestis  Oliverii  Cromwelli ;"  another  is  against  a 
book,  supposed  to  be  Le  Clerc's,  with  this  title,  **  Liberii 
tie  sancto  amore  Epistolae  Theologicee.'*  He  translated  Par- 
die's  "  Elements  of  Geometry"  out  of  French  iqto  Latin. 
He  died  in  1 726  ;  and  his  funeral  oration  was  made  by  John 
Laurence  Mosheim,  who  speaks  very  highly  in' bis  praise.* 

SCHN'EBBELIE  (Jacob),  was  son  x)f  a  native  of  Zu- 
rich, in  Switzerland,  lieutenant  in  the  Dutch  army  at  the 
memorable  siege  of  Bergen-op-Zoom  in  1747  ;  when,  after 
a  gallant  resistance  of  two  montfhs,  it  was,  as  generally  be- 
lieved, surprised  by  the  French  under  marshal  LowendaK 
Upon  quitting  the  service  Mr.  Schnebbelie  carae  over  to 
£ngiand,  and  settled  in  the  business  of  a  confectioner,  iii 
which  capacity  he  had  frequently  the  h©f>our  of  attending 
on  king  George  II.  He  afterwards  opened  a  shop  at  Ro-* 
cihester,  where  one  of  his  sons  still  resides  ;  and  the  same 
profession  his  son  Jacob  (who  was  born  Aug.  30,  1760,  in 
Duke's  Court,  in  the  parish  of  St  Martin  in  the  Fields) 
followed  for  some  time,  first  at  Canterbury,  and  afterwards 
at  Hammersmith  ;  till,  nature  pointing  out  to  him  the  pro- 
per road  to  fame  and  credit,  he  quitted  his  shop  and  com- 
menced self-taught  teacher,  at  Westminster  and  other 
public  schools,  of  the  art  of  drawing,  in  which  he  made  a 
proficiency  which  introduced  him  to  the  notice  of  many 
among  the  learned  and  the  great.     To  the  earl  of  Lei- 

1  Moreri. — Diet.  Hist.  *  Moreru 


cester^s  notice  he  was  first  introduced  by  accidentally 
sketching  a  view  in  his  park  near  Hertford,  and  was  em* 
ployed  b^  him  in  taking  some  of  the  most  picturesque 
landscapes  about  Tunbridge  Wells,  with  a  view  to  their 
publication  for  his  benefit.  At*  their  noble  president's  ex- 
press recommendation  he  was  appointed  draughtsman  of 
the  society  of  antiquaries  ;  and  Biled  that  office  with  equa) 
credit  to  himself  and  his- patron.  The  merits  of  his  pencil 
are  too  generally  known  and  acknowledged  to  require  any. 
exaggerated  eulogium.  Happy  in  a  quick  eye  and  a  dis- 
criminating taste,  he  caught  the  most  beautiful  objects  in 
the  happiest  points  of  view;  and  for  fidelity  and  elegance 
of  delineation,  may  be  ranked  high  among  the  list  of  first*. 
rate  artists.  The  works  put  forth  on  his  own  account  are 
not  numerous.  In  17S1  he  intended  to  publish  six  views 
of  St.  Augustine's  Monastery,  to  be  engraved  by  Mr.  Ro- 
gers, &c. ;  five  of  which  were  completed,  and  one  small 
view  of  that  religious  house  was  etched  by  himself.  In 
17S7  he  etched  a  plate  representing  the  Serpentine  River,f 
part  of  Hyde  Park,  with  the  house  of  earl  Bathurst,  a  dis- 
tant view  of  Westminster  Abbey,  &c.  now  the  property 
and  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Jukes,  intended  to  be  aqua- 
tinted  for  publication.  Mr.  Jukes  purchased  also  from  him 
several  views  of  Canterbury  cathedral,  St.  Augustine's  mo- 
nastery, &c.  In  March  1788  he  published  four  views  of 
St.  Alban's  town  aiul  abbey,  drawn  and  etched  by  himself; 
which  in  the  November  following  were  published,  aqua* 
tinted  by  F.  Jukes.  About  the  same  time  that  he  set  oa 
foot  the  ^'Antiquaries  Museum,*'  he  became  an  associate  with 
the  late  James  Moore,  esq.  F.  S.  A.  and  Mr.  Parkyns,  in  the 
*^  Monastic  Remains*;"  which,  after  five  numbers  had  ap- 
peared, be  relinquished  to  his  coadjutors.  The  assistance 
he  occasionally  gave  to  ^^  The  Gentleman's  Magazine,"  the 
smallest  part  of  his  merit,  it  will  be  needless  to  particu- 
larize ;  bis  masterly  hand  being  visible  on  whatever  it  was 
exerted.  It  is  of  more  consequence  to  his  fame  to  point 
out  the  beauties  of  many  of  the  plates  in  the  second  and 
third  volumes  of  the  "  Vetusta  Monumenta"  of  the  Society 
of  Antiquaries;  and  in  the  second  volume  of  the  ^^  Sepul- 
chral Monuments  of  Great  Britain  f,"  the  far  greater  part 
of  the  numerous  plates  in  which  are  after  him  ;  or  in  the^ 
very  many  drawings  he  had  finished,  and  the  sketches  he 

*  See  Gent.  Mag.  voK  LXI.  pp.  743,  1118,  1207. 

f  lo  the  preface  te  which  b«  n  gratefally  coQuaeiDonted. 

m  S  C  H  O  E  P  F  L  I  N. 

•  '  .  '  • 

Paris  he  wetft  to  Italy,  stajed  at  Rome  six  months,  reV 
ceived  from  the  king  of  the  Two  Sicilies  a  copy  of  thef* 
*'  Antiquities  of  Herculaneum,"  and  fronn  the  duke  of 
Parrtia  the  *^  Mirseum  Florentinum."  He  came  to  Eng^ 
land  at  the  beginning  of  the  late  krng*s  reign,  and  left  it 
the  day  that  Fere  Courayer,  driven  out  of  Paris  by  theolo- 
gical disputes,  arrived  in  London.  He  was  now  honoured* 
with  a  canonry  of  St.  Thomas,  one  of  the  roost  distinguished 
Lutheran  chapters,  and  visited"  Paris  a  third  time  in  1728, 
Several. dissertations  by  him  are  inserted  in  the  "  Memoiraf 
of  the  academy  of  inscriptions  and  belles  lettres  j'*  one, 
ascribing  the  invention  of  moveable  types  to  Guttenberg  of 
Strasbou-rg,  1440,  against  Meerman, 

In  1733,  he  narrowly  escaped  from  a  dangerous  illnes»« 
tie  had  long  meditated  one  of  those  works,  which  alone,  by 
their  importance,  extent,  and  difficulty,  might  immortalise 
a  society,  a  "  History  of  Alsace."  To  collect  materials 
for  this,  he  travelled  into  the  Low  Countries  and  Oermany 
in  1738,  and  into  Switzerland  1744.  At  Prague  be  found 
that  the  fragment  of  St.  Mark's  Gospel,  so  carefully  kept 
there,  is  a  continuation  of  that  at  Venice.  The  chancellor 
D'Aguesseau  senc  for  hioi  to  Paris,  1746,  with  the  sain<» 
view.  His  plan  was  to  write  the  History  of  Alsace,  and  to 
illustrate  its  geography  and  policy  before  and  under  the 
Romans,  under  the  Franks,  Germans,  and  its  present  go-* 
vernors;  and,  in  1751,  he  presented  it  to  the  king  of 
France,  who  had  before  honoured  him  with  the  title  of 
**  Historiographer  Royal  and  Counsellor,"  and.  tl>en  gave 
him  an  appointment  of  2000  livres,  and  a  copy  of  the  cata* 
logne  of  the  royal  library.  He  availed  himself  of  this  op-» 
portunity  to  plead  the  privileges  of  the  Protestant  univer-^ 
sity  of  Strasbourg,  and  obtained  a  confirmatit^n  of  them. 
His  second  volume  appeared  in  1761;  and  be  had  prepared, 
as  four  supplements,  a  collection  of  charters  and  record*, 
im  ecclesiastical  history,  a  literary  history,  and  a  li»t  of 
authors  who  had  treated  of  Alsace:  the  publication  of  thesd 
he  recommended  to  Mr.  Koch,  his  assistant  and  successor 
in  his  chair.  Between  these  two  volumes  he  published  fats 
**  Vindicise  Cdticae,'*  in  which  he  examities  the  origin, 
revolution,  and  language  of  the  Celts.  The  **  History  of 
Baden'*  was  his  last  considerable  work,  a  duty  which  be 
thought  he  owed  his  country.  He  completed  ibis  history 
in  seven  volumes  in  four  years  ;  the  first  appeared  in  176^ 
the  last  in  1766.     Having  h^  this  history  illustrated  bis 

S  C  H  O  E  P  F  L  I  N.  4« 

country,  he  pfevaiied  upon  the  marquis  of  Baden  to  build 
^  room,  in  which  all  its  anciertt  monuments  were  deposited 
in  1763.  He  engaged  with  the  elector  palatine  to  found 
the  academy  of  Manheim.  He  pronounced  the  inaugural 
discourse,  and  furnished  the  electoral  treasury  with  an- 
tiques. 'He  opened  the  public  meetings  of  this  academy, 
which  are  held  twice  a  year,  by  a  discourse  as  honorary 
president.  He  proved  in  two  of  these  discourses,'  that  no 
electoral  house,  no  court  in  Germany,  had  produced  a 
greater  number  of  learned  princes  than  the  electoral  house. 
In  1766,  he  presented  to  the  elector  the  first  volume  af  the 
**  Memoirs  of  a  Rising  Academy,"  and  promised  one  every 
two  years. 

A  friend  to  humanity,  and  not  in  the  least  jealous  of  his 
literary  property,  he  made  his  library  public.     It  was  the 
most  complete  in  the  article  of  history  that  ever  belonged 
to  a  private  person,    rich  in  MSS.  medals,  inscriptions, 
figures,    vases,    and  ancient  instruments   of  every   kind, 
colieeled  by  him  with  great  judgment  in  his  travels.     All 
these,  in  bis  old  age,  he  presented  to  the  city  of  Strasbourg, 
without  any  other  condition  except  that  bis  library  shauld 
be  open  both  to  foreigners  and  his  own  countrymen.     The  / 
city,  however,  rewarded  this  disinterested  liberality  by  a 
pension  of  a  hundred  louis.     He  was  admitted  to  the  de\ 
bates  in  the  senate  upon  this  occasion,  and  there  compli- 
inented  the  senate  and  the  city  on  the  favour  they  had 
shewn  to  literature  ever  since  its  revival  in  Europe.     No- 
vember 22,   1770,  closed  the  fiftieth  year  of  the  professor- 
ship of  Mr.  S. ;  this  was  celebrated  by  a  public  festival : 
the  university  assembled,  and  Mr.  Lobstein,  their  orator, 
pronounced  before  them  a  discourse  in  praise  of  this  ex- 
traordinary man,  and  the  whole  solemnity  concluded  with 
a  grand  entertainment.     Mr.  S.   seemed    born   to   outlive 
himself.     Mr.  Ring,  one  of  his  pupils,  printed  his  life  in 
1769.     In  1771,  be  was  attacked  by  a  slow  fever,  occa- 
sioned by  an  obstruction  in  his  bowels  and  an  ulcer  in  hii 
lungs,  after  an  illness  of  many  months.   He  died  August  7, 
the  first  day  of  the  eleventh  month  of  his  seventy-seventh 
year,  sensible  to  the  last.     He  was  buried  in  the  colle<* 
giate  church  of  St.  Thomas,  the  city,  in  his  favour,  dis- 
pensing with  the  law  which  forbids  interment  within  its 
limits.  * 

1  Gent.  Mag.  1783,  by  Mr,  Goos^,  aj^pMtwktr  ff^n^  H«tl«i  de  Vitis  PhllOs 
lofforam,  toL  III.  or  from  Ring'i  Life. 


SCHOMBERG  (Alexander  Crowcher),  a  learned 
English  clergyman,  was  born  July  6,  1756,' and  educated 
at  Southampton-school,  where  he  laid  the  foundation  of  his 
classical  learning,  and  displayed  his  taste  in  some  juvenile 
performances  which  were  much  approved.  He  afterwards 
cultivated  these  attainments  under  Dr.  Warton  at  Winches- 
ter-school, whence  he  removed  to  Magdalen -college,  Ox- 
fordj  of  which  he  became  M.  A.  in  1781,  and  fellow  and 
tutor.  Although  formed  to  excel  in  polite  literature,  his 
inclination  led  him  into  other  pursuits,  and  the  whole  oeco- 
pomy  of  human  life  became  the  subject  of  his  observation. 
The  interests  of  nations,  the  relations  of  arts,  the  cir- 
cuitous channels  and  the  secret  recesses  of  commerce,  and 
the  wide  range  of  operations  in  manufactures  and  agri- 
culture, were  open  to  his  intuition.  His  "  Chronological 
View  of  the  Rornan  Laws,"-  published  in  1785,  was  the  in- 
troduction to  a  larger  work,  for  which  he  had  furnished 
himself  with  ample  materials,  by  his  study  of  juridical  an- 
tiquities. Connected  with  this,  was  his  "  Treatise  on  the 
Maritime  Laws  of  Rhodes,"  in  which  he  clearly  investi- 
gated the  origin,  and  elegantly  described  the  nature,  of  the 
piaritime  codes  which  bore  an  analogy  to  the  Rhodiaii 
laws.  During  the  intervals  of  his  occupation  as  tutor  of 
the  college,  he  visited  the  principal  seats  of  commerce  and 
manufactures  in  England  and  on  the  continent.'  There* 
suit  of  these  researches  was  given,  in  1787,  in  his  *^  Histo- 
rical and  Political  Remarks  on  the  Tariff  of  the  Commer- 
cial Treaty  with  France,**  which  proved  the  very  enlight- 
ened progress  he  had  made  in  the  science  of  political 
iteconomy.  From  that  time  he  had,  with  minute  attention, 
observed  the  effects  of  that  famous  treaty  upon  both  na- 
tions ;  and  he  had  made  a  considerable  progress  in  print- 
ing a  series  of  facts  and  collateral  deductions,  under  the 
title  of  *'  Present  State  and  Manufactures  in  France,'* 
'when  he  was  interrupted  by  an  excruciating  disorder, 
>vhich  proved  fatal  April  6,  1792,  at  Bath,  whither  he  had 
gone  in  hopes  of  relief  from  the  waters.  He  was  a  man 
of  an  amiable  disposition,  and  greatly  lamented  by  hi^ 
friends.  He  had  taken  orders,  but  had  no  preferment  in 
the  church.  * 

SCHOMBERG  (Frederic  duke  of),  a  distinguished  ge- 
neral, was  descended  of  a  noble  family  iii  Germany^  and  w^ 

'   »  Q^nt.  Mas.  t©1.  IXlh 

S  C  H  O  M  B  E  R  G,  251 

the  son  of  count  Schomberg,  by  hisfirst  wife,  anEnglisb  lady, 
daughter  of  the  lord  Dudley;  which  count  was  killed  at  the 
battle  of  Prague  in  Bohemia  in  1620,  together  with  seve- 
ral of  bis  sons.  The  duke  was  born  in  1608.  He  served 
first  in  the  army  of  the  United  Provinces,  and  afterwards 
became  the  particular  confident  of  William  IL  prince  of 
Orange ;  in  whose  last  violent  actions  he  had  so  great  a 
share,  and  particularly  in  the  attempt  upon  Amsterdam, 
that,  on  the  prince's  death  in  1650,  he  retired  into  France. 
Here  be  gained  so  high  a  reputation,  that,  next  to  the 
prince  of  Cond^,  and  Turenne,  he  was  esteemed  the  best 
general  in  that  kingdom ;  though,  on  account  of  his  firm 
adherence  to  the  Protestant  religion,  he  was  not  for  a  con- 
siderable time  raised  to  the  dignity  of  a  marshal.  In  Nov. 
1659  he  offered  his  service  to  Charles  II.  for  his  restora- 
tion to  the  throne  of  England  ;  and,  the  year  Following, 
the  court  of  France  being  greatly  solicitous^for  the  interest 
of  Portugal  against  the  Spaniards,  he.  was  sent  to  Lisbon; 
and  in  his  way  thither  passed  through  England,  in  order 
to  concert  measures  with  king  Charles  for  the  support  of 
Portugal.  Among  other  discourse  which-  he  had  with  that 
prince,  he  advised  his  majesty  to  set  up  for  the  head  of 
the  Protestant  religion ;  which  would  give  him  a  vast  as- 
cendant among  the  princes  of  Germany,  make  him  umpire 
of  all  their  affairs,  procure  him  great  credit  with  the  pro- 
testants  of  France,  and  keep  that  crown  in  perpetual  fear 
of  him«  He  urged  him  likewise  not  to  part  with  Dunkirk, 
the  sale  of  which  was  then  in  agitation ;  since,  considering 
the  naval  power  of  England,  it  could  not  be  taken,  and  th6 
possession  of  it  would  keep  both  -  France  and  Spain  in  a 
dependence  upon  his  majesty. 

In  Portugal  he  performed  such  eminent  services  to  that 
kingdom  that  he  was  created  a  grandee  of  it,  by  the  title 
of  count  Mertola,  with  a  pension  of  5000^.  to  himself  and 
his  heirs.  In  1673  be  came  over  again  into  England,  to 
command  the  army ;  but,  the  French  interest  being  then 
very  odious  to  the  English,  though  he  would  at  any  othet 
time  of  his  life  have  been  acceptable'  to  them,  he  was  at 
that  crisis  looked  on  as  one  sent  over  from  France  to  bring 
pur  army  under  French  discipline.  Finding  himself,  there- 
fore, obnoxious  to  <the  nation,  and  at  the  same  time  not 
loved  by  the  court,  as  being  found  not  fit  for  the  designs  of 
the  latter,  he  soon  returned  to  France.  In  June  1676,  he 
ivas  left  by  the  king  of  France,  upon  bis  return  to  Parish 


with  the  command  of  bis  army  in  Flanders ;  and  doon  after 
obliged  the  prince  of  Orange  to  raise  the  siege  of  Maesr* 
tricbt,  and  was  made  a  marshal  of  Frai>ce.  But,  when 
the  prosecution  against  those  of  the  reformed  religion  wa^ 
begun  in  that  kingdom,  he  desired  leave  to  return  into  his 
own  country ;  which  was  denied  him,  and  all  the  favour  be 
«ould  obtain  was  to  go  to  Porlugal.  And,  though  he  had 
preserved  that  nation  from  falling  under  the  yoke  of  Cas^ 
tile,  yet  now,  when  he  came  thither  for  refuge,  the  inqui- 
sition represented  that  matter  of  giving  harbour  to  an 
heretic  so  odiously  to  the  king,  that  he  was  forced  to  send 
i^he  marshal  away.  He  went  thence  to  England ;  and, 
passing  through  Holland,  entered  into  a  particular  con* 
fidence  with  the  prince  of  Orange ;  and,  being  invited  by 
the  etector  of  Brandenburgh  to  Berlin,  was  made  governor 
of  Prussia,  and  placed  at  the  head\of  all  tl^  elector's 
armies.  He  was  treated  likewise  by  the  young  elector 
with  the  same  regard  that  his  father  had  shewn  him ;  and, 
in  1688,  was  sent  by  him  to  Cleves,  to  commaod  the 
troops  which  were  raised  by  the  empire  for  the  defence  of 

When  the  prince  of  Orange  was  almost  ready  for  his  ex- 
pedition into  England,  marshal  Schomberg  obtained  leave 
of  the  elector  of  Brandenbonrg  to  accompany  bis  highness 
in  that  attempt ;  and,  after  their  arrival  at  London,  he  is 
mipposed  to  have  been  the  author  of  that  remarkable  stra* 
tagem  for  trying  the  affections  of  the  people,  by  raising 
«n  universal  apprehension  over  the  kingdom  of  tbe  ap- 
proach of  tbe  Irish  with  fire  and  sword.  Upon  the  prince's 
advanceuheut  to  the  throne  of  England,  he  was  appointed 
master  of  the  ordnance,  and  general  of  his  majesty's  forces  ^ 
in  April  16H9,  knight  of  the  garter,  and  the  same  month  na- 
turalized by  act  of  parliament ;  and,  in  May,  was  created  a  ba^^ 
ro»,  earl,  marquis,  and  duke  of  this  kingdom,  by  the  name 
and  title  of  baron  Teys,  earl  of  Brentford,  marquis  of  Har- 
wich, and  duke  of  Schomberg.  Tbe  House  of  Commons  like- 
wise voted  to  him  100,000/.  for  the  services  wliich  he  had 
done;  but  be  received  only  a  small  part  of  that  sum,  tbe  king 
after  his  death  paying  his  son  5000/.  a  year  for  the  remain- 
der. In  Ajug.  1689  he  sailed  for  Ireland,  with  an  arnnyy 
for  the  redaction  of  that  kingdom  ;  and,  having,  mustered 
$11  bis  forces  there,  and  finding  them,  to  be  not  above 
14,000  men,  among  whom  there  were  but  2000  horse,  he 
oAitrched  to  X>midaU;>  where  ho  posted  hiouolf ;  img  J^mcB 


1>«in£  oome  to  Ardee.  within  fire  or  »x  miles  of  him,  with 
4tbove  thrice  his  number.  Scbomberg^  therefore,  being 
<lisapp<Mfited  of  the  supplies  from  England,  which  had  been 
f>ro«iised  him,  and  his  arni}^  being  so  greatly  inferior  to  the  ^ 
Irish,  resolved  to  keep  himself  on  the  defensive.  He  lay 
there  six  weeks  in  a  rainy  season  ;  and  his  men,  for  want 
of  due  management,  contracted  such  diseases  that  almost 
one  half  of  them  perished. 

He  was  censured  by  some  for  not  making  a  bold  attemjit ; 
and  «uch  complaints  were  sent  of  this  to  king  William,  'that 
iiis  majesty  wrote  twice  to  him,  pressing  him  on  the  sub- 
ject. But  the  duke  saw  that  tbe  enemy  was  well  posted 
and  .well  provided,  and  had  several  good  officers  among 
them;  and  knew  that,  if  he  met  with  a  check,  his  whole 
army,  and  consequently  all  Ireland,  had  been  lost,'  since 
he  could  not  have  made  a  regular  retreat.  The  surest  me* 
thod  was  to  preserve  his  army ;  which  would  save  Ulster, 
and  although  his  conduct  exposed  hini  to  the  reproaches  of 
tome  persons,  better  judges  thought,  that  bis  management 
of  this  campaign  was  one  of  the  greatest  actions  of  his  life. 
At  the  battle  of  the  Boyne,  July  I,  1690,  he  passed  the 
river  in  his  station,  and  immediately  rallied  and  encou- 
raged the  French  Protestants,  who  had  been  left  exposed 
by  the  death  of  their  commander,  with  this  short  harangue; 
*^  Allons,  messieurs,  voiR  vos  pers^cuteurs,^'  pointing  to 
the  French  Papists  in  the  enemy's  army.  But  these  word« 
were  scarcely  uttered,  when  a  few  of  king  James's  guards, 
who  retdrned  full  speed  to  their  main  body,  after  the 
slaught«er  of  their  companions,  and  whom  the  French  re-  ' 
fugees  suffered  to  pass,  thinking  them  to  be  of  their  own 
party,  fell  furiously  upon  the  duke,  and  gave  him  two^ 
wounds  over  the  head,  which,  however,  were  not  mortal. 
Upon  this,  the  French  regiment  acknowledged  their  erroi^ 
by  committing  a  greater;  for,  firing  rashly  on  the  enemy, 
tbey  shot  him  through  the  neck,  of  which  wound  he  in^ 
ftantly  died.  He  was  buried  in  St  Patrick's  cathedral,* 
where  die  dean  and  chapter  erected  a  small  monument  ta 
his  honour,  at  their  own  expence,  with  an  elegant  inscrip- 
tion by  I>r.  Swift,  which  is  printed  in  the  Dean's  works. 

Burnet  tells  us,  that  he  was  ^^  a  calm  man,  of  great  ap<^' 
plication  and  conduct,  and  thought  much  better  than  he* 
apoke ;  of  true  judgment,  of  exact  probity,  and  of  an  hum-* 
ble  and  obliging  temper."     And  another  writer  observes-, 
that  he  had  a  thorough  experience  of  the  world ;  knew 

854  S  C  H  O  M  B  E  R  O. 

men  and  things  better  than  any  nian  of  his  pFofession  e^et 
did  ;  and  was  as  great  in  council  as  at  the  head  of  an  army. 
He  appeared  coprteous  and  affable  to  every  person,  and 
yet  had  an  air.  of  grandeur  that  commanded  respect  from  alL 

.In  king  William's  cabinet  are  the  dispatches  of  the  duke 
of  Scbomberg  in  Ireland  to  king  William^  which  sir  John 
Dalrympie  has  printed  in  the  second  volume  of  his  me- 
moirs ;  "  because/'  he  remarks,  *^  they  paint  in  lively  co- 
lours the  state  of  the  army  in  that  country ;  clear  Scbom- 
berg of  inactivity,  which  has  been  unjustly  thrown  upon 
him ;  and  do  honour  to  the  talents  of  a  man,  .who  wrotd 
with  the  elegant  simplicity  of  Caesar,  and  to  whose  repu- 
tation and  conduct,  next  to  those  of  king  William,  the 
English  nation  owes  the  revolution.  ^ 

SCHOMBERG  (Isaac),  one  of  a  family  of  physicians  of 
^ome  note  in  their  day,  w«s  the  son  of  Dr.  Meyer  Scbom^ 
berg,  a  native  of  Cologne,  a  Jew,  and,  as  it  was  said, 
librarian  to  some* person  of  distinction  abroad,  which  oc- 
cupation he  left,  and  came  and  settled  in  London,  where 
be  professed  himself  to  be  a  physiician ;  and,  by  art  and 
address,  obtained  a  lucrative  situation  amidst  the  faculty* 
In  1740  he  had  outstripped  all  the  city  physicians,  and 
was  in  the  annual  receipt  of  four  thousand  pounds.  He 
died  March  4,  1761.  This,  bis  son,  was  born  abroad^ 
and  at  the  age  of  two  or  three  years  was  brought  to  Eng- 
land, where  he  received  a  liberal  education,  and  afterwards 
studied  at  Leyden.  After  his  retui*n  to  London  he  set  up 
in  practice,  but  had  a  dispute  with  the  college  of  physi- 
cians, as,  we  are  told,  his  father  had  before  him.  The 
partic^ilars  of  this  dispute  are  not  uninteresting  in  the 
history  of  the  college. 

After  Dr.  Schomberg  had  practised  some  years  as  a  phy- 
sician in  London,  he  received  a  notice  from  the  college  of 
their  intention  to  examine  him  in  the  usual  form,  and  to 
admit  him  a  licentiate.  This  notice  he  was  thought  to 
have  trieated  with  contempt ;  for,  instead  of  submitting  to 
the  examination,  be  objected  to  the  names  of  some  persons 
who  were  to  be  examined  at  the  same  time,  and  behaved,  it 
is  said,  with  some  haughtiness  to  those  of  the  college  who,- 
hexornplained,  had  used  him  ill,  in  ordering  him  to  be 
axat^ined  in   such  company.      The   college  considering 

themselves'  the  sole  judges  of  what  persons  they  should 

.  .      ••        ' 

J  BirA^s  Liv«*.— Burnet's  Own  Times.— Swift's  Workt.    Sec  to^tz. 

8  C  H  O  M  B  E  R  O.  iBS 

tall  upooy  refused  to  attend  to  the  doctor-s  objection,  but 
examined  the  persons  against  whom  he  seemed  most  to 
except ;  but  this  not  tending  to  make  up  the  dispute,  tbejr 
proceeded  to  interdict  the  doctor  from  practice  until  he 
bad  given  such  satisfaction  as  his  conduct  required.  la 
the  mean  time  the  doctor  submitted  to  be  examined,  and 
in  1750  procured  the  degree  of  doctor  of  physic  to  be  con«- 
ferred  on  him  by  the  university  of  Cambridge ;  and,  thug 
supported,  demanded  his  admittance  a  second  time,  not 
as  a  licenciate,  but  one  of  the  body.  This  demand  was  re^* 
fused  to  be  complied  with,  and  it  was  objected,  that  the 
doctor,  though  naturalized,  eould  not  hold  the  office  of 
censor  of  the  college,  which  was  an  office  of  trust ;  and 
this  refusal  brought  the  determination  of  the  business  tQ 
the  decision  of  the  lawyers.  A  petition  was  presented  to 
the  king,  praying  him,  in  the  person  of  the  lord  chancellor^ 
to  exercise  his  visitatorial  power  over  the  college,  and  re« 
•tore  the  licenciates  to  their  rights,  which,  by  their  arbi* 
trary  proceedings,  the  president  and  fellows  had  for  a  sue-' 
cession  of  ages  deprived  them  of.  This  petition  came  on 
to  be  heard  at  Lincoln's  Inn  hall,  before  the  lord  chie^ 
justice  Willis,  baron  Smythe,  and  judge  Wilmot,  lords 
commissioners  of  the  great  seal ;  but  the  allegations  therein 
contained  not  being  established,  the  same  was  dismissed. 
This,  attack  on  the  college  was  the  most  formidable  it  ever 

In  this  dispute  Dr.  Schomberg  was  supposed  to  have 
employed  his  pea  against  his  adversaries  with  considerable 
effect.  It  is  certain  he  was  well  supported  by  bis  friends ; 
one  of  whom,  Moses  Mendez,  esq.  exposed  bis  opponents 
to  ridicule,  in  a  performance  entitled  *^  The  Battiad,"  since 
reprinted  in  Dilly*s  Repository. 

From  thi*s  period  Dr.  Schomberg  took  his  station  in  the 
medical  profession,  with  credit  and  approbation,  though 
without  the  success  that  inferior  talents  sometimes  expe« 
rienced.  On  the  last  illness  of  David  Garrick,  he  waa 
called  in,  and  hailed,  by  his  dying  friend,  in  the  affectionate 
terms  of — <'  though  last  not  least  in|our  dear  love."  He  sur- 
vived Garrick  but  a  short  time,  dying  at  his  house  in  Con- 
duit-street, the  4th  of  March,  1780  J  and  the  following 
character  was  given  of  him  by  one  who  seems  to  have 
known  him  well : 

**  His  great  Jtalents  and  knowledge  in  his  profession, 
were  universally  acknowledged  by  Uie  gentlemen  of  the 

isB  S  C  H  O  M  B  E  R  G. 

.  faculty ;  aod  his  t€«<Jerrie98  abd  humanity  recomm^niledl 
bim  to  the  friendship  and  esteem,  a«  well  as  veneration,  of  ' 
his  patieqts.  He  was  endued  with  uncommon  quickness 
und  sagacity  in  discovering  the  sources,  and  tracing  the 
progress,  of  a  disorder  ;  and  though  in  general  a  friend  to 
jprudent  regimen,  rather  than  medicine,  vfet,'  in  emergent 
cases,  he  prescribed  with  a  correct  ahcf  happy  boldness 
equal  to  the  occasion.  He  was  so  averse  from  that  sordid 
avarice  generally  charged,  perhaps  often  with  great  injus- 
tice, on  th«  faculty,  that  many  of  his  friends  in  affluent  cir* 
cumstanoes  found  it  impossible  to  force  on  him  that  rewarcl 
for  bis  services  which  he  had  so  fairly  earned,  and  which 
iiis  attendance  so  well  merited.  As  a  man  he  wis  sincere 
«nd  just  In  his  principles,  frank  and  amiable  in  his  temper^ 
instructive  and  lively  in  conversation;  his  many  singulari- 
ties endearing  him  still  further  to  his  acquaintance,  as  they 
proceeded  from  an  honest  plaiii-ness  of  mannerj  and  visibly 
Slowed  from  a  benevolent  simplicity  of  heart.     He  was,  for 

V  flnany  days,  sensible  of  his  approacbirig  6nd,  which  been* 
countered  with  a  calmness  and  resignation,  not  easily  to 
be  imitated  by  those  who  now  regret  the  loss  of  so  good  a 
inan,  ^o  valuable  a  friend,  and  so  skilful  a  physician.'* 

Dr.  Schomberg  had  a  younger  brother,  Ralph  Schoat- 
£ER6,  M.  D.  who  first  settled  at  Yarmouth  ^$  a  physidiari, 
and  published  some  works  on  pr6fession^l  Subjects  that'  in- 
dicated ability,  and  others  from  which  he  derived  little  rfi- 
putation.  Of  the  former  kind  are,  1.  •*'Aphorisnii  prac- 
tici,  sive  observationes  medicse/'  for  the  u^e  of  studentfj; 
und  in  alphabetical  order,  1750,  ^vo.  2.  "  Prbsperi  Mar- 
tiani  Anpotationes  in  csecas  pracnotationes  synopsis,"'! 751. 

5.  "'Van  Swieten's  Commentaries"  abridn;ed.  '  4.-  **  A 
Treatise  of  the  Colica  Pictonum,  or  Dry  Belly-ache,*'  f764; 
Svo.  5.  **  Diiport  de  signis  morborum  trbrl  quatuor,'* 
4766.  Of  tlie  latter,  are  sonie  dramatic  pieces  of  very 
little  valufe,  and  6.  "  An  Ode  on  thfe  present  rebeJliort,*^ 
1746.     7.  "  An  Account  of  the  present  rebellion,"  1746; 

6.  "The  Life  of  Maecenas,"  1767,  12mo,  taken  without 
Bckiiowledgment  from  Meibonvius.  9.  *'  A  critical  Disser- 
tation on  the  characters  and  writings  of  Pindar  and  Hdrace; 
in  a  letter  to  the  right  bon.  ,the  earl  of  B — ,"  also  a  shame- 
ful instance  Xif  plagiarism  from  Blondell's  "  Comparison  de 
Pindare  et  D' Horace."  It  would  have  been  well  if  his  piU 
ferings  had  only  been  from  books ;  but  after  he  had  removed 
to  iBakb,  and  practised  there  some  years  with  considerAbi* 


S  C  H  O  M  B  E  R  0.  tfS7 

success^  be  tried  bis  skill  upon  ^he  funds  of  a  public  cba* 
rity^  and,  detection  following,  was  obliged  to  make  a  pre* 
cipitate  retreat  from  Bath,  aiid  from  public  practice.  He 
appears  to  have  hid  himself  first  at  Paugbourn  in  Berkshire, 
and  afterwards  at  Reading,  where  he  died  June  29,  1792* 
In  the  obituary  be  is  called  "  Ralph  Schomberg,  I!sq.\^^ 

SCHONER  (Joim),  a  noted  German  philosopher  and 
mathematician,  was  born  at  Carolostadt  in  1477,  and  died 
in  J  547,  aged  seventy.    From  bis  uncommon  acquirements, 
he  was  chosen  matheipatical  professor  at  Nuremberg  when 
he  was  but  a  young  man.     He  wrote  a  great  many  works, 
and  was  particularly  famous  for  his  astronomical  tables, 
which  he  published  after  the  manner  of  those  of  Regiomon-* 
tan  us,  and  to  which  he  gave  the  title  of  Resolutay  on  ac-* 
count  of  their  clearness.     Bur,  notwithstanding  his  great 
knowledge,  he  was,  after  the  fashion  of  the  times,  much 
addicted  to  judicial  astrology,  which  he  took  great  pains 
to  improve.     The  list  of  his  writings  is  chiefly  as  follows  : 
J.  "  Three  Books  of  Judicial  Astrology."     2.  "  The  astro- 
nomical' tables    named  Resolutas,'*      3.    ^  De  Usu  Globi 
Stelliferi;  De  Compositione  Globi  Coelestis ;  De  Usu  Globi 
Terrestris,  et  de  Compositione  ejusdem.'*     4.  *^  iEquato- 
rium  Astronomicum.^'     5.  '<  Libellus  de  Distantiis  Loco- 
rum  per  Instrumentum  et  Numeros  investigandis.'*  6.  *^  De 
Compositione  Torqueti."    7.  "  In  Constructionem  et  Usum 
Rectanguli    sive    Radii   Astronomic!  Annotationes.*'      8. 
'^  Horarii  Cylindri  Canones.^'      9.  ^  Pianisphserium,   sea 
Meteoriscopium.*'     10.  "  Orgahum  Uranicum."     11.**  In- 
strumentum Impedimentorum  Lunse.**     All  printed  at  Nu- 
remberg, in  1551,  folio.     Of  these,  the  large  treatise  of 
dialling  rendered  bim  more  known  in  the  learned  world 
than  all  his  other  works  besides,  in  which  he  discovers  a 
surprising  getiius  and  fund  of  learning  of  that  kind ;  but 
some  have  attributed  this  to  his  son.* 

rard),  a  learned  Norwegian,  was  born  at  Skatnss,  in  Nord- 
tand,  in  1722.  He  went  in  1740  to  the  school  of  Dron- 
tbeim,  the  rector  of  which  conceived  so  high  an  opinion  of 
his  ti^lents,  as  to  assist  him  in  carrying  ou  his  studies  a( 

1  Eurob.  Mag.  Ibr  1803.— Kiobols*8  Bowyer.— Minutes  of  Proceedings  of  tbt 
RoTal  college  of  Physicians,  relating  to  X>r.  Isaac  Scbomberg,  from  Feb.  5, 
1146,  to  Bt&  99,  1/753,  tvo,  1754. 

s  Martin's  Biog.  PbiL— Hutton't  Pictionar7.«-Fnh«ri,Tb«atruiii.— Saxii  On*" 

Vol.  XXVIT.  S   . 

Si5d  S  G  H  O  N  N  I  N  G.* 

Copenhagen,  wbe^e  in  1758,  be  was  elected  a  member  of 
the  aoademy  of  sciences  at  Copenhagen.  In  1764  be  was. 
appointed  professor  of  history  and  eloquence^t  Sera,  and. 
received  literary  honours  from  various  societies.  ,  In  1773, 
1774,  and  1775,  be  went  on  a  tour,,  at  the  king^s  expence, 
through  various  parts  of  Norway,  to  examine  the  remsiiot 
of  antiquity,  but  was  recalled  to  Copenhagen  to  be  keeper 
of  the  archives,  and  in  1776  was  appointed  a  member  of 
the  society  formed  for  publishing  Icelandic  works  from  the 
collection  of  Arnas  Magnseus.  He  died  July  18,  178p. 
He  is  said  to  have  passed  his  time  and  employed  his 
thoughts  entirely  on  bis  peculiar  studies,  having  an  utter 
aversion  to  theological  controversy,  and  being  equally  par* 
tial  to  men  of  merit  of  all  persuasions.  Hi&  works* 
roerous,  but  many  of  them  are  academical  disser|;atiQns« 
Among  those  of  a  more  permanent  form  are  ^^  An  Essay 
towards  the  ancient  Geography  of  the  Northern  Countries^ 
particularly  Norway  ;"  "  Observations  on  th^  old  Nprthertt 
Marriages  and  Weddings  ;"  **  De  Anni  Ratione  apud  ve- 
leres  Septentrionales ;"  "  History  of  Norway  from  tbo 
foundation  of  the  kingdom  till  the  time  of  Harold^  Haar- 
feger,"  1771 — 1781,  4  vols.  4to,  the  last  vohirne  edited 
by  Sahm ;  **  Travels  through  Norway,"  &c.  He  was  aka 
the  contributor  of  many  papers  to  tbe  Transactions  of  the 
Norwegian  society,  and  of  the.  academy  of  sciences  at  Co-* 
penhagen,  on  subjects  of  antiquity,  bearing  sonfie  relation 
to  the  northern  nation«.^ 

SCHOOCKIUS  (Martin),  a  learned  and  v^ry  laborious 
writer,  was  born  April  1,  1614,  at  Utcecht,  and  was  sue- 
cessively  professor  of  languages,  rbetqric,  hi^tony,  natural 
philosophy,  logic,  and  experimental  philqsopby  in  that 
Qity,  at  Deventer,  Groningen,  and  lastly,  at  Franoford 
upon  Oder,  where  he  died  in  1665,  aged  (ifty-one.  Scbooc** 
kius  delighted  in  singular  subjects,  and  has  left  a  prodi-* 
gious  number  of  works.  Burman  says  he  never  knew  a 
man  who  published  so  much  and  acquired  so  little-  fame^  ia 
the  learned  worlds  Some  of  his  works  are  qritijcal^  others 
on  philosophy,  divinity,  history,  and  literature,  chiefly  in 
12GDO  or  8vQ,  &c.  The  known  atre,  tri^ts  on  turfs, 
*^  De  Turffis,  sen  de  cespitibus  Bituminosis ;''  *^  On  But- 
ter f*  "  On  Antipathy  to  Cheese ;"  "  On  Eggs  and  Chic^ 
kens  ^**  ^^  On  Inundations ;''  *^  De  Harengi^  seu  Haleci^ 

»  Diet.  Hist  1 

S  C  H  O  O  C  K  lU  S.  2S9 

hm  ;^*  «  De  Sigiiaturis  fotus  f  "  De  Ciconiw ;"  «  De  Ni- 
hilo  ;**  "  De  Sternutatione  ;'*  "  De  figmento  legis  Regi»  ;'* 
"  De  Bodtii  Ecclesiasticis  et  Canonicis/*  4to ;  "  De  Statu 
Reipublicft  foedecati  Belgii/'  &c*  &c.  He  vrrote  also  agaiDi^t 
Des  CarteS)  at  the  request  of  the  famous  VoetiuSy  with 
whom  be  was  much  connected.  Some  other  pieces  on  sin- 
golar  subjects  are  in  his  "  Exercitationes  varia,''  1663, 4to, 
reprinted  under  the  title  of  **  Martini  Themidis  exercitii- 
tiohes,"  1688,  4to,  &c.* 

SCHOOTEN  (Francis),  professor  of  mathematii^s  at 
Leyden  about  the  middle  of  the  Seventeenth  century, '  i^as^ 
a  very  acute  proficient  in  that  science.  He  published,  in' 
1649,  an  edition  of  Descartes's  geometry,  with  learned 
and  elaborate  annotations  on  that  work,  as  also  those  of 
Beaunnie,  Hudde,  and  Van  He^uralt<  Schooten  pablisbed 
also  two  very  useful  and  learned  works  of  his  own  compo^i-' 
tioft ;  "  Principia  Matheseos  universalis,"  1651,  4to;  and 
"  Exercitationes  Matbematicae,"  1657,  4to.* 

8CHOTT  (Andrew),  a  very  learned  German,  to  wh6m 
the  republic  of  letters  has  been  considerably  indebted,^  utras 
born  at  Antwerp,  Sept.  12,  1552;  and  educated  at  Lou- 
vain.  Upon  the  taking  and  sacking  of  Antwerp  in  1577^ 
he  retired  to  Douay ;  and,  after  some  stay  there,  went  to 
Paris,  where  Busbequius  received  him  into  bis  house,  and 
fnade  him  partner  of  his  studies.  Two  years  after,  he  went 
into  Spain,  and  was  at  first  at  Madrid  ;  then  he  removed 
to  Alcala,  and  then  in  1580  to  Toledo,  where  his  great' 
reputatioii  procured  hira  a  Greek  professorship.  The  car- 
dinal Gaspar  Quiroga,  abp.  of  Toledo,  conceived  at  the 
same  time  stich  an  esteem  for  him,  that  he  lodged  him  in 
Kis  psilace,  and  entertained  him  as  long  as  be  remained  in 
that  placev  tn  1 584,  he  was  invited  to.Saragossa,  to  testch 
rhetoric  aftd  the  Greek  latiguage  r  atyd,  two  years  after, 
entered  into  the  society  of  Jestiits,  and  was  called  by  Che 
general  of  the  order  iht6  Italy  ta  teach  rhetoric  at  Rotoe. 
He  continued  thre6  years  thercj  and  then  returned  to  hisi 
own  country,  where  he  spertt  ihk  remainder  of  a  long  life 
in  study  and  writing  books.  He  was  not  only  well  skilled 
in  Latin  and  Greek  learning,  but  had  also  in  him  a  candour 
Md  generosity  seldom  to  be  found  among  the  men  of  hirf 
<^der.     He  had  an  earnest  desire  to  oblige  all  mankind,  of 

-  '  Kkeroiiy  Yot.-  XII. — Burman  Traj*  £radU.r-|^ico}8i's  Vittt  Professoruia 
*  Hutton*s  Diet,  new  edit.  1815. 

S   2 

260  S  C  H  O  T  T. 

•.  « 

what  religion  oi^  country  soever ;  and  would  freeljr  cemmii^ 
ilicate  even  with  heretics,  if  the  cause  of  letters  could  be 
served :  hence  protestant  writers  every  where  mention  him 
with  respect  He  £ed  at  Antwerp  Jan.  23»  1629,  after 
having  published  a  great  number  of  books.  Besides  works 
more  immediately  connected  with  and  relating  to  his  owo 
profession,  he  gave  editions  of,  and  wrote  notes  upon,  se** 
veral  of  the  classics ;  among  which  were  Aureiius  Victor^ 
Pomponius  Mela,  Seneca  Rhetor,  Cornelius  Nepos,  Vale« 
ritts  Flaccos,  kc.  He  wrote  the  life  of  Francis  di  Borgia, 
and-  ^*  Hfspania  illustrata,"  4  vols,  folio,  but  there  are  rea- 
sons for  doubting  whether  the  '*  Bibliotheca  Hispana9^^.S 
vols,  in  one,  4to,  was  a  publication  of  hia  own ;  it.  seema 
rather  to  have  been  compiled  from  his  MSS.  He  published,; 
howevetj  an  edition  of  BasiPs  works,  and  is  said  to  havei 
triMislated  Photius;  but  this  has  been  thought  to  be  so  modi 
below  the  abilities  and  learning  of  Schott,  that  some  have 
questioned  bis  having  been  the  author  of  it.^ 

SCHOTT  (Caspar),  a  learned  Jesuit,  was  bom  in  1608, 
in  the.  diocese  of  Wurtzburg.  His  favourite  studies  were 
philosophy  and  mathematics,  which  he  taught  till  his  death* 
He  passed  several  years  at  Palermo,  whence  be  removed* 
t»  Rome,  where  he  contracted  an  intimacy  with  the  cele-^ 
brated  Kircher,  who  communicated  to  bira  several  of  hir 
observations  on  the  arts  and  sciences.  Schott  wasLauthor 
of  several  works,  of  which  the  most  remarkable  are,  1^' 
'*  Pbysica  curiosa ;  stve  Mirabilia  Natures  et  arti»,"  J  667|r 
4to.  2.  <<  Magia  naturalis  et  artificialis,''.  1657^^59^  4  vel& 
4to,  reprinted  in  1677.  3.  "Technica  curiosa,"  Norim* 
berg,  1664,  4to,  in  which  is  foimd  the  first  idea  of  the  air*«^ 
pump.  4.  ^<'Anat6mia  Physico-hydrostatica  Foatium  ei 
Fluminum.'*  5.  ^^  Organum  Mathematicum."  In  the  va» 
rious  writings  of  this  Jesuit  are  to  be  met  with  the  germa  of 
the  greater  part  of  modern  experiments'in  pbysics*  Coa<^ 
plete  sets  of  them  should  consist  of  20  vols,  but  they  are 
not  easily  procured,  as  they  were  almost  entirely  forgotten, 
till  brought  to  notice  in  1785  by  the  abbe  Mercier,  in  hisi 
**  Notice  des  ouvrages  de  Caspar  Schott.-'  * 

SCHREVELIUS  (CoaNEUUs),  a  Dutch  commentator, 
was  the  ion  of  Theodore  Schrevelius,  first  rector  of  the 
school  at  Haerlem,  the  lustory  of  which  city  lie  published^ 

.  1  Dapin.— NiceroD»  Tpl.  XXVL-*Marehaii4  lo  Psregriaos.*— Foppea's  Bikti 
lel)^.— Sanii  Onoinaft. 
K  0i«t  Hist — BniB«t  Maniisl  4u  Ubraire* 

S  C  H  R  E  V  E  L  I  U  S.  261 



tnd  afterwards  rector  of  that  of  Leyden.  He  waa  born  pro- 
bably at  the  former  place,  and  removed  to  Leyden  with  biis 
father  in  1625,  who  being  then  advanced  in  years  resjgfied 
hi^  office  in  favour  of  Cornelius  in  1642.  Cornelius  ap- 
pears before  this  to  have  atudied  and  took  his  degrees  in 
medicine,  but  bis  promotion  to  the  school  turned  his  at- 
tention to  classical  pursuits,  in  the  course  of  which  he  pub- 
lished editions  vamrum  of  Hesiod,  Homer,  Ctaudiitn,  Vir.* 
gil,  Lucan,  Martial,  Juvenal  and  Perfiius,  Erasmus's  col- 
loquies, &c.  none  of  which  have  been  so  fortunate  as  to 
obtain  the  approbation  of  modern  critics.  He  applied^ 
however,  to  lexicograpby  With  more  success,  and  besides 
a  good  edition  of  the  Greek  part  of  Hesychius*s  Lexicon, 
published  himself  a  Greek  and  Latin  Dictionary,  which  has 
been  found  so  useful  to  beginners,  that  perhaps  few  works 
of  the  kind  hare  gone  through  so  many  editions.  Those  <^ 
this  country,  where  it  still  conttniies  to  be  printed,  have 
been  enlarged  and  improved  by  Hill,  Bowyer,'aad  others. 
Schrevelius  died  in  1667.' 

SCHULTENS  (Albert),  a  German  divine,  was  born  $t 
Grooingen,  where  he  studied  till  1706,  and  greatly  <}iatin« 
guisbed  himself  by  taste  and  skill  in  Arabic  learnings  Hw 
became  a  minister  of  Wassenar,  and  professor  of  tbe  orien- 
tal tongues  at  Franeker.  At  length  he  was  invited  to  Ley* 
4en, '  where  he  taught  Hebrew  and  the  oriental  languages 
with  reputation  till  his  death,  which  happened  in  1750. 
There  are  roatiy  works  of  Schukens,  which  shew  profound 
learning  and  just  criticism  ;  as,  ^  Commentaries  upon  Job 
and  the  Proverbs  ;^*  a  book, .  entitled  **  Vetus  et  regia  via 
Hebraieandi ;''  *<  A  Treatise  of  Hebrew  Roots,^'  &c.  ,He 
had  a  son  John  Jacob  Schultens,  who  was  professor  of  divi- 
nity and  oriental  languages  at  Leyden,  in  his  room.^^  This 
John  Jacob  was  father  to  the  subject  of  the  following  m^ 
tide.*     - 

SCHULTENS  (  Henuy  Albert  ),  was  born  Feb.  15, 
1749,  at  Herborn  (where  his  father  was  at  that  time  divinity* 
professor),  and  was  educated  at  tbe  university  at  Leyden, 
where  he  applied  himself  with  great  diligence  to  the  Ara^^ 
faic,  under  his  father*^  instmcdions,  and  those  of  Scheie 
dfais^  who  then  lodged  in  his  house*  By  his  fiber's  wir^ 
vice,  he  commenced  his  study  of  the  eastern  langui^g^es  by 

1  Jopptn  Bibl.  Belg.-*BaiUct  Jttf cmeDS.*-Moreri.  * 

s  Mor«n.-^Dict.  Hilt  *      -*- 

^$»  S  C  H  U  L  T  E  N  «. 

JearniQg  the  Arabic,  to  which  he  applied  during  two  ycnira, 
:before  be  began  the  Hebrew.  This»  among  other  reasouf, 
may  account  for  the  preference  which  he  always  gave  to 
th^  Arabic  literature,  and  which  was  so  great  that  he  was 
oftea  heard  to  wish  that  the  duties  of  bis  station  woujd  al« 
low  him  to  devote  the  whole  of  his  time  to  it.  He,  however, 
studied  the  Greek  and  Latin  classics  with  the  utmost  dili- 
gence under  Hemst^rhuis,  Bhunkenius,  and  Vaikenaar* 
He  alio  cultivated  an  acquaintance  with  the  best  modern 
/^friters,  among  whom  he  in  general  gave  the  preference  to 
.^he  English ;  he  was  remarkably  fond  of  JPope^  and  of 
.Sbakspeare  he  was  an  enthusiastic  admirer. 

In  m2f  when  only  in  his  twenty-^third  year,  he  pub* 
Jibbed  a  wprk  entitled  ^^  Antbolpgia  Sententiarum  Arabica* 
•TQio,''  with  a  Latin  translation  and  notes,  of  which  sir  Wilr 
liam  Jones  testified  his  approbation.  Soon  after  this  ScbuU 
^ena  went  tp  England,  in  order  to  examine  the  Arabic  MSS. 
in  the  Bodleian  library,  and  resided  for  some  time  at  Oz*^ 
ford,  as  a  gentleman  commoner  of  Wadham  college.  Here 
W  less  than  three  months  during  the  short  winter  days,  he 
triauseribed  Pocock's  ^^  Meidanuis''  with  his  translation  and 
9ates,  a  work  which,  took  up  no  Less  than  646  folio  pages* 
The  late  professor  White,  in  a  letter  to  the  father  of  ScbuU 
teas,  says  of  him :  **  It  is  impossible  for  any  one  to  be 
morie  geoecally  respected  in  this  place,  or  indeed  to  be 
mode  deserving  of  it.  Hia  abilities,  his  amiable  disposition, 
and  Us  polite  behaviour,  recomcqeod  him  strongly  to  alt 
tbos^  among  us  who  know  him  only  by  reputation,  and  en* 
dear  him  toallwboare  personally  acquainted  with  him.^* 
The  university:  testified  its  sense  of  his  extraordinary  merit, 
by  conferring  on  him  ](in  May  1773)  the  degree  of  M.  A. 
'by  diploma.  He.  also  visited  Cambridge,  where  he  spent 
a  fortmght ;  during  which  time  he  corrected  several  errors 
in  the' catalogue  of  Arabic  manuscripts,  and  made  several 
additions  to  it.  In  London  be  published  a  specimen  of 
Pocock's  *^  Meidanius/'  Dr.  Morton  offered  to  make  him 
Ilia  assistant  at  the  'British  Museum,  and  to  secure  to  him 
the  reversion  of  his  own  place ;  but  the  ambition  of.  Scbulr 
tens  was  to  be  a  professor  of  Ed^stern  languages  >  and  as 
there  was  no  probability  of  thii  appointment  in  England, 
be  determined  to  return  to  Holland.  Sir  William  Jones, 
whose  friendship  he  assiduously  cultivated,  advised  him  to 
study  the  Persian,  which  he  did  with  great  diligence ;  but 
he  complained  that  this  pursuit  was  often  interrupted  by 

S  C  H  U.  L  T  ENS.    ,  26S 

Qtfaer  avocations,  and  that  be  «vas  not  able  to  devote  so 
mucb  time  to  it  as  he  wi&bed. 

Soon  after  bis  arrival  in  tlie  United  Provinces,  he  was 
chosen  professor  of  oriental  languages  in  the  acadeifiical 
school  of  Amsterdam,  where  he  resided  during  five  years, 
and  enjoyed  the  esteem  and  friendship  of  a  numerous  ac- 
quaintance.    Besides  Latin  lectures  to  the  students,  he  de« 
livered  some  in  Dutch,  on  the  Jeyvish  antiquities  and  ori- 
ental history,  which  were  much  frequented  and  greatly  ad- 
mired.    On  the  death  of  jhis  father,  in  1778,  he  was  cabled 
to  Leyden  as  his  successor.     In  Nov.  1792,  he  was  attack* 
ed  by  a  malignant  catarrhal  fever  that  terminated  in  a  con- 
Mmption,  of  which  he  died  in  August  179$.     Some  time 
before  his  death,  his  physician  found  him  reading  the  latter 
part  of  St.  John's  gospel,  of  which  he  expressed  the  warmest 
'admiration,  and  added,  *^It  is  uo  small  consolation  to  me, 
.  that,  in  the  vigour  of  health,  I  never  thought  less  htgfaty  of 
the  character  and  religion  of  Christ,  than  I  do  tioWi,  in  the 
debility  of  sickness.    Of  the  truth  and  esfcellence  of  Chris- 
tianity I  have  always  been  convinced,  and  have  always,  f^s 
far  as  human  frailty  would  allow,  endeavoured  so  to  express 
tbia  conviction  that,  in  these  my  last  hours,  I  might  with 
confidence  look  forwards  to  a  blessed  immortality."  Scbul- 
tens,    in   his  private  character,    was  in  every  respect  an 
amifl^ble  and  worthy  man. 

.    As  a  teacher,  professor  Schultens  had  the  happy  talent 
of  rendering  the  driest  subjects  plain  and  interesting  to  his 
pupils.     This  was  particularly  the  case  with  the  principles 
of  the  Hebrew  grammar, >  an  intimate  and  accurate  know- 
ie^dge  of  which  be  recommended  as  indispensably  necessary 
to  all  who  wished  to  understand  the  Old  Testament  in  the 
original  language.    In  translating  and  explaining  the  Bible, 
be  preserved   a  judicious    medium    between   those    who 
ithought  the  Hebrew  text  too  sacred  ^o  be  the  subject  of 
criticism;  and  those  whO|  like  Houbigant,  without  a sufH- 
ioient  acquaintance  with  the  genius  of  the  language^  ven- 
tured on  needless  alterations. «    Hence  be  was  much  dis- 
pleased with  a  work  by  professor  Kocberus  of  Benie,  en- 
titled '^  VindicisB  sacri  textua  Hebrsei  Esaies  vatis,  adversus 
R.  Lowthi  criticam;''  concerning  which  he  said,  in  a  letter 
to  Dr.  Findlay,  of  Glasgow,    ^'  It  violates  the  bounds  of 
.moderation  and  decency  by  the  assertion  that  the  text  of 
Isaiah  could  not  gain  any  thing  by  Dr.  Lowt^i's  conjectures. 
I  am  of  a  vefy  different  opinion.     When  at  Oxford  and 


London,  I  was  intimately  acqaainted  with  bisbpp  Lowtfa^i 
hud  an  opportunity  of  knowing  fais  excellent  dispositioHt' 
and  am  therefore  much  vexed  that  Kocherus,  from  bis  fiery 
zeal  against  innovation,  should  have  been  induced  to  treat 
him  with  severity,  aa  if  the  bishop  had  been  a  rash  and  pe* 
thlant  critic,"  Scbultens^s  sentiments  on  this  subject  are 
more  fqily  expressed  iti  some  articles  wiiich  he  wrote  for 
the  ^'  Bibliotheca  Critica,"  published  by  Wyuenbach,  par- 
ticularly in  tlie  review  of  Kennicot's  Bible.  These  judi*^ 
cious  sentiments,  together  with  bis  extensive  abilities  and 
knowledge  of  the  subject,  his  ejulogist  observes,  rendered 
him  admirably  qualified  to  have  given  a  new  version  of  the 
Old  1  estameut.  This  at  one  time  he  designed,  and  nearly 
finished  a  translation  of  the  book  of  Job,  which  was  pub- 
lisihed  after  his  deathly  Herman  Muntinge,  1794,  8vq,  bu^ 
bis  sentiments  of  this  portion  of  sacred  writ  are  so  much,  at 
varianqe  with  those  of  the  most  able. and  popular  comment 
tatqrs,  that  we  question  if  it  will  meet  with  general  appro-» 

Professor  Schulteos,  though  a  very  industrious  student^ 
published  little  besides  the  ^^  Antbologia"  already  meution* 
ed,..and  the  following,  V  Pars  versionis  Arahicse  Ubri  Co* 
laili  Wa  Dimnab,  sive  Fabularum  Bilpai;''  a  supplement 
,  to  D'Uerbelot's  ^^  Bibliotbeque  Orientate;''  a  Dutqh  trails-* 
lation  of  Eichorn  on  the  literary  merits  of  Miobaelis ;  and 
three  Latin  orations.  He  at  one  time  resumed  his  intended 
editipn  of  Meidaoius,  the  care  of  which  he  left  to.profes- 
sor  Schroeder,  who  published  a  volume  4to,  under  the  title 
^^  Meidani  pvoverbiorum  Arabicorj^m  piars.  Latiiie  vertit  et 
notis  illustravit  H.A.  Scultens.  Opus  postbumum,"  1795. 
It  ought  to  consist  of  two  more  volumes,  but  we  know  not 
that  they  have  appeared*' 


SCHURMAN  (Akna  Maria  a),  a  most  learned  German 
lady,  was  the  daughter  of  parents  who  were  both  descended 
from  noble  Protestant  families,  and  was  born  at  Cologne,  in 
1607.  She  discovered  from  her  infancy  ah  uncommon  fa- 
cility in  acquiring  various  accomplishments,  as  cutting  with 
her  scissors  upan  paper  all  sorts  of  figures,  without  any 
model,  designing  Bowers,  embroidery,  music  vocal  and  in- 
^rumental,  painting,  sculpture,  and  engraving ;  and  is  said 
to  have  succeeded  equally  in  all  these  arts.     Mr.  Evelyn, 

1  Kantelaar'a  Euloj^y,  Amst.  1794;  8vo,  in  Montk.  Rev.  vol.  XV,  N.  S. 

S  C  H  U  R  M  A  N.  265 

in  hh  <*  History  of  Chaleograpby/'  has  obserred,  that  **  tbe 
very  knomng  Anna'  Maria  a  Schurnian  is  skilled  in  this  art 
witb  ionuncierable  others,  even  to  a  prodigy  of  her  sex.** 
Her  hand -writing  in  all  languages  was  intmitable ;  and  some 
curious  persons  have  preserved  8f>eoiinens  of  it  in  their 
cabinets.  M.  Joby,  in  his  journey  to  Munster^  relates,  that 
he  was  an  eye<* witness  to  the  beauty  of  her  writing,  ia 
French,  Greek,  Hebre%v,  Syriac,  and  Arabic ;  and  of  her 
skill  in  drawing  in  miniature,  and  making  portraits  upoft 
glass  witb  tbe  point  of  a  diamond.  She  painted  her  own 
picture  by  means  of  a  looking-glass;  and  made  artificial 
pearls  so  like  natural  ones,  that  they  could  not  be  dtstin^ 
guished  but  by  pricking  them  with  a  needle. 

The  powers  of  b^  understanding  were  not  inferior  ta 
her  skill  in  those  arts :  for  at  eleven,  when  her'  brothbi^ 
were  examined  in  Latin^  she  often  whispered  to  them  what 
they  were  to  answer,  though  she  was  only  a  casual  hearef 
of  their  lessons.  Her  Either  therefore  began  to  instruct 
her  more  perfectly  in  that  knowledge  which  made  her  so 
justly  celebrated;  and  very  soon  the  Latin,  Greek,  and  He* 
hreiML  languages  became  so  familiar  to  her,  that  she  not 
only  wrote,  but  spoke  them,  in  a  manner  which  surprised 
tbe  most  learned  men.  She  made  a  great  progress  also  in 
the  Syriac,  Chaldee,  Arabic,  and  Ethiopic ;  and  'of  the 
livtDg  languages,  she  understood  and  spoke  readily,  tbe 
French,  English,  and^Italian.  She  was  competently  versed 
in  geography,  astronomy,  philosophy,  and  th^  sciences, 
so, as  to  be  able  to  judge  of  them  with  exakstness :  but  aM 
these  accomplishments  yielded  at  last  to  divinity,  and  the 
study  of  tbe  scriptures.  • 

Her  father,  who  had  settled  at  Utrecht  while  she  was  an 
infant,  and  afterwards  removed  to  Franeker  for  the  more 
convenient  education  of  his  children,  died  there  in  1623. 
His  widow  then  returned  to  Utrecht,  where  Anna  Matia 
cooftinuedher  studies  very  intensely ;  wbi^h  pfobabty  pre- 
vented her  from  marrying,  as  she  might  have  done  advan^- 
tageously  with  Mr.  Cats,. pensionary  of  HoHand,  and  a 
cdebrated .  poet,  who  wrote  verses  in  her  praise  when  she 
was  only  fourteen.  Her  modesty,  which  was  as  great  as 
hec  knowledge,  would  have  kept  her  in  obscurity,  if  Rive^ 
tiis,  Spanheim,  and  Vossius,  had  not  made  her  merit  known. 
Saluiasius  also,  Beverovicius,  and  Huygens,  maintaijied  a 
literary  correspondence  with  her;  and,  by  shewing  her 
letters,  spread  her  fame  into  foreign  countries.    This  pro- 

36«  S  C  H  U  HM  A  Nv 

cured  ber  a  correspondence  with  Balzac,  Gassendi,  Mer^ 
sennus^  Bochart,  Conrart,  and  other  emkient  men  ;  personsr 
6f  the  first  rank  paid  her  visits^  and  cardinal  Richeliea 
likewise  shewed  her  marks  of  his  esteem.  About  1650,  a 
great  alteration  took  place  in  her  religious  system.  She 
performed  her  devotions  in  private,  without  frequenting 
any  church,  upon  which  it  was  reported  that  she  was  in- 
clined to  popery ;  but  she  attached  herself  to  the  famous 
mystic  Labadie,  and  embracing  his  principles  and  practice, 
lived  some  time  with  him  at  Altena,  in  Holstein,  and  at-* 
tended  him  at  his  death  there  in  1674.  Sh^  afterwards 
retired  to  Wiewart,  in  Friseland,  where  the  famous  Penn, 
the  Quaker,  visited  her  in  1677  ;  she  died  at  this  place  in 
1 678*  She  took  for  her  device  these  words  of  St,  Ignatius : 
<*  Amor  meus  crucifixus  est" 

She  wrote  '^De  vitsB  humanee  termino,"  Ultra}.  1639; 
i*  Diasertatio  de  ingenii  muliebris  ad  dootrinam  et  meliores 
literasaptitudine,",L.  Bat  1641,  ,12mo.  These  two  pieces^ 
with  letters  in  French,  Latin,  Greek,  and  Hebrew,  to  her 
learned  correspondents,  were  printed  in  1643,  under  the 
title  of  **  A.  M.  a  Schurman  Opnscula  •  Hebrsesii,  Gneca^ 
Latina,  Gallica;  prosaica  &  metrica;*'  enlarged  in  a  2d 
edition  at  Leyden,  1650,  ]2mo.  She  wrote  afterwards^ 
^^  Eukleria,  seu  melioris  partis  electio.*'  This  is  a  defence 
of  her  attachment  to  Labadie,  and  was  printed  at  Altena  in 
1673,  when  she  was  with  him.^ 

SCHURTZFLEI8CH  (Conrad  Samuei,),  a  learned 
German,  was  bora  December  1.641,  at  Corback,  in  the 
county  x>f  Waldeck^  Having  taken  a  doctor^s  deigree  in 
philosophy  at  Wittemberg,  in  1664,  he  returned  to  Corbao, 
where  he  taught  during  some  time  instead  of  his  father, 
'and/  then  returning  to  Wittemberg,  published  a  learned 
piece,  entitled /'Judicium  de  novissimis  prudenties  civilis 
•criptoribus,''  &c^  under  the  assumed  name  of  **  Eubulus 
Tb^odatus  Sarckmasius.^^  In  this  little  work,  which  con^ 
sifits  but  of  a  leaf  and  half,  the  author  passes  judgment  very 
freely  on  fifteen  German  lawyers,  or  political  writers,  whidi 
•raised  him  many  enemies,  and  engaged  him  in  a  literary 
war,  which-  produced  a  great  number  of  pieces  collected 
lijr  Crusius,  8vo,  under  the  title  of  *'  Acta  Sarckmasiana,** 
.and  even  occasioned  his  being  struck  out  from  the  list  of 

1  Gen.  Diet — Niceroa,  vol.  XXXIIL— Bullart's  Academie  des  Sciences. — 
Bttrman  Traject  Erudrt. 

S  C  H  U  K  T  Z  F  L  E  I  S  C  H.  IJCT 

doctors  by  the  university  of  Wittembcrg,  He  was,  faovr- 
evety  not  only  riestor^d  to  that  title  two  y^ars  after,  but 
appointed  professor  of  history,  then'  of  poetry,  and  at 
]ength  of  Greek.  Jn  1 700,  Scburtzfleisch  succeeded  to  the 
rhetorical  chair,  and  became  counsellor  and  librarian  to  the 
duke  of  Saxe-Weimar,  and  died  July  7,  170S.  He  left  a 
great  number  of  learned  works  on  history,  poetry,  criticism^ 
hterature,  &c.  the  most  celebrated  of  which  are,  **  Dispu* 
tationes  bistoricsB  civiles,*'  Leipsic,  1j699,  3  tom.4to.  Henry 
Leonard  Schurtzfleisch,  his  brother,  Was  also  author  of 
some  works,  among  which  is,  *^  Historia' Ensiferorum  ordi** 
wis  Tieutonici,"  Wittemberg,  1701,   l2mo.' 

SCHWARTZ  (Bertholet),  who  passes  for  being  the 
discoverer  of  that  fatal  composition  so  well  known  by  the 
name  of  gun-powder,  was  born  at  Friburg  in  Germany  in 
the  thirteenth  century,  and  is  said  to  have  discovered  this 
dangerous  secret  in  pfison,  as  he  was  making  some  chemi- 
cal experiments.  Albertus  Magnus  speaks  of  him  as  a 
Cordelier,  and  says  that  he  invented  stole  sorts  of  fire* 
arms.  The  discovery  of  this  fatal  secret  has  been  attributed 
by^ome  to  the  Chinese,  and  by  others  to  our  countryman, 
Roger  Bacon.:  however,  the  use  of  artillery  was  introduced 
about  the  time  of  the  battle  of  Crecy,  1346,  and  made  an 
absolute  change  in  the  whole  art  of  war ;  whether  a  benefit 
eial  one,  has  not  yet  been  decided.' 

SCIOPPIUS  (Gaspar),  a  learned  German  writer,  and 
one  of  the  most  arrogant  and  contentious  critics  of  his  time, 
was  born  about  1576  ;  and  studied  first  at  Amberg,  then  at 
Heidelberg,  afterwards  at  AltdoFf,  at  the  charges  of  the 
elector  palatine.  Having  m^de  a  considerable  stay  at  In* 
golstadt,  he  returned  to  Altdorff,  where  he  began  to  publish 
some  of  his  works.  Ottavia  Ferrari,  a  celebrated  professor 
at  Padua,  says,  that  he  ^^  published  books  when  he  was  hut 
sixteen,  whi^h  deserved  to  be  admired  by  old  men  ;'*  some, 
however,  of  his  early  productions  do  not  deserve  this  en- 
comium. He  took  a  journey  into  Italy;  and,  after  he  had 
beeo  some  time  at  Verona,  returned  into  Germany,  whence 
he  went  again  into  Italy,  and  published  at  Ferrara  a  pane- 
gyric upon  the  king  of  Spain  and  pope  Clement  Vlll.  In 
1599,  he  embraced  the  Roman  catholic  religion,  but  had 
an  extraordinary  antipathy  to  the  Jesuits ;  against  wh6m, 
Baillet  tells  us,  he  wrote  about  thirty  treatises  under  ficti- 

}  KiQCfOB,  Tol.  I,— Moreri.  *  Bullart*i  Acadebile  des  Sciences.— Moreri. 

aes  S  C  I  O  P 1?  I  U  S. 

iious  Dames.    Nor  was  he  more  lenient  to  the  Protestant^ 
and  solicited  the  princes  to  extirpate  them  by  the  mo^t 
bloody  meansy  in  a  book  which  he  published  at  Pavia  in 
1619,  Udder  the  title  of  '^(^^sp.  Scioppii  Consiliarii  Regii 
Classicum  belli  sacri,  -  sive,  Heldus  Redivivus."     The  fol;> 
lowing  is  the  title  of  another,  printed  at  Mentz  in  1612^ 
against  Philip  Mornay  du  Plessis;  and  which,  as  he  telliL 
us  in  the  title-page,  he  sent  to  James  I.  Of  England,  by 
way  of  new-year's  gift :  "  Alexipbarmacum  Regium  felli 
draconum  et  veueno  aspidum  sub  Philippi  Mornaei  de  Ples- 
sis nuper  Papatus  historic  abdito  apposituro,  et*sereniss* 
Jalcobo  Magnae  Britanniae  Regi  strensB  JanuarisD  loco  mu^ 
neri  missum/'  He  had  before  attacked  the  king  of  England^ 
by  publishing  in  1611,  two  books  with  these  titles  :  '*  £c<- 
clesiasticus  auctoritati  Sereniss.  D.  Jacobi,  &c.  oppositus,** 
and  "  Collyrium  Regium  Britanhiae  Regi  graviter  ex  oculis 
Jaboranti  muneri  missum  :"  that  is,  *^  An  Eye-salve  for  the 
use  of  his  Britannic  majesty/'     In  the  first  of  these  pieces 
he  ventured  to  attack  Henry  IV.  of  France  in  a  most  violent 
manner;  which  occasioned  his  book  to  be  burnt  s^t  Paris, 
He  gloried,  however,  in  this  disgrace ;  and,  according  to 
bis  own  account,  had  the  farther  honour  of  being  hanged 
in  effigy  in  a  farce,  which  was  acted  before  the  king  of 
England.     He  did  not,  however,  always  escape  with  impu- 
nity;  for,  in  1614,  the  servants  of  the  English  ambassajdoc 
are  said  to  have  beaten  him  with  great  severity  at  Madrid, 
Of  the  wounds  he  received  in  this  conflict,  he,  as  usu^l^ 
made  his  boasts,  as  he  also  did  of  having  beeii  tne  princi- 
pal  contriver  of  the  Catholic  league,    which  proved   so 
ruinous  to  the  Protestants  in  Germany.     In  his  way  through ' 
Venice  in   1607,  he  had  a  conference  with  father  Paul,  ' 
whom  be  endeavoured  by  promises  and  threats  to  bring  over 
to  the  pope's  party;  which,  perhaps,  with  other  circum- 
stances, occasioned  his  being  imprisoned  there  three  or  four 
d^ys.     After  he  had  spent  many  years  in  literary  contests, 
he  applied  himself  to  the  prophecies  of  holy  scripture,  and 
flattered  himself  that  he  had  discovered  the  true  key  to. 
them.     He  sent  some  of  these  prophetical  dispoveries  to 
cardinal^iyiazarine,  who  paid  no  attention  to  them.     It  baa 
been  said  that  he  had  thoughts  at  last  of  going  back  to  tha  • 
communion  of  Protestants ;  butithis,  resting  upon  the  sin- 
gle testimony  of  Hornius,  has  not  been  generally  believed^ 
He  died  in  1649. 
He  was  indisputably  a  very  learned  man ;  and,  bad  his 



jnoderation  and  probity  been  eqaal  to  his  learning,  might 
justly  have  been  accounted  ah  ornament  to  the  republic  of 
letters  :  his  application  to  study,  his  memory,  the  multitude 
af  his  books,  and  his  quickness  of  parts,  are  surprising. 
Ferrarius  tells  us  that  he  studied  day  and  night ;  that,  dur« 
itig  the  last  fourteen  years  of  his  life,  he  kept  himself  shut 
Qp  in  a  little  room,  and  that  his  conversation  with  those 
who  went  to  visit  hiYn  ran  only  upon  learning ;  that,  like 
another  Ezra,  he  might  haverestored  the  holy  scripture,  if 
it  had  been  lost,  for  that  he  could  repeat  it  almost  by  heart; 
and  that  the  number  of  his  books  exceeded  the*  number  of 
his  years.  He  left  behind  him  also  several  manuscripts, 
which,  as  Morhoflf  tells  us,  **  remained  in  the  hands  of 
Picruecius,  professor  at  Padua,  and  are  not  yet  published, 
to  the  no  small  indignation  of  the  learned  world/'  He  wa« 
nevertheless  a  man  of  a  malignant  and  contentious  spirit^i 
and  lived  in  continual  hostility  with  the  learned  of  his  time, 
nor  did  he  spare  the  best  writers  of  ancient  Rome,  even 
Cicero  himself,-  whose  language  he  censured  for  impropri- 
eties and  barbarisms.  Niceron  enumerates  upwards  of  an 
hundred  different  publications  by  Scioppius,  all  of  which 
are  now  fallen  into  oblivion,  or  only  occasionally  consulted. 
They  are  mostly  polemical,  on  subjects  of  criticism,  reli- 
gious opinions,  the  Jesuits,  Protestants,  &c.  many  of  them 
under  the  fictitious  names  of  Nicodemi^s  Macer,  Oporinus 
Grubinius,  Aspasius  Crosippus,  Holofernes  Krigsoederus, 
and  other  barbarous  assumptions/ 

SCOPOLI  (John  Anthony),  an  eminent  naturalist,  was 
born  in  1725,  at  Cavalese,  in  the  bishopric  of  Trent.  He 
studied  at  Inspruck,  and  at  twenty  years  old  obtained  tlie 
degree  of  licentiate  in  medicine,  and  afterwards  was  in- 
tmsted  with  the  care  of  the  hospitals  of  Trent,  and  of  his 
native  town  Cavalese ;  but  as  this  stage  was  too  small  for  hit 
anibition,  he  requested  that  his  parents  would  permit. him  , 
fo  go  to  Venice^  In  that  city,  under  the  auspices  of  Lo- 
taria  Lotti,  he  extended  bis  knowledge  of  nredicine,  and 
added  to  it  a  more  intimate  acquaintance  with  pharmacy^ 
botany,  and  natural  history.  On  his  return  he  traversed 
the  mountains  of  Tirol  and  Carniola,  where  he  laid  the 
foundation  of  his  "  Flor^"  and  •'  Entoraologia  Camiolica." 
In  1754  be  accompanied  count  de  Firmian,  prince  bishop, 
'  and  afterwards  cardinal^  to  Gratz,  from  whence  he  went  to 

470  s  c  o  p;  0  t  I. 


Vienna  to  obtain  a  diploma  to  practice  in  the  Ausfrian  do*, 
tninions.  His  examinatioii  ia  said  to  have  been  rigproos^ 
and  bis  thesis  on  a  new  method  of  classing  plants  to  havte 
been  received  with  great  regard*  The  friendship  of  Via^ 
Swieten^  if  in  this  instance  it  can  be  called  friendships  pro-, 
cured  him  the  office  of  first. physician  to  the  Austrian  mioem 
ofTirol*  In  this  banishment  he  continued  more  than  ten 
years ;  for  it  was  only  in  1766,  after  repeated  solicitations^ 
that  he  obtained  the  post  of  counsellor  in  the  mining  de- 
partment, and  professor  of  mineralogy  at  Schemnitz ;  but 
in  this  interval  he  produced  his  *'  Anpi  tres  Historico-na« 
turales,"  1769  to  1771,  8^o.  In  this  new  office  he  was 
indefatigable  iiv  teaching,  exploring  new  mines,  composing 
different  works  on  fossils,  and  improving  the  method  of 
treating  minerals  ;  but  after  ten  years'  labour^  be  was  not 
able  to  obtain  the  newly-established  chair  of  natural  bis-* 
tory  at  Vienna ;  yet  soon  after  his  attempt,  about  the  end 
of  1776,  be  was  appointed  professor  of  chemistry  and  bo- 
tany at  Payia.  In  this  situation  he  published  some  pharma- 
ceutical essays,  translated  and  greatly  augmented  Macquer's 
dictionary,  and  explained  tbe  contents  of  the  cabinet  of 
natural  history  belonging  to  the  university,  under  the  title 
of  ^^  Deliqise  Florse  et  Faunae  Insubricse/'  the  last  part  of 
which  he  did  not  live  to  complete,  Tbe  president  of  the 
Linnsean  society,  who  dedicated  the  Scopolia  to  his  memory^ 
informs  us  that,  after  some  domestic  chagrin,  and  mucb 
public  persecution,  he  died  at  Pavia^  May  8,  1788.  Ha 
had  been  concerned  with  all  tbe  most  eminent  men  of  that 
university,  Volta,  Fontana,  and  others,  in  detecting  the 
misconduct  of  their  colleague,  the  celebrated  Spallanzani^ 
who  bad  robbed  the  public  museum.  But  the  emperor^ 
loth  to  dismiss  sq  able  a  professor,  contented  himself  with 
a  personal  rebuke  at  Vienna  to  the  culprit,,  and  his  accusers 
were  silenced,  in  a  manner  which  was  supposed  to  have 
caused  the  death  of  Scopoli.  The  survivors  told  theif 
story,  as  explicitly  as  they  durst,  in  a  circular  letter  to  tbe 
learned  of  Europe.' 

SCOTT  (David),  was  born  near  Haddington,  in  East 
Lothian,  1675,  and  brought  up  to  the  law  in  Edinburgh  ^ 
but  never  made  any  figure  at  the  bar.  Attached  to  the  royal 
family  of  Stewart,  he  refused  to  take  the  oaths  to  the  revo- 
lution-settlement, which  brought  bioi  into  many  difficulties^ 

1  Crit.  RcT.  vol.  l^VIt— Reo^s  Cyclppttai»Bi<t  Scopolis. 

SCOTT-  271 

smd  soiD^iaies  imprisonmetit.  fie  had  no  great  knowledge 
o£  bistory ;  but  an  t>pibion  of  bis  own  abilities  induced  him 
to  write  that  of  Scotland^  which  was  published  in  1727^  iti 
one  volume  folio.  It  is  a  performance  of  not  much  value. 
He  died  at  Haddington,  1742,  aged  sixty -seven  .^ 

SCOTT  (Daniel),  a  dissenting  mini&ter,  was  the  son  of 
a  merchant  in  London,  and  was  educated  with  Butler  and 
Seeker,  afterwards  eminent  prelates  in  the  church  of  Eng- 
land,   under  the  learned  Mr.  Jones,  at  Tewkesbury,  in 
Gloucestershire,    from    whose    seminary' be    removed    td 
Utrecht,  in  HoHand,  pursued  his  studies  with  indefetigable 
«eal,  and  took  his  degree  of  doctor  of  laws.     While  he  was 
ill  this  city,  be  changed  his^  opinion  concerning  the  mode 
of  baptism,  and  became  a  baptist,  but  occasionally  joined 
in  communion  with  other  denominations.     On  his  retiirn  to 
England,  he  settled  in.  London  or  Colchester,  and  devoted 
his  timeto varions  learned  and  useful  treatises.     In  172r^ 
appeared  his  ^^  Essay  towards  ^  Demonstration  of  the  Scrip- 
ture Trinity,''  without  his  name,  which  was  for  some  timci 
ascribed  to  Mr.  James  Pierce,  of  Exeter.  -  In  1738,  a  se- 
cond '  edition,  with  some  enlargements,  was  sent  out  from 
the  press^  and  in  both  editions  the  author's  friends  have 
laboured  to  prove  that  dishonourable  methods  were  taken  to 
prevent  the  spread  of  it.  A  new  edition  of  this  Essay,-  freed 
from  the  learned  quotations  with  which  it  abounded,  wa) 
printed,  some  years  back,  in  4to,  and,  without  any  disho- 
nourable means,  added  very  little  to  the  So<^inian  cause. 
In  1741,  he  appeared  to  more  advantage  in  f*  A  New  Ver- 
sion of  St.  Matthew^s  Gospel,  with  Critical  Note$;  and  an 
Examination  of  Dr.  Mill's  Various  Readings ;"  a  very  learn- 
ed and  accurate  performance.     At  the  persuasion  of  his 
dignified  friends.  Seeker  and  Birtler,  to  whom  he  dedicated 
his  work,  .be  published,  in  1745,  in  two  volumes,  folio,  an 
*^  Appendix  to  H.  Stephen's  Greek  Lexicon ;"  a  monument 
9f  bis  aosazing  diligence,  critical  skill,  and  precision.     He 
l^t  sevesal  hundred  pounds  by  this  publication,  and,  by 
bis  close  application  to  it  for  many  years,  broke  his  health 
and  spirits.     He  was  never  married,  and  died  suddenly,  in 
a  retirement  near  London^  March  2.9,  1759. 

His  father,,  by  his  first  wife,  had  a  son,  Thomas  Scott,  a 
dissenting  minister  at  Norwich,  who  published  several  ocr 
csQidfial  Bermons,  and  died  in  1 746,  leaving  two  sons,  one 

(  Preceding  edition  of  this  Diet. 

?72  SCOTT. 

TbonOas  Scott,  a  dissenting  minister  at  tpswichi  authoi^  of 
a  poetical  version  of  the  Book  of  Job,  a  ^second  editioo  of 
which  was  printed  in  1774.  This  has  been  thought  nnore 
Taluable  as  a  commentary  than  as  a  translation.  His  other 
son  was  Dr.  Joseph  Nicol  Scott,  who  was  first  a  dissenting 
minister,  and  published  2  vols,  of  sermons  *'  preached  in 
defence  of  all  religion,  whether  natural  or  revealed.^'  He 
was  a  strenuous  opponent  of  the  doctrine  of  eternal  punish- 
ments. He  afterwards  pcactised  pbjsic  in  London,  and 
died  about  1774.' 

SCOTl^  (George  Lewis),  a  learned  member  of  the 
royal  society^  and  of  the  board  of  longitude,  was  the  eldest 
son  of  Mr.  Scott,  of  Bristow,  in  Scotland,  who  married 
Miss  Stewart,  daughter  of  sir  James  Stewart,  lord  advo- 
cate of  Scotland  io  the  reigns  of  WiiUam  UI.  and  queen 
Anne.  That  lady  was(*  also  his  cousin-german,  their  mo« 
Ihers  being  sisters,  and  both  daughters  of  Mr.  Robert 
Trail,  one  of  the  ministers  of  Edinburgh,  of  the  same  fa- 
mily as  the  rev.  Dr.  William  Trail,  the  learned  auibor  of 
the  ^^  Life  of  Dr.  Robert  Simson,  professor  of  mathematics 
at  Glasgow/' 

Mr.  Scott,  the  father,  with  bis  family,  lived  many  years 
abroad,  in  a  public  character ;  and  he  had  three  sons  born 
while  residing  at  the  court  of  Hanover.  The  eldest  of  these 
was  our  author,  George  Lewis,  named,  in  both  these  natnes^ 
after  his  god*father,  the  elector,  who  was  afterwards  George 
I.  George  Lewis  Scott  was  a  gentleman  of  considerable 
talents  and  general  learning  ;  he  was  well-skilled  alsoio  .tbe 
mathematical  sciences  *,  for  which  he  manifested  at  times 
a  critical  taste,  as  may  be  particularly  seen  in  some  letters 
which,  in  1764,  passed  between  him  and  and  Dr.  Simson^ 
of  Glasgow,  and  are  inserted  in  Dr.  Trail's  account  of  ^'  The 
Life  and  Writings  of  Dr^  ^irnsoii.'*  Mr.  Scott  was  also  the 
author  of  the  ^^  Supplement  to  Chambers's  Dictionary,**  in 
2  large  folio  volumes,  which  was  much  esteemed,  and  for 
which  be  received  1,500/.  from  the  booksellers,  a  consi- 
derable price  at  the  time  of  that  publication.  Mr. 
Scott  was  sub-preceptor,  for  the  Latin  language,  to  hia 
present  majesty  when,  prince  of  Wales.    After  thia^t  he  was 

^  From  the  preface  to  a  new  edition  of  **  An  Essay  towards  a  demonstration 
of  the  Trinity  ,»>  reprinted  in  1775  or  1779. 

*  Dr.  Bunieyi  in  tbe  Cydopsdia,  speaks  of- Dr.  Scott  as  an  exeellant  A«* 
sician,  and  the  autboj'  of  some  valaable  articles  on  that  subjecti  in  th«  Suppie« 
meat  to  Cbambers^s  Dictionary. 

S  C  O  T  T;  273^ 

appointed  a  Commissioner  of  excise ;  a  situation  which  Kis 
friends  considered  as  not  adequate  to  bis  past  deserts,  and 
inferior  to  what  he  probably  would  have  had,  but  for  the 
freedom  of  his  political  of/inions.  From  some  correspond-* 
enoe  *with  Gibbon,  to  whom,  in  particular,  he  wrote  an 
ejLCelient  letter  of  directions  for  mathematical  studies,-  we 
may  infer  that  he  did  not  differ  much  from  that  gentleman 
in  matters  of  religfous  beliet^.  Mr.  Scott  died  Dec.  1780.- 
He  was  elected  F,  S.  A.  in  1736,  and  F.  R:  S.  in  1737. 
.  Mrs.  Scott,  his  widow,  survived  him  about  fifteen  years, 
and  (lied  at  Catton,  near  Norwich,- in  Nov.  1795.  She  was 
sister  to  the  late  celebrated  Mrs;  Montagu,  of  Portman- 
square.  From  the  pen  of  a  very  intelligent  and  equally 
candid  writer,  we  have  the  following  account  of  this  lady : 
^^  She  was'  an  excellent  historian,  -of  great  acquirements, 
eKtraordinany  hiemory,  and  strong  sense;  and  constantly 
emplbyed  in  literary  labours ;  yet  careless  of  faniie,  and* 
free  from  vanity  and  ostentation.  Owing  to  a  disagreement 
of  tempers,  she  soon  separated  from  her  husband  ;  but  in 
e%!ery  other  rellition  of  life  she-was,  with  some  peculiarities,' 
a  woman  of  exemplary  conduct,  of  sound  principles,  en- 
livened by  -the  warmest  sense  of  religion,  and  of  a  charity 
so  unbounded,  so  totally  regardless  of  herself,  as  to  be 
almost  excessive  and  indiscriminate.  Her  talents  were  not 
so. brilliant,  nor  her  genius  so  predominant,  as  those  of  her 
sister,  Mrs.  Montagu  :  but  in  some  departments  of  litera-' 
ture  she  was  by  no  means  her  inferior.  When  she  left  her 
husband  she  united  her  income  with  that  9f.ber  intimate 
friend,  lady  Bab  Montagu,  the  sister  of  lord  Halifax,  and 
they  continued  to  live  together  to  the  death  of  the  Matter. 
From  that  period  Mrs.  Scott  continually  changed  her  ha- 
hitation,  for  restlesst^ss  was  one  of  her  foibles.  Her  in* 
tercoiirse  with  the  world  was  various  and  extensive ;  and 
there  .were  few  ikerary  people  of  her  day  with  whom  she 
had  not  either  an  acquaintance  or  a  correspondence.  Yet 
when  she  died,  not  one  of  her  contemporaries  who  knew 
her  literary  habits  came  forward  to  preserve  the  slightest 
memorial  of  her;  and  she  went  to  her  grave  as  unnoticed 
as  the  most  obscure  of  those  who  have  done  nothing  worthy 
of  reniembrance.  Under  these  circumstances,  the  writer 
of  this  article  trusts  to  a  candid  reception  of  this  imperfect 
memoir^  while  he  laments  that  Mrs.  Scott  herself  shut  out 
some  of  the^best  materials,  by  ordering  all  her  papers  and 
voluminous  correspondence,  which  came  into  the  hands  of 
Vol.  XXVII.  T 

?74  SCOTT. 

ber  executrix,  to  be  burnt ;  an  order  fpacb  to  be  lamented^ 
because  there  is  reason  to  believe,  from  the  fragments 
\i^hich  remain  in  other  hands,  that  her  letters  abounded  with 
literary  anecdote,  and  acute  observations  on  character  and 
life.  Her  style  was  easy,  unaffected,  and  perspicuous ; 
her  remarks  sound,  and  her  sagacity  striking*  Though  her 
fancy  was  not  sufficiently  powerful  to  give  the  highest  at-^ 
traction  to  a  novel,  she  excelled  in  ethical  remarks,  and 
the  annals  of  the  actual  scenes  of  human  nature.  In  dra* 
naatic  effect,  in  high-wrought  passion,  and  splendid  imagery^ 
perhaps  she  was  deficient.*' 

The  following  is  given  on  the  same  authority,  as  an  im«. 
perfect  list  of  Mrs.  Scott's  works,  all  published  at  London, 
without  her  namey  and  one  with  a  fictitious  name,  1.  <^The 
History  of  Cornelia,"  a  novel,  1750,  12mo.  2.  "A' Jour- 
ney through  ev^ry  stage  of  Life,"  1754,  2  vols.  ]2mo.  3. 
*^  Agreeable  Ugliness ;  or,  the  triumph  of  the  graces,"  &c. 
1754,  }2mo.  4.  ^^  The  History  of  Gustavus  Ericson,  king 
of  Sweden,  with  an  introductory  history  of  Sweden,  fronn 
the  middle  of  the  twelfth  century.  By  Henry  Augustus 
Raymond,  esq."  1761,  8vo.  5.  "  The  History  of  Meck-^ 
lenburghj"  176?^  8vo.  6.  "  A  Description  of  Milleniun^ 
Hs^li,"  second  edition,  1764,  12mo.  7.  "The  History  of 
sir  George  Ellison,"  1776,  2  vols.  12mo.  8.  "The  test  of 
Filial  Duty,"  1772,  2  vols.  12mo.  9.  "  Life  of  Theodore 
Agrippa  D'Aubigne,"   1772,  8iV0. ' 

SCOTT  (Dr.  John),  a  learned  English  divine,  was  son 
of  Mr.  Thomas  Scott,  a  substantial  grazier,  and  was  born 
ip  tijie  parish  of  Cbippingham,  in  Wiltshire,  in  1638.  Not 
being  intended  for  a  literary  profession,  be  served  an  ap- 
prenticeship in  London,  much  against  his  will,  for  about 
tbr^e  years  i  but,  having  an  inclination  as  well  as  talents 
for  learning,  be  quitted  his  trade  and  went  to  Oxford. 
He  wa^  admitted  a  commoner  of  New  Inn  in  1657,  and 
mac^e  a.  great  progress  in  logic  and  philosophy ;  but  left 
the  university  without  taking  a  degree,  and  being  ordained, 
caod^  to  London,  where  he  officiated  in  the  perpetual  cu- 
racy of  Trinity  in  the  Minories,  and  as  minister  of  St. 
Thoips^'s  in  Southwark.  In  1677  oe  was  presented  to  the- 
rf  ctory  of  St.  Peler  Le  Poor ;  and  was  collated  to  a  prebend 
in  St  Paul's  cathedral  in  1684.  In  1685  he  accumulated 
the  degrees  of  bachelor  and  doctor  in  divinity,  having  be<» 

^  Ilutton's  Dictionary,  new  edit.r— Censura  Literaria,  vols.  I.  and  XL— Shef- 
aeki's  Life  of  Gibbon.— Geat,  Mag«  vol,  UCVllL  and  LXXV.  whti e  are  some  •f 
Mrs*  Scott's  Iflten. 

SCOTT.  27* 

fore  taken  no  degree  in  any  otheif  faculty.  Ih  1^91  6e 
sacceeded  Sharp,  afterwards  archbishop  of  York,  in  Che 
rectory  of  St.  Giles  in  the  Fields ;  and  the  satnie  year  wds 
made  canon  of  Windsor.  Wood  says  that  **'  he  might  sot)ri 
have  been  a  bisliop,  had  not  some  scruples  hinderecl  him  ;" 
alid  Hicfces  has  told  us  that  he  refused  the  bishopric  of 
Chester,  because  he  could  not  take  th^  oath  of  homage ; 
and  afterwards  another  bishopric,  the  deanery  of  Wor- 
cester, and  a  prebend  of  the  church  of  Windsor,  because 
they  were  aU  places  of  deprived  faen.  This,  however,  _ 
Dr.  Isham  attributes  entirely  to  his  growing  infirmities. 
He  died  in  1694,  and  was  buried  in  St.  Giles's  church  :  his 
funeral  sermon  was  preached  by  Dr.  Isham,  and  afterwards 
printed  in  1695.  In  this  sermon  we  are  told  that  "  he  had 
niany Virtues  ih  Him  of  no  ordinary  growth :  piety  towards 
God;  kindness,  friendship,  affability,  sincerity,  towards 
men  ;  zeal  and  consta/ncy  in  th6  discharge  of  the  pastoral 
office ;  and,  in  a  word,  all  those  graces  and  virtues  which 
matke  the  good  Christian  and  the  good  man."  When  po- 
pery was  encroacbihg  under  Charles  II.  and  JamesII.  he  was 
one  of  those  champions  who  opposed  it  with  great  warmth 
and  courage,  particularly  in  the  dedication  of  a  sermoa 
preached  at  Guildhall  chapel,  Nov.  5,  1683,  to  sir  Wil- 
liam Hooker,  lord-mayor  of  London,  where  he  declares 
that  *'  Domitian  and  Dioclesian  w^ere  but  puny  persecu- 
tors and  bunglers  in  cruelty,  compared  with  the  infal- 
lible cut-throats  of  the  apostolical  chair.'* 

This  divine  wrote  an  excellent  work,  called  "  The  Chris- 
tian Life,"  vyhich  has  been  often  printed,  and  much  read. 
The  first  part  was  published  1681,  in  8vo,  with  this  title, 
**  The  Christian  Life,  from  its  beginning  to  its  consumma- 
tion in  glory,  together  with  the  several  means  and  instru- 
ments or  Christianity  conducing  thereunto,  with  directions 
for  private  devotion  and  forms  of  prayer,  fitted  to  the  se- 
veral states  of  Christians;"  in  1635,  another  part,  "whereiri 
the  fundamental  principles  of  Christian  duty  are  assigned, 
e'Xplained,  and  proved  ;*'  in  1686,  another  part,  "wherein 
th6  doctrine  of  pur  Saviour's  mediation  is  explained  and 
proved."  To  these  volunies  of  the  "  Christian  Life"  the 
pfious  author  intended  a  continuation,  had  not  long  infir- 
mity, and  afterwards  death,  prevented  him.  This  work  is 
itot  now  much  read,  although  the  ninth  edition  was  pub- 
lished in  1729*  Mr.  Orton,  in  his  "  Letters  to  young  Mi- 
-fiisters/'  seems  tq  recommend  the  first  volume  only, 

T  2 

276  SCOTT* 


Dr.  Scott  published  two  pieces  against  the  papists:  Ic 
^*  Examination  of  Bellarmine's  eighth  note  concerning  sane* 
tity  of  doctrine."  2.  **  The  texts  examined,  which  papists 
cite  out  of  the  Bible  concerning  prayer  in  an  unknown 
tongue."  Both  these  pieces  were  printed  together,  Oct. 
1688;  while  king  James  was  upon  the  throne.  He  wrote 
also  ^^  Certain  Cases  of  Conscience  resolved,  concerning  the 
lawfulnese  of  joining  with  forms  of  prayer  in  public  wor« 
ship,"  i683,  in  two  parts;  which  were  both  reprinted,,  and 
inserted  in  the  second  volume  of  a  work  entitled  ^*  A  col- 
lection of  Cases  and  other  Discourses  lately  written  to  re- 
cover Dissenters  to  the  Communion  of  the  Church  of  £ng« 
land,"  1685,  4to.  His  whole  works,  including  sermons, 
&c.  were  published  in  2  vols.  fol.  1704.  ^ 

SCOTT  (John),  a  poet  of  considerable  genius,  and  a 
very  amiable  man,  was  the  youngest  son  of  Samuel  and 
Martha  Scott,  and  was  born  January  9,  1730,  in  the  Grange* 
Walk,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Mary  Magdalen,  Bermondsey. 
His  father  was  a  draper  and  citizen  of  London,  a  man  of 
plain  and  irreproacliable  manners^  and  one  of  tlie  society 
of  the  people  called  quakers,  in  which  persuasion  our  poet 
was  educated,  and  continued  during  the  whole  of  his  life, 
although  not  with  the  strictest  attention  to  all  the  pecu- 
liarities of  that  sect.  In  the  seventh  year  of  his  age  he  waa 
put  under  the  tuition  of  One  John  Clarke,  a  native  of  Sc6t- 
land,  who  kept  a  School  in  Bermondsey-street,  attended 
young  Scott  at  his  father's  house,  and  instructed  him  in  the 
rudiments  of  the  Latin  tongue.  In  his  tenth  year  his  father 
retired  with  his  family,  consisting  of  Mrs.  Scott  and  two 
SODS,,  to  the  village  of  Amwell  in  Hertfordshire^  where,  for 
some  time,  he  carried  on  the  malting  trade.  Here  our 
poet  was  sent  to  a  private  day-school,  in  which  he  is  said 
to  have  had  few  opportunities  of  polite  literature,  and  those 
few  were  decUned  by  his  father  From  a  dread  of  the  small-  . 
pox,  Which  neither  be  nor  his  son  bad  yet  caught.  This 
terror,  perpetually  recurring  as  the  disorder  made  its  ap- 
pearance in  one  quarter  or  another^  occasioned  such  fre-, 
quent  removals  as  prevented  his  son  from  the  advantages 
of  regular  education.  The  youth,  however,  did  not  neg- 
lect to  cultivate  his  mind  by  such  means  as  were  in  bis 
power.  About  the  age  of  seventeen  he  discovered  an  in- 
clination to  the  study  of  poetry,  with  which  he  combined  a 

>  B'log.  Brit.^Atb.  Ox.  vol.  IL         ' 

SCOTT.  «77 

'delight  in  viewing  the  appearances  of  rural  nature.  At 
this  time  he  derived  much  assistance  from  the  conversation 
and  opinions  of  one  Charles  Frogley,  a  person  in  the  hum- 
ble station  of  a  bricklayer,  but  who  had  improved  a  natural 
taste  for  poetry,  and  arrived  at  a  considerable  degree  of 
critical  discernment.  This  Mr.  Scott  thankfully  acknow- 
ledged when  he  had  himself  attained  a  rank  among  the  wri- 
ters of  his  age,  and  could  return  with  interest  the  praise 
by  which  Fro'gley  had  cheered  his  youthful  attempts.  The 
only  other  adviser  of  his  studies,  in  this  sequestered  spot, 
was  a  Mr.  John  Turner,  afterwards  a  dissenting  preacher. 
To  him  he  vvas  introduced  in  1753  or  1754,  and,  on  the 
Temoval  of  Mr.  Turner  to  London,  and  afterward^  to  Col- 
leton in  Devonshire,  they  carried  on  a  friendly  corre- 
spondence on  matters  of  general  taste. 

Mr.  Scott's  first  poetical  essays  were  published  in  the 
Gentleman's  Magazine,  "  the  great  receptacle  for  the  ebul- 
litions of  youthful  genius."     Mr.  Hoole,  his  biographer, 
has  not  been  able  to  discover  all  the  pieces  inserted  by 
him  in  that  work,  but  has  reprinted  three  of  them,  whieh 
are  added  to  his  works  in  the  la^e  edition  of  the  English 
poets.  With  the  taste  of  the  public  during  his  retirement 
at   Amwell  he  could   have  little  acquaintance.     He  had 
lived  here  about  twenty  years,  at  a  distance  from,  any  lite- 
rary  society  or  information.     His  reading  was  chiefly  con- 
fined to  books  of  taste  and  criticism;  but  the  latter  at  that 
time  were  not  many  nor  very  valuable.     In  the  ancient  or 
modern  languages  it  does  not  appear  that  he  made  any 
progress.     Mr.  Hoole  thinks  he  knew  very  little  of  Latin, 
and  had  no  knowledge  of  either  French  or  Italian.     Those 
who  know  of  what  importance  it  is  to  improve  genius  by 
study,  will  regret  that  such  a  man  was  left,  in  the  pliable 
days  of  youth,  without  any  acquaintance ,  with  the  noble 
models  on  which  English  poets  have  been  formed.     They 
will  yet  more  regret,  that  the  cause  of  this  distance  frooi 
literary  ^society,    the  source  of  all    generous  and  useful 
emulation,    was  a  superstitious  dread  of  the   small-pox^ 
already  mentioned   as  obstructing  his  early  studies,  and 
which  continued  to  prevail  with  his  parents  to  such  a  de- 
gree, that  although  at  the  distance  of  only  twenty  miles^ 
their  son  had  been  permitted  to  visit  London  but  once  in 
twenty  years.    His  chief  occupation,  when  not  in  a  humour 
10  study,  was  in  cultivating  a  garden,  for  which  he  had 

a??  SCOTT*. 

a  particular  fondness^  and  at  length  rendered  one  of  tb^ 
ipost  attractive  objects  tp  the  visitors  of  Amwell. 

About  the  year  1760,  be  began  to  make  occasional, 
though  cautious  and  short  visits  to  Loudon ;  and  in  tbc 
spring  of  this  year,  published  his  **  Four  Elegies,  DfBscrip- 
tive  and  Moral/'  epithets  which  may  be  applied  to  almost 
all  bis  poetry.  These  were  very  favourably  received,  and 
not  only  praised  by  the  public  critics,  but  received  the  va- 
Juable  commendations  of  Dr.  Young,,  Mrs.  Talbot,  and 
Mrs.  Carter,  who  ]pved  poetry,  and  loved  it  roost  when  in 
cpnjqnction  vyith  piety.  But  for  many  years  he  abstained 
from  farther  publication,  determined  to  put  in  np.  claiais 
that  were  not  strengthened  by  the  utmost  industry  and  frer 
fjueqt  and  careful  revisal.  This,  probably,  in  soipp  Cfkse^ 
checked  his  enthusiasm,  ai)d  gave  to  his  longer  poen^  an 
fipp^^r^nce  of  labour.  ♦, 

In  1761,  during  the  prevalence  of  the  ^mall-pox  at 
llYar^y  he  re^ioved  to  St.  Margaret's,  a  small  hamlet  about 
tvvo  milos  distant  from  Amwell,  where,  Mr.  Hool^  informs 
V9^  he  became  first  acquainted  with  him,  and  s£^w  the  first 
jsketph  of  bis  poem  of  Amwell,  to  which  he  th^n  gave  the 
title  of  **  A  Prospect  of  Ware  J^nd  the  Country  a^acent." 
Ip  1 76^,  he  becamp  sensible  of  (he  many  disadvantages  h^ 
labpured  upder  by  living  in  continual  dread  of  the  spiall- 
pox,  and  h^(l  the  courage  to  submit  to  the  operation  of 
inoculation,  which  was  successfully. performed  by  t^ie  lat^ 
^aron  Dim^d^le.  He  now  visited  London  more  frequently^ 
and  Mr.  Hoole  had  the  satisfaction  to  introduce  him,  among 
others,  tp  J)r,  Johnson.  <^  Notwithstanding  the  great  dif*- 
ferf  qce  of  their  political  principles,  Scott  had  too  much 
)ovp  ifor  gopdness  and  genius,  npt  to  be  highly  gratified  ip 
the  opportunity  of  cultivating  a  friendship  with  that  grei^t^ 
lexemplar  of  human  virtues,  and  that  great  veteran  of  hur 
paan  learning ;  while  the  doctor,  with  a  mind  sujperior  t9 
the  distinction  of  party,  delighted  with  equ^l  cprpplacency 
ii^  the  amiable  qualities  pf  Scott,  of  whqm  he  ^Iwfiys  spokf 
with  feeling,  regard." 

In  1767,  he  married  Sarah  Frogley,  tfae^'daughter  of  bi« 
early  friend  and  adviser  ^harles  Frogley-  l^he  bride  wa% 
previous  to  her  nuptials,  admitted  a  member  of  the  society 
of  quakers.  For  her  father  he  ever  preserved  the  highest 
^respect,  and  seems  to  have  written  bis  Eleventh  Ode  with 
a  view  to  relieve  the  mind  of  that  worthy  man  from  the 

SCOTT.  ft» 

apprehension  of  being  neglected  by  him.  The  eonnec-^ 
tton  be  bad  formed  in  bis  family^  bowever,  was  not  of  long 
duration.  His  vrife  died  in  childbed  in  1768|  and  tbe  same 
year  be  lost  his  father  and  bis  infant-child.  For  some  time 
be  was  inconsolable^  and  removed  from  Amwell^  where  so 
many  objects  excited  the  bitter  remembrance  of  all  he  held 
dear,  to  the  bouse  of  a  friend  at:  Upton.  Here^  when  time 
and  reflection  bad  mellowed  his  grief,  be  hononred  tbe 
memory  of  his  wife  by  an  elegy  in  which  tenderness  and 
Jove  are  expressed  in  ^he  geonine  language  of  nature*  As 
he  did  not  wish  to  make  a  parade  of  bis  private  feelings,  a 
few  copies  only  of  this  elegy  were  given  to  his  friends,  nor 
would  be  ever  suffer  it  to  be  published  for  sale.  It  pro* 
cured  him  the  praise  of  Dr.  Hiiwkeswortfa,  and  the  friend^ 
ship  of  Dr.  Langborne^  who,  about  this  time^  bad  be^ii 
viiifed  by  a  similar  calamity.  His  mother,  it  ought  to  bav# 
b^en  mentioned,  died  in  1766;  and,  in  1769^  be  lost  bis 
friend  and  correspondent  Mr.  Turner. 

In  November  1770,  be  married  his  second  wife,  Mary  d^ 
HornCy  daughter  of  tbe  late  Abraham  de  Home :  *'  a  lady 
whose  amiable  qualities  promised  bim  many  years  of  un^ 
interrupted  happiness.*'  During  bis  visit  in  London^  fae 
increased  his  literary  circle  of  friends  by  an  introduction 
io  Mrs.  Montagu's  parties.  Among  those  who  principally 
noticed  bim  with  respect,  were  lord  Lyttelton^  sir  William 
Jones,  Mr.  Potter,  Mr.  Micklcj  and  Dr.  Beattie^  who  paid 
bim  a  cordial  visit  at  Amwell  in  1773,  and  again  in  1781, 
and  became  one  of  bis  correspondents. 

Although  we  have  bitberto  contemplated  our  author  as  a 
student  and  occasional  poet»  be  rendered  himself  more 
conspicuous  as  one  of  tbose  reflectors  on  public  affiurs 
who  employ  mocb  of  their  time  in  endeavouring  to  be  use>- 
ful.  Among  other  subjects,  his  attention  bad  often  been 
called  to  that  glaring  defect  in  human  polity,  the  state  of 
tbe  poor;  and  having  revolved  the  subject  in  bis  mind^ 
vritb  the  assistance  of  many  personal  inquiries,  be  published 
in  177S  ^<  Observations  on  tbe  present  state  of  tbe  paro^ 
cbial  and  vagrant  Poor."  It  is  needless  to  add,  that  bis 
advice  in  this  matter  was  rather  approved  than  followed. 
Some  of  his  propositions,  indeed,  were  incorporated  in 
Mr.  Gilbert^s  Bill,  in  1782 ;  but  the  whole  was  lost  for  want 
of  parliamentary  support 

In  1776  he  published  bis  <' Amwell/'  a  descriptive  poemy 
which  be  had  long  been  preparing,  and  in  wbicb  be  fondly 

tM  •  SCOTT. 

hoped  to  immortalize  his  favoarite  viHage.  Hii  bibgrap^ 
pher,  however;  has  amply  demonstrated  the  impossibitity 
df  communicating^  local  enthusiasm  by  any  attempt  of  this 
kind.  The  reflections  occasionally  introduced,  and  the 
historical  or  encomiastic  digressions,  are  generally  selected 
as  the  most  pleasing  passages  in  descriptive  poetry ;  but  all 
that  '|s  really  descriptive,  all  that  would  reiiK)ve  us  from 
the  closet  to  the  scene,  is  a  hopeless  attempt  to  do  that  by 
the  pen  which  can  only  be  done  by  the  pencil. 

At  such  intervals  as  our  author  could  spare,  he  wrote 
various  anonymous  pamphlets  and  essays,  on  miscellaneous 
subjects,  and  is  said  to  have -appeared  among  the  enemies 
of  the  measures  of  government  who  answered  Dr.  Johnson's 
<*  Patriot,"  "  False  Alarm,"  and  "  Taxation  no  Tyranny." 
On  the  commencement  of  the  Rowleian  controversy^  he 
tooji  the  part  of  Chatterton,  and  was  among  the  first  who 
questioned  the  authenticity  of  the  poems  ascribed  to  Row- 
ley. This  he  discussed  in  some  letters  inserted  in  tbe.Gen* 
tleman's  Magazine.  Of  course  he  was  led  to  admire  the 
wonderful  powers  of  the  young  impostor,  and  in  his  XXIst 
ode  pays  a  poetical  tribute  to  his  memory^  in  which,  with 
others  of  his  br^ren  at  that  time,  he  censures  the  unfeel- 
ing rich  for  depriving  their  country  oC  a  new  Sbakspeare 
or  Milton.  - 

These,  however,  were  his  amusements ;  the  more  valu- 
able part  of  his  time  was  devoted  to  such  public  business  as 
is  ever  best  conducted  hy  men  of  his  pure  and  independent 
character.  He  gave  regular  attendance  at  turnpike-meet- 
ings^ navigation  trusts,  and  commissions  of  land  tax"*,  and 
proposed  and  carried  various  scheme^of  local  improvement^ 
.particularly  the  fine  road  between  Ware  and  Hertford,  and 
some  useful  alterations  ii\  the  streets  dF  Ware.  AmK)ng  bia 
neighbours  he  frequently,  by  a  judicious  interference  or 
.arbitration,  ^checked  that  spirit  of  litigation  which  destroys 
the  felicity  of  a  country  life.  During  the  meritorious  em- 
^ployments  of  his  public  and  political  life,  it  can  only  be 
imputed  to  him  that  in  bis  zeal  for  the  principles  he  es*- 
poused,  he  sometimes  betrayed  too  great  warmth ;  and  in 


*  When  once  asked  whether  he  was  that  an  oath  and  an  affirmatWe  are  sub- 
in  the  commission  of  the  peace,  he  stantialty  the  same,  and  that  the  mode 
answered  without  hesitation  that  his  of  appeal,  to  the  Searcher  of  hearts  is 
principal  objection  to  taking  the  oath,  of  little  consequence,  though  he  cer- 
was  the  offence,  which  it  would  give  to  tainly  preferred  the  ktter.  Monthly 
ihM  Socieiy.     His   own  opinion  was,  KeTiew,  toI.  YII.  N.  S.  p.  dd*7. 

a.  C  O  T  T.  £«1 

answering  Dr.  Johnson's  pamphlets,  it  Jias  been  altowed 
that  he  made  use  of  expressions  which  would  better  beconae 
those  who  did  not  know  the  worth  of  that  excellent  cba- 

In  1778^  he  published  a  work  of  great  labour  and  oti« 
lity»  entitled  ^^  A  Digest  of  the  Highway  and  general  Turn- 
pike laws."  In  this  compilation,  Mr.  Hoole  informs  us, 
all  the  acts  of  parliament  in  force  are  collected  together, 
and  placed  in  one  point  of  view;  their  contents  are  ar- 
ranged under  distinct  heads,  with  the  addition  of  many 
notes,  and  an  appendix  on  the  construction  and  preserva- 
tion of  public  roads,  probably  the  only  scientific  treatise  on 
the  subject  A  part  of  this  work  appeared  in  1773,  ui^der 
the. title  of  a  ^^ Digest  of  the  Highway  Laws.'*  In  the 
fiipring  of  1782,  be  published  what  he  had  long  projected,  a 
volume  of  poetry,  including  his  elegies,  Amwell,  and  a 
great  variety  of  hitherto  unpublished  pieces.  On  this  vo« 
lunxe  it  is  evident  he  had  bestowed  great  pains,  and  added 
the  decorations  of  some  beautiful  engravings.  A  very  fa- 
vourable account  was  given  of  the  whole  of  its  contents  in 
the  Monthly  Review ;  but  the  Critical  having  taken  some 
personal .  libertjes  with  the  author,  hinting  that  the  orna-  . 
jsients  were  not  quite  suitable  to  the  plainness  and  simpli* 
city  of  a  quaker,  Mr.  Scott  thought  proper  to  publish  a  let- 
ter addressed  to  the  authors  of  that  journal,  in  which  he 
expostulated  with  them  on  their  conduct,  and  defended  his 
poetry.  Every  friend,  however,  must  wish  he  had  passed 
over  their  strictures  in  silence.  .His  defence  of  bis  poetry 
betrays  him  into  the  error  of  which  he  complained,  and  we 
see  far  more  of  the  conceited  egotist  than  could  have  been, 
supposed  to  belong  to  his  simple  and  humble  character. 

After  this  contest,  he  began  to  prepare  a  work  of  the 
critical  kind.  He  had  been  dissatisfied  with  some  of  Dr. 
Johnson's  Lives  of  the  Poets,  and  had  aoutssed  in  the  course 
of- bis  own  reading  and  reflection,  a  number  of  observations 
on  Denham,  Milton,  Pope,  Dyer,  Goldsmith,  andvThoni- 
son,.  which  he  sent  to  the  press,  under  the.  title  of  "Cri- 
tical'Essays,"  but  did  not  live  to  publish  them.  On  the 
25ih  of  October  1783,  he  accompanied  Mrs.  Scott  to  Lon- 
don for  the  benefit  of  medical  advice  for  a  complaint  under 
which  she  laboured  at  that  time ;  but  on  the  1st  of  Decem- 
ber, while  at  his  house  at  RadclifF,  he  was  attacked  by  a 
putrid  fever,  which  proved  fatal  on  the  12th  of  that  mouth, 
and  he  was  interred  on  the  18th  in  the  Quaker  burying- 

S82  SCOT  T. 

ground  at  Radcliff.  He  bad  arrived  at  his  fifty-fourth  year, 
and  left  behind  a  widow  and  a  daughter,  their  only  childi 
then  about  six  years  old.  His  death  was  the  more  lament-* 
ed  as  he  was  in  the  vigour  of  life,  and  had  the  prospect  of 
many  years  of  usefulness.  ^'  In  his  person  he  was  tall  and 
ulender,.  but  his  limbs  were  remarkably  strong  and  museum 
Jar :  he  was  very  active,  and  delighted  much  in  the  ezer-* 
cise  of  walking ;  his  countenance  was  cheerful  and  ani« 
mated.''  The  portrait  prefixed  to  bis  works  is  not  a  very 
correct  likeness,  nor  was  .he  himself  satisfied  with  it. 
-  His  public  and  private  character  appears  to  have  been  ia 
every  respect  worthy  of  imitation,  but  what  his  religious 
opinions  were,  except  that  he  cherished  a  general  reve- 
rence for  piety,  is  somewhat  doubtful.  Professedly,  he 
was  one  of  the  society  called  Quakers,  but  the  paper  which 
that  society,  or  some  of  his  relations,  thought  it  necessary 
to  publish  after  his  death,  seems  to  intimate  that  in  their 
opinion,  and  finally  in  his  own,  bis  practice  had  not  in  all 
respects  heen  consistent. 

His  <^  Critical  Essays"  were  published  in  1795  by  Mr. 
Hoole,  who  prefixed  a  life  written  with  much  affection,  yet 
¥ritb  impartiality.  As  a  poet,  Mr.  Scott  seems  to  rank 
fuaiong  those  who  possess  genius  in  a  moderate  degree,  who 
please  by  short, efforts  and  limited  inspirations,  but  whose 
taleuts^  are  better  displayed  in  moral  reflection  and  pathetie 
sentiment  than  flights  of  fancy.  His  **  Elegies,'*  as  they 
vrere  the  first,  are  among  the  best  of  his  perforiodniees. 
Simplicity  appears  to  have  been  his  general  aim,  and  he 
was  of  opinion  that  it  was  too  little  studied  by  modern 
ifriters«  In  the  *^  Mexican  prophecy,"  however,  and  in 
.  *^  Serim/'  there  is  a  fire  and  spirit  worthy  of  the  highest 
•chool.  Hifs  *^  Amwell"  will  ever  deserve  a  distinguished 
place  among  descriptive  poems^  but  it  is  liable  to  all  the 
objections  attached  to  descriptive  poetry.  His  feeblest 
effort  is  the  *^  Essay  on  Painting,"  a  hasty  sketch,  in  which 
be  professed  himself,  and  that  not  in  very  humble  term^, 
to  be  the  rival  of  Hayley.  Upon  the  whole^  however,  the 
vein  of  pious  and  moral  reflection,  and  the  benevolence 
and  pbiknifhropy  which  pervade  all  his  poems,  will  con* 
tini»e  to  make  them  acceptable  to  those  who  read  to  be  im- 
proved, and  are  of  opinion  that  pleasure  b  not  the  sole  end. 
«f  poetry.* 

>  JUC»  bf  Mr,  JBoQl«.-*£D9lii)i  Poets,  1810.  mw  tdiW  31  vsli.  Sva. 

s  CO  T,  m 


SCOT  {Micju^i),  of  Balwirie,  a  learoed  Scotch  autiior 
of  the  fifteenth  century^  made  the  tour  of  France  ^nd  Ger«> 
jDiany,  and  was  receivi^d  with  spme  diitinction  at  tho  court 
of  thq  eqf^p^rqr  Frederick  II.  Having  travailed  enough  to 
gratify  his  curiosity,  b^  returned  to  Scotland,  and  gave 
himself  up  to  study  afid  ^jontemplatioo.  Ha  was  ^killed  in 
Unguages;  and^  considering  the  age  iti  which  be  livedo 
vlfi^  no  mean  proficient  in  philosophy,  mathenaatics,  and 
fnedicine.  He  transUlod  into  L^atin  from  the  Arabic^  the 
history  of  animals  by  the  celebrated  physician  Avicenna. 
He  published  the  whole  works  of  Aristotle,  with  notes,  and 
aflfected  much  to  reason  on  the  principles  of  that  great  phir 
losopber,  He  wrote  a  book  concerning  ^'  The  Secrets  of 
Nature,"  and  a  tract  on  ^^►The  nature  of  the  Stm  and  Moon," 
in  \yhich  be  shews  bis  belief  in  tho  philosopher's  stpne. 
He  likewise  published  what  he  called  *^  Mensa  Philosoi- 
phica,"  a  treatise  replete  with  a9trology  and  chiromancy. 
He  was  much  admired  in  his  day,  and  was  even  suspected 
of  magic,  and  had  Roger  Bacon  and  Cornelius  Agrippa 
for  his  panegyrists.' 

SCOT  (R£ynoldb),  a  learned  English  gentleipan,  waa 
a  younger  son  of  sir  John  Scot,  of  Scot's-ball,  near  Smeeth 
in  Kent»  where  he  was  probably  born ;  and,  at  about  seven*^ 
teen,  sent  to  Hart-hall,  in  Oxford.  He  retired  to  his  native 
country  without  taking  a  degree,  and  settled  at  Smeeth ; 
and,  marrying  soon  after,  gave  himself  up  solely  to  read- 
ing, to  the  perusing  of  obscure  authors,  which  bad  by  the 
generality  of  scholars  been  neglected,  and  at  times  of  lei^- 
sure  to  husbandry  and  gairdening.  In  157^,  he  published 
a  second  edition,  for  we  know  nothing  of  the  first,  of  "A 
perfect  platform  of  a  Hop* garden,''  &c.  iii  4to;  and,  in 
1584,  another  work,  which  shewed  the  great  depth  of.hia 
researches,  and  the  uncommon  extent  of  bis  learning,  en^- 
titled ."  The  Discoverie  of  Witchcraft,"  &c.  reprinted  in 
1651,  4to,  with  this  title:  **  Scot's  Discovery  of  Witch- 
craft ;  proving  the  common  opinion  of  witches  contracting 
with  devils,  spirits,  familiars,  and  their  power  to  kill,  tor- 
pient,  and  consume,  the  bodies  of  tnen,  women,  and  chil- 
dren, or  other  creatures,  by  diseases  or  otherwise^  their 
flying  in  the  air,  &c*  to  be  but  imaginary  erroneous  concept 
tioos  a,nd  novelties.  Wherein  also  the  practices  of  witch* 
mongers,,  conjurors,  inchanters,  soothsayers,  also  the  de* 

1  EQcycL  3rltsimica.-»Hac](enzi«'s  Lifes* 

284  SCOT. 

Idsions  of  astrology,  alchemy,  legerdemain,  and  many  other 
things,  are  opened,  that  have  long  lain  hidden,  though 
very-  necessary  to  be  known  for  the  undeceiving  df  judges, 
justices,  and  juries,  and  for  the  preservation  of  poor  peo- 
ple, &c.  ,  With  a  treatise  upon  the  nature  of  spirits  and 
devils,"  &c/  In  the  preface  to  the  reader  he  declares,  that 
4iis  design' in  this  undertaking,  was  "  first,  that  the  glory 
of  God  be  not  so  abridged  ana  abased,  as  to  be  thrust  into 
the  hand  or  lip  of  a  lewd  old  woman,  whereby  the  work^of 
the  Creator  should  be  attributed  to  the  power  of  a  crea- 
ture :  secondly,  that  the  religion  of  the  gospel  may  be  seen 
to  stand  Without  such  peevish  trumpery  :  thirdly,  that  fa- 
vour and  Christian  compassion  be  rather  used,  towards 
these  poor  souls,  than  rigour  and  extremity,'*  &c. 

A  doctrine  of  this  nature,  advanced  in  an  age  when  the 
reality  of  witches  was  so  universally  believed,  that  even 
the  great  bishop  Jewel,  touching  upon  the  subject  in  a 
sermon  before  queen ' Elizabeth,  could  "pray  God  they 
-might  never  practise  farther  than  upon  the  subject,"  ex- 
posed the  author  to  every  species  of  obloquy  and  persecu- 
tion ;  and^ccordingly  Voetius,  a  foreign  divine,  informs 
lis  in  his  **  Disput.  Theolog."  vol.  III.  p.  564,  though  Wood 
says  nothing  of  it,  that  his  book  was  actually  burnt.     It 
'was  also  opposed,  and,  as  it  should  seem,  by  great  autho- 
rity too :    for,  James  I.  in  the  preface  to  his  **  Demono- 
iogie,"  printed  first  at  Edinburgh  in  1597,  and  afterwards 
•at  London  in  1603,  observes,  that  he  "  wrote  that  book 
x'hiefly  against  the  damnable  opinions  of  Wierus  and  Scott; 
the  latter  of  whom  is  not  ashamed,"  the  king  says,  **  in 
public  print  to  deny,  that  there  can  be*  such  a  thing  as 
Witchcraft,  and  so  maintains  the  old  error  of  the  Sadducees 
in  the  denying  of  spirits,"  an  inference  which  by  no  means 
follows  from  Scot*s  premises.     Dr.  John  Rayiiolds,  in  his 
*'  Prselectiones  upon  the  Apocrypha,"  animadverts  on  se- 
veral passages  in  Scot's  "  Discovery ;"   Meric  Casaubon 
treats  him  as  an  illiterate  person;  and  Mr. Joseph  Glanvil, 
one  of  the  greatest  advocates  for  witchcraft,  aflSrms,  that 
'<  Mr.  Stot  doth  little  but  tell  odd  tales  and  silly  legends, 
which  he  confutes  and  laughs  at,  and  pretends  this  to  be  a 
confutation  of  the  being  of  witches  and  apparitions:  in  all 
which  his  reasonings  are  trifling  and  childish ;  and,  when 
iie  ventures  at  philosophy,  he  is  little  better  than  absurd." 
Scot  did  not  live  to  see  the  full  effects  of  his  endeavours  to 
abate  the  prejudices  of  the  times/  nor  could  this  indeed  ht 

SCOT.  285  . 

the  work  of  a  single  hand,  contending  against  the  king  on  * 
the  throne,  many  very  learned  men,  almost  the  whole  body 
of  the  people,  and  what  was  the  last  to  yield,  the  .statute-* 

'  law  of  the  land.  His  work,  however,  was  reprinted  in  16^1, 
4to,  and  in  1665,  folio,  with  additions,  and  was  translated 
into  German. 

Thi9  sensible,  learned,  upright,  and  pious  man  (for  we 
know  ths^t  he  possessed  the  two  first  of  these  qualities,  and 
be  is  universally  allowed  to  have  had  also  the  two  last)  died 
in  1599,  add  was  buried  among  his  ancestors  in  the 
church  at  Smeeih. ' 

SCOT,  alias  ROTH&IIAM  (Thomas),  a  munificent, 
benefactor  to  Lincoln  college,  .OsCford,  was  born  at  Rother* 
am,  in  Yorkshire^  from  whence  he  took  his  name,  but  that- 
of  his  family  appear^  to  have  been  Scot.  He  rOse  by  bis 
talents  and  learning  to  the  highest  ranks  in  church  and. 
state,  having  been  successively  fellow  of  King's  college, 
Cambridge,  master  of  Pembroke  Hall,  chancellor  of  that 
university,  prebendary  of  Sarum,  chaplain  to  kjng  Edward. 
ly.  provost  of  Beverley,  keeper  of  the  Privy  Seal,  seqre- 
tary  to  four  kings,  bishop  of  Rochester  and  Lincoln,  arch«. 

.  bishop  of  York,  and  lord  chancellor.  His  buildings  at 
Cambridge,  Whitehall,  Southwell,  and  Thorp,  are  eminent 
proofs  of  his  magnificent  taste  and  spirit. 

He  was  promoted  to  the  see  of  Lincoln  in  1471,  and  we 
learn  from  his  preface  to  his  body  of  statutes,  that  a  visit  . 
through  his  diocese,  in  which  Oxford  then  was,  proved  the 
occasion  of  his  liberality  to  Lincoln  college.  On  his  ar- 
rival there,  in  1474,  John  Tristroppe,  the  third  rector  of 
that  society,  preached  the  visitation  sermon  from  Psalm 
Ixxx.  14,  15.  ^^  Behold  and  visit  this  vine,  and  the  vine- 
yard which  thy  right  hand  hath  planted,  &c."  In  this 
discourse,  which,  as  usual,,  was  delivered  in  Latin,  the 
preacher  addressed  his  particular  requests  to  the  bishop, 
exhorting  him  to  complete  his  college,  now  imperfect  and 
defective  both  in  buildings  and  government.  Rotheram  is 
said  to  have  been  so  well  pleased  with  the  application  of 
the  text  and  subject,  that  he  stood  up  and  declared  that  he 
would  do  what  was  desireci  Accordingly,  besides  what  be 
contributed  to  the  buildings,  he  increased  the  number  of 
fellows  from  seven  to  twelve,  and  gave  them  the  livings  of^ 
of  Twyford  in  Buckinghamshire^    and  Long    Combe  in 

»  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.— Oldys's  Librarian,  p.  213.— See  his  epitaj^h  on  Sir  Thomas 
Scot^  ip  Peck^a  CronweU  ColUctions^  p.  3S.^Q«ii»  Diet, 

286  s  o  o  r. 

Ozfordflhire.  He  formed  ako  in  1479,  a  body  of  statute, 
in  which,  after  noticing  with  an  apparent  degree  of  dts-* 
pleasure,  that  although  Oxford  was  in  the  diocese  of  Lin- 
coln, no  college  bad  yet  made  provision  for  the  natives  of 
that  diocese,  be  enjoined  that  the  rector  should  be  of  the 
diocese  of  Lincoln  or  York,  and  the  fellows  or  scholars 
should  be  persons  born  in  the  dioceses  of  Lincoln  and 
York,  and  one  of  Wells,  with  a  preference,  as  to  those 
from  the  diocese  of  York,  to  his  native  parish  of  Rotheram. 
This  prelate  died  in  1500  at  Cawood,  and  was  buried  in 
the  Chapel  of  St.  Mary,  under  a  marble  tomb  which  he  . 
had  built.  *  .  • 

SCOUGAL  (Hrkry),  an  eminent  Scotch  divine,  and 
second  son  of  Patrick  Scougal,  bishop  of  Aberdeen,  was 
born  June  1650,  at  Salton,  in  East  Lothian,  where  bis 
father,  the  immediate  predecessor  of  Bishop  Burnet,  was 
rector.  His  father,  designing  bim  for  the  sacred  ministry, 
watched  over  his  infant  mind  with  peculiar  care,  and  soon 
bad  the  satisfaction  of  perceiving  the  most  amiable  dispo- 
.sttions  unfold  themselves^  and  his  jinderstanding  rise  at 
once  into  the  vigour  of  manhood.  Relinquishing  the 
amusements  of  youth,  young  Scotigal  applied  to  his  studies 
with  ardour:. and,  agreeably  to  his  father's  wish,  at  an 
early  period  directed  his  thoughts  to  sacred  literature, 
ile  perused  the  bistorical  parts  of  the  bible  with  peculiar 
.pleasure,  and  then  began  to  examine  its  contents  more 
minutely.  He  was  struck  with  the  peculiarities  of  the 
Jewish  dispensation,  and  felt  an  anxiety  to  understand  why 
its  rites  and  ceremonies  were  abolished.  The  nature  and 
evidences  of  the  Christian  religion  also  occupied  his  mind. 
He  perused  se<*mons  with  much  attention,  committed  to 
writing  those  passages  which  must  affected  him,  and  could 
comprehend  and  remember  their  whole  scope.  Nor  was  he 
inattentive  to  polite  literature.  He  read  the  Roman  clas- 
sics, and  made  considerable  proficiency  in  the  Greek, 
Hebrew,  and  other  oriental  languages.  He  was  also  well 
versed  in  bistory  and  mathematics.  His  diversions  were  of 
a  manly  kind.  Afcer  becoming  acquainted  with  Roman 
bistory,  he  formed,  in  concert  with  some  of  his  companion?, 
a  little  senate,  where  orations  of  their  own  composition  were 

At  the  age  of  fifteen  he  entered  the  university,  where 

1  Wood's  Colleges  and  Halls.— -Chalmerses  Hist.  ofOxfurd. 

S  0  O  U  G  A  L.  28T 

he  behaved  with  great  modesty,  sobriety,  and  diltgence. 
He  disliked  the  philosophy  then  taught^  and  applied  him- 
self to  the  study  of  natural  philosophy  :  and  in  conse* 
quence  of  this,  when  he  was  only  about  eighteen  years  of 
age,  he  wrote  the  reflections  and  short  essays  since  pub- 
lished :  which,  though  written  in  his  youth,  and  some  of 
them  left  unfinished,  breathe  a  devotion,  which  show» 
that  his  mind  was  early  impressed  with  the  most  important 
ooRcerns  of  humau  life.  In  all  the  public  meetings  of  the 
students  he  was  unanimously  chosen  president,  and  had  a 
lingular  deference  paid  to  his  judgment.  No  sooner  had 
he  finished  his  courses,  than  he  was  promoted  to  a  profes- 
sorship in  the  university  of  Aberdeen,  where  he  conscien- 
tiously performed  his  duty  in  training  up  the  youth  under 
his  care  in  such  principles  of  religion  and  learning  as  might 
fender  them  ornaments  to  church  and  state.  When  any 
divisions  and  animosities  happened  in  the  society,  he  was 
very  instrumental  in .  reconciling  and  bringing  them  to  a 
good  understanding.  He  maintained  his  authority  among 
the  students  in  such  ^  way  as  to  keep  them  in  awe,  and  at 
the  same  time  to  gain  their  love  and  esteem.  Sunday 
evedings  were  spent  wkh  his  scholars  in  discoursing  of, 
am)  encouraging  religion  in  principle  and  practice.  He 
allotted  a  considerable  part  of  bis  yearly  income  for  the 
poor ;  and  many  indigent  families  of  different  persuasions, 
were  relieved  in  their  difficulties  by  his  bounty,  although 
so  secretly  that  they  knew  not  whence  their  supply  came. 

Having  been  aj  professor  of  philosophy  for  four  years^ 
be  was  at  the  age  of  twenty-three  admitted  into  holy  orders,* 
and  settled  at  Auchterless,  a  small  village  about  twenty 
miles  from  Aberdeen.  Here  his  zeal  and  ability  in  his^ 
great  Master's  service  were  eminently  displayed.  He 
catechised  with  great  plainness  and  affection,  and  used  the 
oiost  endearing  methods  to  recommend  religion  to  his 
bearers;.  He  endeavoured  to  bring  them  to  a  close  attend- 
ance on  public  worship,  and  joined  with  them  himself  at 
the  beginning  of  it  He  revived  the  use  of  lectures,  look- 
ing upon  it  as  very  edifying  to  comment  upon  and  expound 
large  portions  of  scripture.  In  the  twenty-fifth  year  of  hisi 
age,  he  was  appointed  professor  of  divinity  in  the  King's 
college^  Aberdeen,  which  he  at  first  declined,  but  when 
indcicad  to  accept  it,  he  applied  himself  with  zeal  and  dili- 
gence to  the  exercise  of  this  office.  After  he  had  guarded 
bis  pupils  against  th^  common  artifices  of  th^  Roousb  mit-^ 

288  .      S  C  O  tT  G  A  L. 

sionarles  in  making  proselytes,  be  proposed  two  subjects' 
for  public  exercise :.  the  one,  of  the  pastoral  care,  the 
other,  of  casuistical  divinity. 

The  inward  dispositions  of  this  excellent  man  are  best 
seen  in  his  writings,  to  which  his  pioi\s  and  blameless  life 
was  wholly  conformable.     His  days,  however,  were  soon 
numbered :  in  the  twenty-seventh  year  of  his  age,  be  fell 
into  a^  consumption,  which  wasted  him  by  slow  degrees : 
but  during  the  whole  time  of  his  sickness  he  behaved  with, 
the  utmost  resignation,  nor  did  he  ever  shew  the  least  im- 
patience.    He  died  June  20,  1678,  in   the  twenty-eighth 
year  of  his  age,  and  was  buried,  in  King's  college  church,, 
in  Old  Aberdeen.     His  principal  work  is  entitled  ''.  TUei^ 
Life  of  God  in  the  Soul  of  Man,"  which  has  undergone 
many  editions,  and  has  been  thought  alike  valuable  for  the, 
sublime  spirit  of  piety  which  it  breathes,  and  for  the  purity, 
and  elegance  of  its  style.     He  left  his  books  to  tb^,  library^ 
of  his  college,  and  five  thousand  marks  to  the  odice  of  pro- 
fessor of  divinity.     He  composed  a  form.of  morning  and 
evening  service  for  the    cathedral  church   of  Aberdeen, 
which  may  be  seen  in  Orem*s  *'  Description  pf  the  Cha- 
nonry  of  Old  Aberdeen,"  printed  In  No.  3  of.  the  ".  Biblio.-: 
theca    Topographica    Britannica."      His   treatise  on    the 
"  Life  of  God,"  &c.  was  first  printed  in  his  life-time  by 
bishop   Burnet   about    1677,  without  a  name,  which  the 
author's  modesty  studiously  concealed.     It.  went  through. 
sever*nj   subsequent  editions,  and   was  patronised  by  the. 
society   for  promoting  Christian  knowledge,  and  w^  i^e-* 
printed  in   1726  with  the  addition  of  ^'  Nine  discourses,  ou 
important  subjects,"  by  the  same  author,  and  bis  funer^. 
sermon,  by  Dr.  G.  G.  * 

SCRIBONIUS  (Largus),  a  Roman  physician/,  lived  in 
the  reign  of  Claudius,  and  is  said  to  have  accompanied  this, 
emperor  in  his  campaign  in  Britain.     He  wrote  a  treatise 
"  De  Compositione  Medicamentorum,"  which  is*Very  often 
quoted  by  Galen,  but  was  pillaged  by  Marcellus  the  em- 
piric, according  to  Dr.  Freind.     At  a  time  when  it  was  the^ 
practice  of  many   physicians  to   keep  their  compositions 
secret,  Scribonius  published  bis,  find  expressed  great  con- 
fidence in  their  efficacy ;  but  many  of  them  are  trifling,, 
and  founded  in  superstition,  and  his  language  is  so  inferior^, 
to  that  of  bis  age,  that  some  have  supposed  be  wrote  bis 

^  Bibl.  Topo|p.  Britan.-^asd  Encyclop.  Britannica. 

8  C  R  t  B  O  K  t  U  8.      «  88t 

^fot\i  in  Greek,  and  that  it  was  tfanslated  into  Latiti  bj 
tome  later  hand :  but  Freind  and  others  seem  of  a 
difFereftt  opinion^  The  treatise  of  Scribonms  has  been 
»everal  times  reprinted,  and  stands  among  the  *^  Medical 
Artis  Principes'*  of  Henry  Stephens,  1567.^ 

SCRIMZ£Oft  (H£NRY),  one  of  the  most  learned  caeil 
t>f  the  sixteenth  century^  was  born  at  Dundee  in  Scotland^ 
in  1506,  and  after  making  great  progress  in  the  Greek  and 
Latin  languages  at  the  grammar  school  of  that  place,  studied 
}>failosopby  at  St«  Andrew's  university  with  equal  succes$i 
He  afterwards  studied  civil  law  at  Paris  and  Bourges.  At 
this  latter  city  be  became  acquainted  with  the  Greek  pro^ 
fessot*,  James  Amiof,  who  recommended  him  to  be  tutor  to 
Iwoyoting  gentlemen;  and  this  served  also  to  introduce  hiok 
to  Bernard  Bometei,  bishop  of  Rennes,  a  celebrated  poIiti-»> 
cal  character)  who  invited  Mr.  Scrimzeor  to  accompanj^ 
him  to  Italy.  There  he  became  acqtiainted  with  the  most 
distinguished  scholars  of  the  country.  The  death  of  the 
noted  Francis  Spira  *  happened  during  his  visit  at  Padua^ 
and  as  the  charatter  and  conduct  of  this  remarkable  person 
at  that  time  engaged  the  attention  of  the  worId>  Mu 
Scrimzeor  is  said  to  have  collected  memoira  of  him^  which> 
iM>wev^  does  not  appear  in  the  catalogue  of  his  works. 

After  he  had  stored  his  mind  with  the  literature  of  foreign 
countries^  and  satisfied  his  curiosity  as  a  traveller^  it  was 
his  intention  to  have  revisited  Scotland ;  but,  on  his  jour« 
ney  horheward,  through  Geneva,  the  syndics  and  other 
naagistrates  requested  him  to  set  up  the  professipn  of  phi* 
losophy  in  that  city  ;  promising  a  suitable  compensation. 
He  accepted  the  proposal,  and  established  the  philosophical 

#  Francis  ^pira  «ra8  a  lawyer  of  g^eat  p\ie&%  Shoitly  after  he  fell  into  a 
Irepi^tatton  at  Cittadella  in  the  Venetian  deep  iQelancholy,  lost  bis  health,  and 
State,  at  the  fateginnifkg  pf  th«  sixteenth  was  reiQoyed  to  Padaa  for  the  ad- 
ceotury.  He  bad  imbibed  the  prin«  tice  of  physicians  and  divines;  but 
eiplet  of  the  Aefbmiation,  and  was  ac»  bis  disorders  augmented.  The  re- 
cused before  iobn  de  la  Cas8>  areh-  canlation,  which  he  said  he  had  mada 
bisbo^  of  BeneventOy  the  pope*ii  nuA-  Anom  cowardice  and'  interest,  AUed  hit 
vio  at  Venice.  He  made  aome  coti-  mind  with  continual  horror  and  remorse^ 
cessionSi  and  asked  fmtdon  of  the  pa^^  and  no  means  being  found  to  restore 
jpal  mififilKcfr  for  Mf  crirorsw  But  the  teither  his  health  or  peace  of  mind,  ha 
mincio  inSHttetfapova  public  rtfcanta-  fell  a  victim  to  his  miserable  situatiou 
tkfa*  Spira  was  exceedingly  averse  to  in  1548.-«^Collier's  Diet.  art.  Spira. 
Ifala  meaauris  but  at  the  pressing  in-  There  have  been  many  editions  of  a 
fftancea  of  hh  wife  and  his  friendli,  who  '*■  Life  of  Spira^  published  in  England 
represented  to.  him,  that  he  must  lose  and  Scotland,  as  a  *^  warning  to  apos- 
his  practice  and  rtfin  bis  affairs  by  tatesv" 
ptfftisting  against  it,  he  at  last  com- 

1  Freiad's  Hiftw  of  Pbysi<!.-^EIoy  Diet.  Hiil. 

Vol.  XXVII.  W 

290  S  C  R  I  M  Z  £  O  Rr 

chair  ;  but  after  he  had  taught  for  some  time  at  Genera,  a 
fire  broke  out  in  his  neighbourhood,  by  which'  bis  hodse 
was  consumed',  and  he  himself,  reduced -to  great  distress. 
At  this  time  flourished  at  Augsburg  that  famous  mercantiie 
family,  the  Fuggers.  Uiric  Fugger,  its  then  represents* 
live,  a  man  possessed  of  prodigious  wealth,  and  a  munifi- 
cent patron  of  learned  men,  having  heard  of  the  misfor" 
tune  which  had  be/alien  Mr.  Scrimzeor,  immediately  sent 
him  a  pressing  accept  an  asylum  beneath  his 
roof  till  his  affairs  could  be  re-established.'  Mr.  Scrinazeor, 
gladly  availing  himself  of  such  a  hospitable  kindness,  lostnio 
time  in  going  to  Germany. 

Whilst  residing  at  Augsburg  with  -Mr.  Fugger,  he  was 
much  employed  in  augmenting  his  patron's  library  by  vast 
collections,  purchased  from  every  corner  of  Europe,  par- 
ticularly manuscripts  of  the  Greek  and  Latin  authors.  He 
also  composed  many  works  of  great  learning  and  ingenuity, 
whilst  he  continued  in  a  situation  so  peculiarly  agreeable 
%o  the  views  and  habits  of  a  scholar ;  and  when  he  was  de- 
sirous of  returning  to  Geneva  to  print  them,  Fugger  re- 
C^ommended  him,  for  this  purpose,  to  the  very  learned 
flenry  Stephens,  one  of  his  pensioners. 

Immediately  on  bis  arrival  at  Geneva,  1563,  be  was 
earnestly  solicited  by  the  magistrates  to  resume  the  chair 
of  philosophy.  With  this  he  complied,  and  notwithstand- 
ing the  dedication  of  much  of  his  time  to  the  study  of  phy- 
sics, he,  two  years  afterwards,  instituted  a  course  of  lectures 
in  the  civil  law,  and  had  the  honour  of  being  its  first  pro- 
fessor at  Geneva.  Being  now  settled  here,  he  intended 
to  have  printed  his  various  works,  but  a  suspicion  which 
Henry  Stephens  entertained,  that  it  was  his  intention  to 
set  up  a  rival  press  at  Geneva,  occasioned  great  dissentions 
between  them.  The  result  of  the  dispute  was,  that  almost 
all  Scriinzeor's  publications  were  ppsthumous.  Among 
Uiem  are  critical  and  explanatory  notes  upon  Athenaeus*; 
>*  Deipnosophists,"  published  by  Isaac  Casaubon  at  Ley* 
den  in  1600,  but  without  distinguishing  his  own  notes  from 
those  of  Scrimzeor;  also  a  commentary  and  emendations 
of  Strabo,  which  were  published  in  Casaubon's  edition  of 
that, geographer^  1620,  but  likewise  without  acknowledging 
the  assistance  he  derived  from  Scrimzeor.  Scrimzeor  col- 
lated different  manuscripts  of  all  the  works  of  Plutarch, 
probably  with  a  view  to  an  edition  of  that  author,  and  also 
the  ten  books  oti  Diogenes  Laertius  on  the  lives  of  the  phi- 

S  C  R  I  M  2  E  O  R.  .  fl9t 

losophers.  <  His  corrected  text  of  this  autbor,  with  t^otei 
full  of  erudition,  came  into  Casaubon's  possession,  and  is 
supposed  to  have  contributed  much  to  the  value. of  his 
edition  of  Laertius,  printed  at  Paris  in  1593.  The  works 
of  Phornutus  and  Palaephatus  were  also  among  the  collar' 
ttons  of  Mr.  Scrimzeor.  To  the  latter  of  these  authors  he 
made  such  cotlsiderable  additions  that  the  work  became 
partly  his  oWn;  The  manuscripts  of  both  these  were  for 
some  time  preserved  in  the  library  of  sir  Peter  Young,  after 
that  of  liis  uncle  Scrimzeor,  which  was  brought  into  Scot- 
land in  1573,  had  been  added  to  it.  What  became  of  this 
valuable  bequest  at  the  death  of  the  former,  is  not  known« 
Our  learned  philologer  left  also  behind  him,  in  manuscript, 
the  orations  of  Demosthenes,  ^schines,  and  Cicero,  and  the 
Ecclesiastical  History  of  Eusebius,  all  carefully  collated ; 
and  among,  his  literary  remains^  vyas  a  collection  of  his' 
Latin  epistles.  But  of  the  many  performances  which  had 
exercised  his  pen,  'it  does  not  appear  that  any  were  pub- 
lished by  himself  but  his  translation  of  ^^Justinian's  Novels'' 
into  Greek.  This  was  printed  at  Paris  in  1558,  and  agaii\^ 
with  Holoahder's  Latin  version  at  Antwerp  in  1575.  This 
work  has  been  highly  extolled  both  for  the  purity  of  its 
language  and  the  accuracy  of  its  execution.  He  wrote 
also  a  Latin  translation  of  *'  The  Basilica,"  or  Basilics,  a 
collection  of  Roman  Laws,  which  the  Eastern  emperors 
Basil  and  Leo,  who  reigned  in  the  fifth  century,-  com- 
manded to  be  translated  into  Grefek,  and  which  preserved 
their  authority  till  the  dissolution  of  the  Eastern  empire. 

Almost  the  whole  of  his  life,  although  he  arrived  at  old 
age/  was  spent  in  his  library.  The  time  of  his  death  is 
uncertain ;  but  it  appears  most  likely,  from  a  comparison 
of  different  accounts,  that  it  happened  very  near  the  ex- 
piration of  1571,  or  at  the  beginning  of  the  succeeding 
year,  about  the  sixty-sixth  year  of  his  age.  He  died^ 
city  of  Geneva/ 

•  SCRIVERIUS,  or  SCHRYVER  (Peter),  a  consider- 
able philologer  and  poet,  was  born  at  Harlem  in  1576. 
He  was  educated  at  Harlem  and  at  Leyden,  where  he  read 
law  in  his  early  days,  but  devoted  himself*  afterwards  to  a 
private  and  studious  life^  which  ended  April  30,  1660,  in 
the  .eight}'-fourtb  year  of  his  age.     His  works  are  :  ^*  Ba- 

I  Mackenzie's  Scatck  Writers,  vol.  lI.^Life  by  Mr.  Lettice,  in  Euroyu  Mef. 
Ar  1795. 

U  3 

t»9  S  C  R  I  Y  E  R  I  U  S. 

tavia  illustrata.''     ^*  Batarise  comitiimq;.  ooiDiuti  Historia*^ 
**  M iscellafiea  Philobgica.'*    <^  GarmFina  Latb»a  &  Belgioai'^ 
^<  Poputare  HoliandisB  Ghronicoo."     <f  CoUecfcanea  Yete* 
rum  Tragicoruou^*     He  likewise  corrected  the  copy  0l 
*<  Yegetius,"  and  enlarged  and  wrote  itetet  ujpw  AqitiUu^a 
**  Chronicoii  Grddricum  ;*'  and  was  the  author  or  editor  of 
various  other  works,*  clastical  and  historical. ' 
'  SGUDERI  (George  db),  a  French  writer  of  eminfeiice 
in  his  day,    was  descended  from  an  aacieot  audi  nobli^ 
fiftniily  ,of  Apt  in  Provence,  and  born  at-  Havre-de-Gmce 
in  1603*.*  He  spent  part  of  his  youth  at  Apt^  and.  after- 
wards came  and  settled  at  Paris,  where  at  first  be  subsisted 
by  the  efforts  of  his  pen,  particularly  in  poetry^  and  dm* 
matic  pieces,  none  of  which  are  now  isi  any  estimatioui^ 
and  we  may,  therfefore^  be  spared  the  trouble  of  giving 
tbeir  titles*     In  1627  be  published  observations  upon  the 
**  Cid'*  of  Comeille,  with  a  vieir  of  making  bis  court  to 
cardinal  Richelieu,  whe  was  absurdly  enTious  of-  that  great 
]}oet,  and  did  every  thing  he  could  to  oppMe  the  vast  re« 
putation  and  success  of  the  *^  Gid  :*'  and  by  his  influence 
alone  enabled  even  such  a  man  as  Scuderi  ^^  to  balance^** 
aa  Ypltaire  says,  '<  for  some  time,  the  reputation  of  Cor«» 
iieille;'*     Scuderi  was  received  a  member  of  the  acadeasy 
is  1650,     He  had  before  been  made  governor  of  the  castle 
of  Notre- Dame  de  la  Garde,  in  Proveuc^;  and  although 
this  was  a  situation  of  very  little  profit,  Scuxler^  who  was 
still  more  vain  than  indigent,  gave  a  pompous  description 
of  it  in  a  poem,  which  drew  upon  him  the  raillery  of  Gha- 
pelle  and  Bachaumont.     Scuderi  died  at  Paris,  May  14, 
1667,  leaving  a  name  now  better  known  than  his  works.* 

SCUDERI  (Magdeleine  de),  sister  of  the  precedmg, 
Itnd  his  superior  in  talents,  was  born  at  Havre^de-Graee  in 
1607,  and  became  very  eminent  for  her  wit  and  her  wri« 
tings.  She  went  early  to  Paris,  where  she  gained  admit* 
sion  into  the  assemblies  of  learning  and  fasbioot.  Having 
recourse,  like  her  brother,  to  the  pen,  she  gratified  the  taste 
of  the  age  for  romances,  by  various  productions-  of  that 
kind,  which  were  very  eagerly  read,  and  even  procured 
her  literary  honours.  The  celebrated  academy  of  the 
Ricovrati  at  Padua  complimented  her  with  a  place  in  their 
spcicfty;  and  some  great  personages  showed  their  regard 

^  Foppen  Bibl.  Belg.'—Saxii  OnomMt. 
3  'Mpr«ii— Diet.  Bift-^Niceree,  tqI.  XV.— Voltaire's  SiccU  d«  Uuit  XiV  . 

C  U  D  E  R  L  aw 

^'hf  pretentSi  and  other  marks  of  esteenii..  The  prince  of 
Paderbom,  bishop  of  Mtinster,  sent  her  his  works  and  a 
tnedal ;  and  Christina  of  Sweden  often  wrote  to  her,  set- 
tied  ofi  her  a  pension,  aad  sent  her  her  picture.  Cardinal 
MazariTi  left  her  an  annuity  by  his  will :  and  Lewis  XIV. 
in  1663,  at  the  solicitation  of  M.  de  Matntenon,  settled 
a  good  pension  upon  her,  which  was  punctually  paid. 
His  majesty  also  appointed  her  a  special  audience  to  receire 
^  faer  acknowledgments,  and  paid  her  some  %'ery  flattering 
'  compliments,  She  had  an  extensive  correspondence  with 
tnen  of  learning  and  wit  i  and  her  bouse  at  Paris  was  the 
rendewous  of  all  who  would  be  thought  to  patronize  gc- 
niusw  She  died  in  1701,  aged  94;  and  two  churches  con- 
tended for  the  honour  of  possessing  her  remains,  which 
was  thought  a  point  of  so  much  consequence,  that  nothing 
less  than  the  autfa'ority  of  the  cardinal  de  Noailles,  to  whom 
the  affair  was  referred,  was  suflBcient  to  decide  it.  She 
was  a  very  voluminous  writer  as  well  as  her  brother,  but  of 
snore  merit ;  and  it  is  remarkable  of  this  lady^  that  she  ob- 
tained the  first  prize  of  eloquence  founded  by  the  acade- 
my. There  is  much  common-^place  panegyric  upon  her 
in  the  ^^  Menagiana,'*  from  the  personal  regard  Menage 
had  for  her :  but  her  merits  su*e  better  settled  by  Boileau, 
in  the  '*  Disoours^'  prefixed  to  his  dialogue  entitled  ^^Les 
Hero  des  Roman.V  Her  principal  works  ane,  ^^  Artamene, 
on  le Grand  Cyras,"  1650,  10  vols.  «vo;  "  Clelie,"  1660, 
1 0  vols.  8vo;  "  Celanire,  ou  la  Promenade  de  Versailles^'* 
1698,  12nio ;  <<  Ibrahim,  ou  Tlllustre  Bassa,''  1^41,  4  vols. 
Svo  ;  "  Almahide,  ou  I'Esclave  Reine," :  1660,  8  vols.  Bvo ; 
^*  Celine,"  1661,  Svo;  "  Mathilde  d'Aguilar,"  1667,  Bvo; 
**  Conversations  et  Entretiens,"  10  vols.  &c.  These  last 
conversations  are  thought  the  heat  of  Mad.  Scuderi^s  works, 
but  there  was  a  time  when  English  translations  of  her  prolii^ 
romances  were  read.  What  recommended  them  to  the 
Flinch  public  was  the  traits  of  living  characters  which  she 
occasionally  introduced.  ^ 

SCULTETUS  (Ab^ham),  an  eminent  protestant  di* 
vine^  was  born  at  Grumberg  in  Silesia,  Aug.  24,  1556,  and 
after  having  studied  there  till  15Bt2,  was  sent  to  Bresiaw  to 
continue  his  progress  in  the  sciences.  He  was  recalled 
•oon  after,  his  father,  who  had  lost  all  his  fortune  in  the 
fire  of  Grif Qb|»Fg,  being  no  longer  able  to  maintain  him  fit 

294  S  C  U  L  T  E  T  U  S. 

the  college,  and  therefore  intending  to  bring  him  iip  to 
«ome  trade.  The  young  man  was  not  at  all  pleased  with 
snch  a  proposal ;  and  looked  put  for  the  place  of  a  tutor, 
which  he  found  in  the  family  of  a  burgomaster  of  Freistad, 
^nd  this  gave  liim  an  opportunity  of  hearing  the  sermons  of 
Melancthon  and  of  Abraham  Bucholtzer.  In  1584  he 
took  a  journey  into  Poland,  and  went  to  Gorlitz  in  Lusatia 
the  year  following,  and  resided  there  above  two  years, 
constantly  attending  the  public  lectures,  and  reacling  pri- 
vate lectures  to  others.  He  employed  himself  in  the  same 
manner  in  the  university  ofWittemberg  in  1588  and  1589, 
and  afterwards  in  that  of  Heidelberg  till  he  was  admitted 
into  the  church  in  1594.  He  officiated  in  a  village  of  the 
palatinate  for  some  months ;  after  which  he  was  sent  for 
by  the  elector  palatine  to  be  one  of  his  preachers.  In 
1598  be  was  appointed  pastor  of  the  church  of  St.  Francis 
at  Heidelberg,  and  two  years  after  was  made  a  member  of 
the  ecclesiastical  senate.  He  was  employed  several  times 
in  visiting  the  churches  and  schools  of  the  palatinate, 
and  among  these  avocations  wrote  some  works,  which  re- 
quired great  labour.  He  attended  Uie  prince  of  Anbalt  to 
the  war  at  Juliers  in  1610,  and  applied  himself  with  great 
prudence  and  vigilance  to  the  re-settlement  of  the  affairs  of 
the  reformed  church  in  those  parts.  He  attended  Fre- 
deric V.  prince  palatine  into  England  in  1612,  and  con- 
tracted an  acquaintance  with  the  most  learned  men  of  that 
kingdom,  bu!  Wood  speaks  of  his  having  resided  some 
time  at  Oxford  in  1598.  He  took  a  journey  to  Branden- 
burg in  1614,  the  elector  John  Sigismond,  who  was  about 
renouncing  Lutheranism,  being  desirous  of  concerting 
measures  with  him  with  respect  to  that  change  ;  and  on  his 
return  to  Heidelberg  he  accepted  the  place  of  court- 
preacher,  which  he  relinquished  when  appointed  prOf 
fessor  of  divinity  in  1618.  He  was  deputed  soon  after  to 
the  synod  of  Dort,  where  he  endeavoured  at  first  to  pro- 
cure a  reconciliation  of  the  contending  parties ;  but  finding 
nothing  of  that  kind  was  to  be  expected,  he  opposed  vi- 
gorously the  doctrines  of  the  Arminians.  He  preached  at 
Francfort  the  year  following  during  the  electoral  diet  held 
there,  his  master  having  appointed  him  preacher  to  the 
deputies  whom  he  sent  thither.  He  also  attended  that 
prince  in  his  journey  into  Bohemia;  and  retiring. into  Sile- 
sia after  the  fatal  battle  of  Prague,  resolved  to  return  to 
Heidelberg  in  order  to  discharge  the  functions  of  his  pro- 

S  C  U  L  T  E  T  U  ».  2d5 

faisorship  there ;  but  the  fury  of  the  war  having  dispersed 
tlie  K^dentS)  he  went  to  Bretten,  and  afterwards  to  Schorn- 
dorf  in  the  country  of  Wirtemberg,  whence  he  removed  t6 
Eoibden  in  August  1622.  '  The  king  of  Bohemia  his  mas- 
ter had  consented  that  the  city  of  Embden  should  offer 
SQultetus  the  place  of  preacher,  but  he  did  not  enjoy  it 
very  long;  for  he  died  October  the  24th,  1625. 

The  principal  works  of  this  learned  divine,  who,  as  Fre- 
faer  says,  was  reckoned  another  Chrysostom,  are,  1.  ^^  Con- 
futatio  disputationis  Baronii  de  baptismo  Constantini,^* ' 
Neost.  1607,  4to.  2.  "  Annales  Evangelii  per  Europam 
15  Seculi  renovati,  Decad.  I  et  2,"  Heidelberg,  1618,  8vo. 
In  these  annals  of  the  reformation  he  has  shown  himself  a 
very  candid  and  credible  historian.  3.  ^^  Axiomata  con- 
cionandi,"  Han.  1619,  Bvo.  4.  "  Obseryationes  in  Pauli 
£pistolas  ad  Timotheum,  Titum,  etPhilemonem."  5.  "  Me- 
dulla Patrum,''  1634,  4to.  So  indefatigable  was  his  ap-  « 
plication,  that  be  wrote  the  following  lines  over  his  study 
door : 

Anuce:  quisquis  hue  venis> 

Aut  agito  paucis^  aut  abi : 

Aut  me  laborantem  adjuva.^ 

SCULTETUS,  or  SCULTZ  (John),  a  distinguished 
surgeon,  .was  born  in  1595,  at  Ulm,  and  studied  medicine 
at  Padua,  where  he  took  his  degrees  in  that  faculty  in  1621. 
On  his  return  to  his  native  city,  he  practised  with  great 
reputation  for  twenty  years,  until  being*  called  to  Stutgard 
to  a  patient,  he  was  there  attacked  with  a  fit  of  apoplexy^ 
which  terminated  his  life  December  1,  1645.  He  appears 
to  have  practised  surgery  extensively,  and  with  great  bold- 
ness in  the  operations  of  bronchotomy,  of  the  trephine,  and 
for  empyema.  His  principal  work  is  entitled  ^*  Armamen- 
tarium Chirurgicum,  43  labuiis  spre  incisis  ornatum ;''  and 
was  published  after  bis  death,  at  Ulm,  in  1653,  It  subse- 
quently passed  through  many  editions,  and  was  translated 
into  most  of  the  European  languages.^ 

SGYLAX,  an  ancient  mathematician  and  geographer^ 
was  a  native  of  Caryanda,  in  Caria,  and  is  noticed  by  He- 
rodotus, and  by  Suidas,  who,  however,  has  evidently  con* 
founded  different  persons  of  the  same  name.  There  is  a 
Periplus  which  still  remains,  bearing  the  name  of  Scylax, 
and  which  is  a  brief  survey  of  the  countries  along  the  shores 

1  Freberi  Theatrum.— Gto*  Diet.  ^  £loy  Diet.  Hiii.  d«  M«dicJa(i. 

f^f  «  C  Y  L  A  X;    ; 


pf  thp  Aj[edUerraQean  apd  .£uxine  s^^p^ .  tpgf  tibt^r  witb  P9fl 
pf^the  vHe3tern  coasi  of  Afriqa  surveyed  by  HannQ;<butii 
fi€eti)$  doubtful  to  what  Scylax  it  belongs.  Tbis  Periplua 
hs^  coaie  dowo  to  us  in  a  corrupted  state :  it  ws^^  first  pub^r 
)isfaed  from  a  palatine  MS  by  Hoeticbelius  and  others  in 
;i,600.  It  was  afterwards  e^it^d  by  Isaac  Vossius  in  163£>; 
by  Hudson  in  1698,  and  by  Gronovius  in  170Q.' 
\  SCyUTZA,  or  SCYWTZES  (John),  called  also  Cu- 
£OPALAT£S|  from  an  office  be  held  in  tbe  ho^isehold  of  tbe 
emperor .  of  that  name,  was  a  Greel^  historian,  knowa  fof 
|)is  abridgment  of  history  from  tbe  death  of  Nicepboruf 
Logptbetes,.  in  SUs  tp  the  deposition  of  Nicepborus  9oto^ 
liiates,  in  1081.  This  history,  from  1067)  is  the  same  as 
that  of  Cedrenus,  which  has  raised  a  doubt  whether  Cedre^ 
pu^  or  Scylitssa  was  the  original  autbpr*  Scylitya  is  thought 
to  have  beeii  a  native  of  l^esser  A^ia»^  and  a  prefect  of  tbe 
guards  before  he  attained  the  dignity  of  curopalatea.  K 
]|^ajtiQ  tran9lation.of  his  history  entire,  was  published  ait  Ve^t 
liice  in  157Q;  and  tbe  part  concerning  which  there  is  no 
dispute  was  printed  in  Greek  and  Latin  conjointly  with  that 
futbor,  at  Paris,  in  1647.* 

8EBA  (Albert),  an  apothecary  of  Amsterdam,  who  died 
in  1736,  prepared  a  splendid  description)  with  plates,  of 
bis  own  pipseum,  in  four  l^rge  folio  volumes,  whiph  cam^ 
qut  between  1734  and  1765.  Histhre^  latter  volumes  wer^ 
posthumous  publication^.  Many  Cape  plapts  ar^  b^re  eq-r 
graved}  and  aquongst  them  one  of  tbe  gienMs  Seb^a^  so  calle4 
in  honoA^r  of  bim^  Yi^t  Seba  does  not  deserve  to  rank  asa 
^i^ntific  botanist. ;  nor  did  }J\nn^w^  who  Jifiew  him,  and 
by.  wbo^e  repoipmendat^on  he  employed  A^xteAi  to  arraoge 
^  .fisbes^  ever  think  him  worthy  to  be  commemorated  in  % 
g;^ni4S.  If, . however,  we  compare  him  w|th  numbers  who 
ba^e  been  so  cpmm€Q9orated,  be  wi)l  not  appear  to  so  mucb 
^^sadvantage ;  for  $ts  a  collector  he  ^stai^ds  rather  big^*'* 
,  ^SEBASTIAN,     See  PIOMBO. 

SECKENDORF  (Vitus  l.ouis  d»),  a  very  learned Gert 
p^n^  vpasd^spPHd^cJ  from  ancient  and  noble  families;  and 
born  2iX  Aj|^raq)ji9  ,  ft  town  of  f  ranconia»  Pec.  20,  1626.  Ho 
inade  good  yse  of  ft  liberal  education,  and  wfis  not  Qply  ^ 
QEi^er  of  the  French^  Latin,  Greek,  and  Hebrew  Iaqgiiagps» 
buj;  had  also  some  skill  in  inatb§rna(ics  $^nd  tb^  s<?(pfiQes» 

^  Mr.'  I>ewhurat  in  Atheosenm,  vol.  IV. 

*  Vossius  de  Hist,  Gr«c.--CsTe,  Tol.  Il.-rrrFal^ric.  {libL  Gnpc. 

s  Rcet*i  Cyc|op»diav 

8  E  C  K  E  N  D  O  R  p.  SM 

Vh^  f^r^ut  progress  he  made  in  his  youth  coming  to  the  eara 
of  Erneit  ihe  pious,  dukeof  Saxe>Gotha,  this  prince  sent 
4br  htm  from  Cobourg,  where  he  then  wa^,  to  be  educateit 
with  his  children.  After  remaining  two  years  at  Gotha,  he 
wenty  in  1642,  to  Strasburg;  but  returned  to  Gotha  in 
•1646,  and  was  made  honorary  librarian  to  the  duke.  Iq 
1651,  be  was  made  auHc  and  ecclesiastical  counsellor; 
atid,  in  1663,  a  counsellor  of  state,  first  minister,  and 
Sovereign  director  of  the  consistory.  The  year  after,  he 
vpent  into  the  service  of  Maurice,  duke  of  Saxe«Zeist,  as 
counsellor  of  state  and  chancellor ;  and  was  no  less  regarded 
by  this  new  master  than  he  had  been  by  the  duke  of  Saxe- 
i^otha.  He  continued  with  htm  till  his  deuth,  which  hap» 
pened  in  16dl ;  and  then  preferred  a  life  of  retirement^ 
fduring  which  he  composed  a  great  many  works ;  but  Fre« 
deric  illr  elector  of  Brandenburg,  again  brought  him  into 
public  lite,'and  made  him  a  counsellor  of  state  and  chancellor 
of  the  university  of  Halle,  dignities  which  he  did  not  enjoy 
long,  for  he  died  at  Halle  Dec.  18,  1692,  in  the  sixty-sixth 
year  of  his  age.  He  was  twice  married,  but  had  only  one 
son,  who  survived  him.  Besides  his  knowledge' of  languages^ 
he  was  learned  in  law,  history,  divinity;  and  is  also  said  to 
have  been  a  tolerable  painter  and  engraver.  Of  bis  liume* 
rous  writings,  that  in  most  estimation  for  its  utility,  was 
published  at  Francfort,  1692,  2  vols,  folio,  usually  bound^ 
mp  in  one,  with  the  title,  **  Commentarius  Historicus  & 
j^poiogeticus  de  Lutberanismo,  sive  de  Reformatione  RelLn 
gionis  ductu  D.  ]V(artini  Lutberi  in  magna  Germania,  aliis* 
que  regionibtis,  &  speciatim  in  Saxonia,  recepta  &  stabi* 
lita,^'  8f,c,  This  work,  which  is  very  valuable  on  many  ac^ 
counts,  and  particular^y  curious  for  several  singular  piecei 
and  extracts  that  are  to  be  found  in  it,  still  holds  its  repu^ 
tation,  and  is  referred  to  by  all'  writers  on  the  reformation.' 
SECKER  (Thomas),  an  eminent  English  prelate,  waa 
born  in  1693,  at  a  small  village  called  Sibthorpe,  in  the 
yale  of  Belvoir, Nottinghamshire.  His  father  was  a  Protes- 
tant dissenter,  a  pious,  virtuous,  and  sensible  man,  who^ 
having  a  small  paternal  fortune,  followed  no  profession* 
His  mother  was  the  daughter  of  Mr.  George  Brought  of 
8helton,  in  the  county  of  Nottingham,  a  substantial  gen- 
tleman farmer.  He  received  his  education  at  several  pri« 
vate  schopls  in  the  country,  being  obliged  by  various  acci« 


tB$  S  E  C  K  E  R. 

dents  to  change  bis  masters' frequently ;  yet  at  the.  age  <^ 
nineteen  he  had  not  only  made  a  considerable  progress  i^ 
Greek  and  Latin,  and  read  the  best  and  most  di65cult 
writers  in  both  languages,  but  had  acquired  a  knowledge 
of  French,  Hebrew,  Chaldee,  and  Syriac,  had  learned 
geography,  logic,  algebra,  geometry,  conic  sections,  and 
gone  through  a  course  of  leGt;ures  on  Jewish  antiquities, 
and  other  points  preparatory  to  the  study  of  tlie  Bible.  At 
the  same  time,  in  one  or  other  of  these  academies,  he  had 
an  .opportunity  of  forming  an  acquaintance  with  several 
persons  of  great  abilities.  Among  the  rest,  in  the  academy 
pf  Mr.  Jones  at  Tewkesbury,  he  laid  the  foundation  of.  a 
Atrict  friendship  with  Mr.  Joseph  Butler,  afterwards  bishop 
of  Durham.  ^ 

Mr.  Seeker  bad  been  designed  by  his  father  for  orders 
among  the  dissenters.  With  this  view,  his  studies  were 
directed  chiefly,  and  very  assiduously,  to  divinity,  but  not 
being  able  to  decide  upon  certain  doctrines,  or  determine 
absolutely  what  communion  he  should  embrace,  he  resolved 
to  pursue  some  profession,  which  should  leave  him  at  liberty 
to  weigh  these  things  more  maturely  in  his  thoughts,  and 
therefore,  about  the  end  of  1716,  he  applied  himself  to 
the  study  of  physic,  both  at  London  and  Paris.  During 
bis  stay^  at  Paris,  he  kept  up  a  constant  correspondence 
with  Mr.  Butler,  who  was  now  preacher  at  the  Rolls,  Mr. 
Butter  took  occasion  to  mention  his  friend  Mr,  Seeker, 
lyithout  his  knowledge,  to  Mr.  Edward  Talbot,  who  pro- 
mised, in  case  he  chose  to  take  orders  in  the  church  of 
England,  to  engage  the  bishop,  his  father,  to  provide  for 
him.  This  was  communicated  to  Mr.  Seeker,  in  a  letter, 
about  the  beginning  of  May  1720.  He  had  not  at  that 
time  come  to  any  resolution  of  quitting  the  study  of  physic, 
but  he  began  to  foresee  many  obstacles  to  his  pursuing  that 
profession:  and  having  never  discontinued  his  application 
t.Q  theology,  his  former  difficulties,  both  with  regard  to  con- 
formity, and  some  other  doubtful  points,  had  gradually 
lessened,  as  his  judgment  became  stronger,  and  his  reading 
and  knowledge  more  extensive.  It  appears  also  from  two 
of  his  letters  from  Paris,  both  of  them  prior  to  the  date  of 
Mr.  Butler's  communication  above  mentioned,  that  he  was 
greatjy  dissatisfied  with  the  divisions  and  disturbances  which . 
at  that  particular  period  prevailed  among  the,  dissenters, 
In  this  state  of  mind  Mr.  Butler's  unexpected  proposal 
found  him,  a^nd  after  deliberating  carefully  on  the  subject' 

S  E  C  K  E  R.  2^9 

of  such  a  change  for  upwards  of  two  month*;,  he  resolved 
to  embrace  the  offer,  and  for  that  purpose  quitted  France 
about  July  1720. 

Mr  Talbot  died  a  few  months  after  his  arrival  in  England, 
but  not  without  recommending  Mr.  Seeker,  Mr.  Benson, 
and  Mr.  Butler,  to  his  father's  notice.  Mr.  Seeker  having, 
notwithstanding  this  loss,  determined  to  persevere  in  his 
new  plan,  and  it  being  judged  necessary  by  his  friends  that 
he  should  have  a  decree  at  Oxford,  and  he  being  informed 
that  if  he  should  previously  take  the  degree  of  doctor  in 
physic  at  Leyden,  it  would  probably  help  him  in  obtaining 
the  other,  he  went  thither  for  that  purpose,  and  took  his 
degree  at  Leyden,  March  7,  1721,  and  as  a  thesis  wrote 
and  printed  a  dissertation  de  viedicina  statica.  On  Jiis  re- 
turn, he  entered  himself,  April  1,  a  gentleman  commoner 
of  Exeter  college,  Oxford,  about  a  year  after  which  be 
obtained  the  degree  of  B.  A.  without  any  difficulty,  in  con« 
sequence  of  a  recommendatory  letter  from  the  chancellor. 
In  Dec.  1722,  bishop  Talbot  ordained  him  deacon, -and  pot 
long  after  priest  In  St.  James's  church,  where  he  preached 
his  first  sefmon,  March  28,  1723.  In  1724,  the  bishop 
gave  him  the  rectory  of  Houghton  le  Spring,  and  this  va- 
luable living  enabling  him  to  settle  in  the  world,  in  a  man- 
ner agreeably  to  his  inclinations,  he  married  Oct.  2S,  1725, 
Miss  Catherine  Benson,  sister  to  bishop  Benson.  At  the 
earnest  desire  of  both,  Mrs.  Talbot,  widow  to  his  friend 
Mr.  Edward  Talbot,  and  her  daughter,  consented  to  live 
with  them,  and  the  two  families  from  that  time  became 

At  Houghton  Mr.  Seeker  applierl  himself  with  alacrity  to 
all  the  duties  of  a  country  clergyman,  omitting  nothing 
which  be  thought  could  be  of  use  to  his  flock.  He  brought 
down  his  conversation  and  his  sermons  to  the  level  of  their 
understandings;  visited  them  in  private,  catechised  the 
young  and  ignorantj  received  his  country  neighbours  and 
tenants  Jcindly  and  hospitably,  and  was  of  great  service  to 
the  poorer  sort  by  his  skill  in  physic,  which  was  the  only 
use  he  ever  made  of  it  Though  this  place  was  in  a  very 
remote  part  of  the  world,  yet  the  solitude  of  it  perfectly 
suited  his  studious  disposition,  and  the  income  arising  frona 
it  bounded  his  ambition.  Here  he  would  have  been  con- 
tent to  live  and  die :  here,  as  he  has  often  been  heard  to 
declare,  he  spent  some  of  the  happiest  hours  of  his  life»: 
and  it  was  no  thought  or  choice  of  his  own  that  remove4 

too  «  E  C  K  E  H. 

,  bkn  to  a  higher  and  more  public  sphere.  But  Mn.  SedcerS 

.  betUby  which  was  thought  to  have  been  injured  by  the 
dampness  of  the  situation^  obliged  him  to  think  of  exchange 

.  ing  it  for  a  more  healthy  one.  On  this  account  he  prbcured 

.  an  exchange  of  Houghton  for  a  prebend  of  Durham,  and 
the  rectory  of  Ryton,  in  1727  ;  and  for  the  two  following 

r  years  be  lived  chiefly  at  Durham^  going  over  ei^ery  week 
to  officiate  at  Ryton,  and   spending  there  two  or  three 

.  months  together  in  the  summer.  In  July  1732>  the  duke 
ofGrafton,  then  lord  chamberlain,  appointed  him  chap* 
lain  to  the  king.    For  this  favour  be  was  indebted  to  bishop 

.  Sherlock,  who  having  heard  him  preach  at  Bath,  thought 
his  abilities  worthy  of  being  brought  forward  into  public 

•  notice.  From  that  time  an  intimacy  commenced  betwixt 
ihem,  and  he  received  from  that  prelate  many  solid  proofs 
of  esteem  and  friendship.  This  preferinent  produced, him 
also  the  honour  of  a  conversation  with  queen  Caroline.  Mr. 
Seeker's  character  was  now  so  well  establi^ed,  that  on  the 
resignation  of  Dr.  Tyrwhit,  he  was  instituted  to  the  rectory 

.  of  St.  James's,  May  18,  1732,  and  in  the  beginning  of  July 
wenn  to  Oxford  to  take  his  degree  of  doctor'of  law9,  not 

-being  of  sufficient  standing  for  that  of  divinity.  On  this 
occasion  he  preached  his  celebrated  Act  sermon,  on  the 
advantages  and  duties  of  academical  education,  which  was 
printed  at  the  desire  of  the  heads  of  houses,  and  quickly 
passed  through  several  editions.  The  queen,  in  a  subse? 
quent  interview,*  expressed  her  high  opinion  of  this  sermon, 
which  was  also  thought  to  have  contributed  not  a  little  to 
his  promotion  to  the  bishopric  of  Bristol,  to  which  he  was 
ffonftecrated  Jan.  1 9,  1735. 

Dr.  I^ecker  immediately  set  about  the  visitation  of  his  dio- 
cese, confirmed  in  a  great  many  places,  preached  in  several 
churches^  sometimes  twice  a  day,  and  from  the  information 
received  in  his  progress,  laid  the  foundation  of  a  parochial 
lioccFunt  of  his  diocese,  for  the  benefit  of  his  successors. 
Finding  at  the  same  time,  the  affairs  of  his  parish  of  St. 
James's  io  great  disorder,  he  took  the  trouble,  in  concert 
With  a  few  others,  to  put  the  accounts  of  the  several  officeiH 
into  a  regular  method.  He  also  drew  up  for  the  use  of  bis 
parishioners  that  course  of  *'  Lectures  on  the  Church  Cate^ 
efaism,''  which  have  since  been  so  often  reprinted.  ^^Tbe 
Bermona,'*  says  bishop  Porteus,  *<  which  he  set  himself  to 
compose  were  truly  excellent  and  original.  His  faculties 
were  now  in  their  full  vigour,  und  he  had  Un  audience  tp 

9  E  C  K  £  It  Sot 

l]le»k  Vefqre  that  rendered  the  utmosl^  eYeriioa  of  thcsi  ne^ 
9e888ury.  He  did  DQt,  however*  9eek  to  gratify:  the  higher 
part  by  amusing  them  with  refined  specuUtionsvor  ingenio 
^,us  essays,  unintelligible  to  the  lower  part,  and  unprofitft*^ 
hie  to  both ;  but  he  laid  before  them  all,  with  equal  freedom 
and  plainness,  the  great  Christian  duties  belonging  to  th«ir 
respective  stations,  and  reproved  the  follies  and  vieea  of 
every  rank  amongst  them  without  distinction  or  palliation/* 
He  was  certainly  one  of  the  most  popular  preachers  of  hit 
time*  and  though,  as  his  biographer  observe,  hia  teniions 
may  not  now  afford  the  same  pleasure, , or  produce  the  Muno 
effects  in  the  closet,  as  they  did  from  tfae.pul|>it,  aeeompO'^* 
nied  as  they  then  were  with  all  the  advahtagies  of  his  deUk 
very,  yet  it  will  plainly  appear  that  the  applause  they  met 
with  was  founded  no  less  on  the  matter  they  eontaioed^ 
than  the  manner  in  which  they  were  spoken* 

On  {he  translajtion  of  Dr.  Potter  to  the  archbisboprie  of 
Canterbury,  Dr.  S.ecker  was  translated  to  the  bisboprie  of 
Oxford,'  in  May  1737*     When  the  unfortuante  breach  hap*^ 

Eened  between  the  late  king  and  the  prince  of  Walesy  Ui 
ighness  having  removed  to  Norfolk-house,  ki  .tbeiparisb 
of  St.  Jame^^s,  attended  divine  service  consliantly  at  that 
chureh.  Two  stories  are  told  of  this>  matter,  ^htch,  al^ 
though  without  much  foundation,  served  to  amuse  the-pisb^* 
lie  for  a  while.  The  one  was,  that  the  first  tim^  the  prinoe* 
made  bis  appearance  at  churchy  the  clerk  in  orders^  Mr4' 
Bonney,  began  the  service  with -the  sentence^  ^^I  wiUariw 
and  go  to  my  father,"  &c.— The  other,  that  Dr^  Seeker 
preaehed  from  the  text,  ^^  Honour  thy  father  and  thy  mo*' 
ther,''  &c.— Dr.  Seeker  had  the  honoor  of  baptizing  all  hir 
4ugbness*s  children  except  two,  and  though  be  did  not  at« 
tend  his  cour^  which  was  forbidden  to  those  who  went  to 
the  kit)gfs,  yet  on  every  proper  occasion  he  behaved  with- 
all  the  submission  and  respect  due  to  his  illustrious  rank* 
In  consequence  of  this,  his  influ^snce  with  the  prince  beings 
supposed  much  greater  than  it  really  was,  he  was  sent,  by^ 
the  king's  direction,  with  a  message  to  his  royal  highness  $ 
iKhieh  not  producing  the  effects  expected  from  it,  he  bad 
the  oiisfortujie  to  inc^r  his  majesty's  displeasure,  who  had' 
been  uuhappily  persuaded  to  tbink  that  be  might  harve  dona- 
more  with  the  prince  than  he  did^  .though  indeed  he  could 
not.  For  this  reason,  and  because  he  sometimes  acted' 
with  those  who  opposed  the  court,  the  king  did  not  speak 
tp  kim  fot  a  great  number  of  years.    Tba  whole  of  Dr« 

ifoe  8  E  C  K  E  R. 

Secker^s  parliamentary  conduct  appears  to  have  been  loytL]^ 
manly,  and  independent.  His  circular  letter  to  his  clergy, 
and  bis  sermon  on  the  subject  of  the  rebellion  in  1745,  rank 
among  the  best  and  most  efficacious  documents  of  the  kind 
which  that  melancholy  event  produced.  In  the  spring  of 
1748  his  wife  died,  to  whom  he  had  now  been  married  up- 
wards of  twenty  years. 

'  In  December  1750,  he  was  promoted  to  the  deanery  of 
St.  Paul's,,  in  exchange  for  the  rectory  of  St.  James's  and 
the  prebend  of  Durham.  Having  now  more  leisure  both  to 
prosecute  his  own  studies,  and  to  encourage  those  of  others, 
he  g^ve  Dr.  Church  considerable  assistance  in  his  <*  first 
and  second  Vindication  of  the  Miraculous  powers,"  against 
Dr.  Middleton,  and  in  his  *^  Analysis  of  Lord  Bolingbroke's 
Works,"  which  appeared  a  few  years  afterwards.  He  like- 
wise assisted  archdeacon  Sharpe  in  his  controversy  with  the 
Hatchinsonians,  which  was  carried  on  to  the  end  of  the 
year  1755. 

.  During  the  whole  time  that  be  was  dean  of  St.  Paul's,  he 
'  attended  divine  service  constantly  in  that  cathedral  twice 
every  day,  whether  in  residence  or  not;  and  in  concert 
with  the  three  other  residentiaries,  established  the  custom 
of  alwHys  preaching  their  /own  turns  in  the  afternoon,  or 
exchanging  with  each  other  only,  which,  excepting  the  case 
•of  illness,  or  extraordinary  accidents,  was  very  punctually 
observed.  He  also  introduced  many  salutary  regulations  in 
the  financial  concerns  of^he  church,  the  keeping  of  the  re- 
gisters, &c.  &c.  In  the  summer  months  he  resided  con- 
stantly at  his  episcopal  house  at  Cuddesden,  the  vicinity  of 
which  to  Oxford  rendered  it  very  pleasing  to  a  man  of  his 
literary  turn.  His  house  was  the  resort  of  those  who  were ' 
most  distinguished  for  academical  merit,  and  his  cdnversa* 
tion  such  as  was  worthy  of  his  guests,  who  always  left  him 
with  a  high  esteem  of  his  understandmg  and  learning.  And 
though  in  the  warm  contest  in  1754,  for  representatives  of 
the  county  (in  which  it  was  sci^rce  possible  fur  any  person 
of  eminence  to  remain  neuter),  he  openly  espoused  that  side 
which,  was  thought  most  favourable  to  the  principles  of  the"^ 
revolution ;  yet  it  was  without  bitterness  or  vehemence, 
without  ever. departing  from  the  decency  of  his  profession, 
the  dignity  of  his  station,  or  the  charity  prescribed  by  his 

His  conduct  as  a  prelate  was  in  the  strictest  sense  of  the 
word,  exemplary.     In  his  chargels,  he  enjoined  no  <luty9 

S  E  C  K  E  IL  ZQ3 

^nd  imposed  no  burthen,  on  those  under  his  jurisdiction^^ 
which  he  had  not  formerly  undergone,  or  was  not  still  ready, 
as  far  as  became  him,  to  undergo.  He  preached  constant- 
ly in  his  church  at  Cuddesden  every  Sunday  morning,  and 
read  a  lecture  on  the  catechism  in  the  evening  ;^both  which 
be  continued  to  do  in  Lambeth  chapel  after  he  became 
archbishop)  and  in  every  other  respect,  within  his  own  pro« 
per  department,  was  himself  that  devout,  discreet,  disin- 
terested, laborious,  conscientious  pastor,  which  he  wished 
and  exhorted  every  clergyman  in  his  diocese  to  become. 
At  length  such  distinguished  merit  prevailed  over  all  the 
political  obstacles  to  his  advancement ;  and  on  the  death  of 
archbishop  Hutton,  he  was  appointed  by'the  king  to  suc- 
ceed him  in  the  diocese  of  Canterbury,  and  was  accordingly 
confirmed  at  Bow-church  on  April  21,  1758.  The  use  he 
made  of  this  dignity  very  clearjy  shewed  that  rank,  and 
wealth,  and  power,  had  in  no  other  light  any  charms  for 
him,  than  as  they  enlarged  the  sphere  of  his  active,  and 
industrious'  benevolence. 

In  little  more  than  two  years  after  his  grace's  promotion 
to  the  see  df  Canterbury,  died  the  late  George  IL  Of 
what  passed  on  that  occasion,  and  of  the  form  observed  in 
proclaiming  our  present  sovereign  .(in  which  the  archbishop 
of  course  took  the  lead),  his  grace  has  left  an  account  ia 
writing.  He  did  the  same  with  regard  to  the  subsequent  cere- 
monials of  marrying  and  crowning  their  present  majesties, 
which  in  consequence  of  his  station  he-bad  the  honour  ta 
solemnize,  and  in  which  he  found  a  great  want  of  proper 
precedents  and  directions.  He  had  before,  when  rector  of 
St.  Jameses,  baptized  the  new  king  (who  was  bom  in  Nor-* 
fblk-boqse,  in  that  parish)  and  he  was  afterwards  called 
upon  to  perform  the  same  office  for  the  greatest  part  of  his 
iQajesty*s  children  ;  a  remarkable,  and  perhaps  unexampled 
concurrence  of  such  incidents  in  the  life  of  one  man. 

As  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  Dr.  Seeker  considered 
himself  as  the-  natural  guardian,  not  only  of  that  church 
over  which  he  presided,  but  of  learning,  virtue,  and  reli-» 
gion  at  large;  and,  from  the  eminence  on  which  he.  was. 
placed,  looked  round  with  a  watchful  eye  on  every  thing 
that  concerned  them,  embracing  readily  all  opportunities 
to  promote  their  interests,  and  opposing,  as  far  as  he  was 
able,  all  attempts  to  injure  them.  Men  of  real  genius  or 
extensive, knowledge,  he  sought  out  and  encouraged.  Even 
those  of  humbler  talents,  pjx)vided  their  industry  was  great. 

S04  ,S  £  C  tC  £  R. 

and  tbeir  ititehtions  good^  be  treated  with  kitidtiess  atid 
condescension.  Both  sorts  be  would  frequently  employ  in 
undertakings  suited  to  tbeir  respective  abilities,  and  re^ 
warded  them  in  ways  suited  to  tbeir  respective  wants*  He 
assisted  tbem  with  books,  promoted  subscriptions  to  tbeir 
works,  contributed  largely  to  them  himself,  talked  with 
them  on  tbeir  private  concerns,  entered  warmly  into  tbeir 
interests,  used  his  credit  for  tbem  with  the  great^  and  gave 
them  preferments  of  bk  own»  He  expended  upwards  of 
300/.  in  arranging  and  improving  the  MS  library  at  Lam-« 
betb.  And  having  observed  vtriib  concern,  that  the  library 
of  printed  books  in  that  palace  bad  received  no  accessions 
aince  the  time  of  archbishop  Tenison,  he  made  it  bis  bu^ 
siness  to  collect  books  in  ail  languages  from  most  parts  of 
Europe,  at  a  very  gr^at  expence,  wi»b  a  view  of  supplying 
that  chasm  ;  which  be- accordingly  did,  by  leaving  thecn  to 
the  library  at  bis  death. 

All  designs  and  institupons  that  tended  to  advance  good 
morals   and    true   religion    he  patronized   with   seal    and 
generosity.   He  contributed  largely  to  the  maintenance  o^ 
schools  for  the  poor,  to  rebuilding  or  repairing  parsonage^ 
houses  and  places  of  worship,  and  gave  at  one  lime  do  less 
than  500/.  towards  erecting  a  chapel  in  the.parishof  Lattibetb^ 
to  which  he  afterwards  added  near  100/.  more.     To  the  so-» 
ciety  for  promoting  Christian  knowledge  be  was  a  liberal 
benefactor ;  and  to  that  for  propagating  the  gOspel  in  fo* 
reign  parts,  of  which  be  was  the  president,  he  paid  mttcb 
attention,  was  constant  at  the  meetings  of  its  members^  and 
•nperintended  tbeir  deliberations  with  consummate  pru^* 
dence  and  tempen     He  was  sincerely  desirous  to  improve 
to  the  utmost  that  excellent  institution,  atkl  to  diffuse  the 
Ifinowledge  and  belief  of  Christianity  as  wide  as  tberevenues 
of  the  society,  and  the  extreme  difficulty  of  establishing 
schools  and  missions  amongst  the  Indians,  and  of  making 
any  effectual  and  durable  impressions  of  religion  on  ibeit 
uncivilized  minds,    would  admit.     But  Dr.  Mayhew,  of 
Boston  in  New  England,  having  in  an  angry  pamphlet  ae^ 
cused  the  society  of  not  suflBciently  answering  these  good 
purposes,  and  of  departing  widely  from  the  spirit  of  their 
charter,  with  many  injurious  reflections  interspersed  on  the 
church  of  England,  and  the  design  of  appointing  bishops 
in  America,  bis  grace  on  all  these  accounts  thought  himself 
called  upon  to  confute  biss  invectives,  wbicl|  be  did  in  a 
short  ananyoiotts  piece,  entitled  '^An  Answer  to  Dr.  May^ 


iS  E  C  k  E  1(.  .30^ 

fiew's  Observations  ou  the  charter  and  conduct  of  the  So« 
ciety.for  propagating  the  Gospel,"  London,  1 764-,  reprinted 
in  America.  The  strength  of  argument,  as  well  as  fairnesd 
and  good  temper,  with  which  this  answer  was  written,  had 
aconsiderable  effect  dti  all  impartial  men  ;  and  even  on  th^ 
dpctor  himself,  who  plainly  perceived  that  he  had  no  com- 
moB  adversary  to  deal  with ;  and  could  not  help  acknow-^ 
ledgi-ng  him  to  be  ^*  a  person  of  excellent  sense,  and  of  a 
happy  talent  at  writing;  apparently  free  from  the  sordid 
illiberal  spirit  of  bigotry;  one  of  a  cool  temper,  who  oftea 
shewed  much  candour,  was  well  acquainted^  with  the  affairs 
of  the  society,  and  in  general  a  fair  reasoner."  He  was 
therefore  so  far.  wrought  upon  by  his  "  worthy  answerer,'* 
as  to  abate  much  in  his  reply  of  his  former  warmth  ,a.nd 
acrimony.  But  as  he  still  would  not  allow  himself^  to  b6 
V  wrong  in  any  material  point,'^  nor  forbear  giving  way  too 
much  to  reproachful  language  and  ludicrous  misrepresenta- 

-tioDS,  be  was  again  animadverted  upon  by  the  late  Mr: 
'Apthorpe,  in  a  sensible  trpt,  entitled,  "  A.  Review  of.Dr. 
Jklayjiievv's  K^/BU^arjss,"  &c.  1765.  This  put  an  end  to  the 
di^^te.;  The  dogtor,  on  reading  it,  declared  he  should  not 
an$wqr  it(|.and  tba  following  year  he  died. 
.<  U  appeared  evidently  in  the  course  of  this  controversy 
that  Dr,  Mayb«?w,  and  probably  many  other  worthy  men 

^anu>i}gst  thp  Dissenters,  both  at  home  and  abroad,  had 
can geixed^i  very;  unreasonable  and  groundless  jealousies  of 
tl|^,  chuVfrh  of  Eogland,  and  its  governors;  and  had,  in 
paftipuiar^  greatly  misunderstood  the  proposal  for  appoint- 
ing .bishops  in  some  of  the  colonies.  The  nature  of  that 
fhh  is;. fully  explained  in  bishop  Porteus's  life  of  our 
4^rchbi$ho3^,  to.  which  we  refer^  The  question  is  now  of 
J^ss.  importance,  for  notwithstanding  the  violent  opposition 
to  lulie  measure,  when  Dr.  Seeker  espoused  it,  no  sooner 
di,d..  the  American  provinces  become  independent  stateSj< 
|:ban  application  was.  made  to  the  English  bishops  by  some 

'  of  those  states  to  consecrate  bishops  for  them  according  to 

•  the  rites  of  the  church  of  England,  and  three  bishops  were 
'actually  consecrated  in  London  some  years  ago:  one  for 

•  Pennsylvania^  another  for  New  York,  and  a  third  for  Vir- 
ginia. . 

Whenever  any  publications  came  to  the  archbishop^s 
knowledge  that  were  manifestly  calculated  to  corrupt  good 
morals,  or  subvert  the  foundations  of  Christianity,  he  did 
bis  utmost  to  stop  the  circulation  of  them ;  yet  the  wretched 

Vol.  XXVII.  X 

SOS  S  E  C  K  E  R. 

9.atibors  rbemselves  he  was  so  far  frovs^  wasting  to  trefit  wU& 
any  undue  rigour,  that  he  ba«  more  than  once  extende4 
)i}is  bounty  to  them  in  distress.  And  when  their  writing$^ 
l^ould  not  properly  be  suppressed  (99  was  too  often  the 
case)  by  lawful  authority,  he  engaged  men  of  abilities  tQ 
answer  them,  and  rewarded  them  for  their  trouble.  His 
attention  was  everywhere.  Even  the  falsehoods  and  mis^ 
representations  of  writers  in  the  newapapera,  on  religious 
or  ecclesiastical  subjects,  he  generally  took  care  to  have 
eo&tradicted  :  and  when  they  seenied  likely  to  injure,  ia 
^ny  npaterial  degree,  the  <;ause  of  virtue  and  religion,  or 
jtbe  reputation  of  eminent  and  worthy  men,  he  would 
sametiiaes  tak<e  the  trouble  of  answeriug  them  himself^ 
fOi>e  insti^nce  of  this  kind,  which  does  him  lionour,  and 
4eserves  memtiou,  'was  his  defence  of  Bishop  Builer,  wliQi 
in  a  pamphlet,  published  in  1767,  was  accused  pf  haying 
jdiied  a  papist. 

The  conduct  which  hie  observed  towards  the  several  dir 
visiions  and  denominations  of  Christians  in  this  kingdom^, 
was  such  as  shewed  his  way  of  thinking  to  be  truly  liberal 
mid  catholic.     The  dangerous  spirit  of  popery,  indeed,  he 
thought  should  always  be  ikept  under  proper  legal   rer 
•straipts,  on  account  of  its  natural  opposition,  not  only  to 
the  religious,  but  the  civil  rights  of  mankind.     He  there-- 
foiie  observed  its  movements  with  care,  and  exhorted  his 
.cJe^gy  to  do  the  same,  especially  those  who  were  aituated 
<ifi  the  mid»t  of  Roman  catholic  families :  against  whose 
influence  they  were  charged  to  be  upoo  U>eir  guard,  and 
were  furnished  with  proper  books  or  instructions  for  the 
purpose.     He  took  all  opportunities  of  combating  th^  er- 
;]K>fs.ofthe  church  of  Rome,  in  his  own  wrutings;  and  tlii^ 
,  best  answers  that  were  published  to  son^e  bold  apologies* 
{or  popery  yirere  written  at  his  iustance,  and  under  bi^  'di- 

With  the  dissenters  his  grace  was  sincerely  desirous  oi 
.  cultiyajting  a  good  understanding.     He  considered  them,, 
in  general,  as  a  conscientious  and  valuable  class  of  men. 
With  some  of  the  most  eminent  of  them,  Wf^tts,  Dod- 
dridge^>  Lel9ind,  Chandler,  and  Lard^er,  be  maintained  ^xk 

^  The  biographers  of  eminent  dts-  dridge's  Letters,"  in  bis  zeal,  has  pii»- 

^  Mnters,  with  all  ikieir  prgudiees  against  docetl  two  letters  from  archbishop  Seek- 

the  i)ieroFchy,   seem   aever  to  exult  er  to  that  dirinc, forgetting  ibat  he  ii|is 

wore  thap  when  *  tbey   can   produce  not  archbish<^  until  several  years  after 

the  correspondence  of  a  distinfuished  Doddridge^s  death. 

:  |ii«Urt«,     But  the  ^^il^r  of  **  Dr.  Dod- 

8  E  C  K  E  R.  ^7 

lAtercotSfse  of  friendship  or  civility.  By  the  most  capdid 
and  considerate  part  of  them  he  was  highly  reverenced  and 
esteemed :  and  to  such  among  theni  as  needed  help  hQ 
shewed  no  less  kindness  and  liberality  than  to  those  of  Jbis 
own  communion. 

Nor  was  his  concern  for  the  Protestant  cause  confined  to- 
his  own  country ;  be  was  well  known  as  the  great  patroa 
and  protector  of  it  in  various  parts  of  Europe :  from 
whence  he  had  frequent  applications  for  assistance^  which 
never  failed  of  being  favourably  received.  To  several 
foreign  Protestants  he  allowed  pensions,  to  others  he  gav^ 
occasional  relief,  and  to  some  of  their  universities  was  an 
annual  benefactor. 

In  public  affairs,  his  grace  acted  the  part  of  an  honest 
cttizen»  and  a  worthy  member  of  the  British  legislature* 
From  bis  entrance  into  the  House  of  Peers,   his  parlia- 
mentary conduct  was  uniformly  upright  and  noble.     Ha 
kept  equally  clear  from  the  extremes  of  factious  petulance 
and  servile  dependence :  never  wantonly  thwarting  admi- 
nistration from  motives  of  party  zeal  or  private  pique^  or 
personal  attachment,  or  a  passion  for  popularity  :  nor  yet 
going  every  length   with  every  minister,  from  views  of 
interest  or  ambition.      He  seldom,    however,    spoke   ia 
parliament,  except  where  the  interests  of  religion  and  vir^- 
)t;ue  seemed  to  require  it :  but  whenever  he  did,  he  spoke 
with  propriety  and  strength,  and  was  heard  with  attentiom 
and  deference.    Though  he  never  attached  himself  blindly 
to  any  set  of  men,  yet  his  chief  political  connebtions  were 
yf\\\i.  the  late  duke  of  Newcastle,   and  lord    chancellor 
Hardwicke.     To  these  he  owed  principally  his  advahce- 
xnent :  and  he  lived  long  enough  to  shew  bis  gratitude  to 
them  or  their  descendants. 

.  Puring  more  than  ten  years  that  Dr.  Seclser  enjoyed 
the  see  of  Canterbury,  he  resided  constantly  at  bis  archie*- 
piscopal  house  at  Lambeth.  A  few  months  before  bis 
death,  the  dreadful  pains  he  felt  had  compelled  him  to 
thiok  of  trying  the  Bath  waters :  but  that  design  was 
;itoj>.ped  by  the  fatal  accident  which  put  an  end  to  his  life* 
JSxs  grace  had  hee.n  for  many  years  subject  to  the  gou^ 
mbicbj  in  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  returned  with  mor^  . 
frequency  and  violence,  and  did  not  go  off  in  a  regular 
inanner,  but  left  thp  parts  affected  for  a  long  time  veiy 
Weak,  and  was  succeeded  by  pains  in  different  parts  of  the« 
*body.    About  a  year  and  a  half  before  be  died^  after  ^  fit 

Z  2 

J0«  S  E  C  K:  E  R. 

of  the  gout,  he  was  attacked  with  a  pain  in  the  artn,  near* 
the  shoulder,  which  having  continued  about  twelve  months^ 
a  similar  pain  seized  the  upper  and  outer  part  of  the  oppo- 
site thighy  and  the  arm  soon  became  easier.  This  was 
much  more  grievous  than  the  former,  as  it  quickly  disabled* 
him  from  walking,  and  kept  him  in  almost  continual  tor- 
ment, except  when  he  was  ip  a  reclining  position.  During 
this  time  he  had  two  or  three  fits  of  the  gout :  but  neither 
tli^  gout  nor  the  medicines  alleviated  these  pains,  which, 
with  the  want  of  exercise,  brought  him  into  a  general  bad 
habit  of  bt)dy. 

On  Saturday  July  30,  17fi8,  he  was  seized,  as  he  sat  at 
dinner,  with  a  sickness  at  his  stomach.  He  recovered  be- 
fore night  :  but  thfe  next  evening,  while  his  physicians  were 
attending,  his  servants  raising  him  on  his  couch,  he  sud- 
denly cried  out  that  his  thigh-bone  was  broken.  He  lay 
for  some  time  in  great  agonies,  but  when  the  surgeons 
lirrived,  and  discovered  with  certainty  that  the  bone  was 
broken,  he  was  perfectly  resigned,  and  never  afterwards 
asked  a  question  about  the  event.  A  fever  soon  ensued  : 
on  Tuesdaj^  he  became  lethargic,  and  continued  so  tilt 
about  five  o'clock  on  Wednesday  afternoon,  when  he  ex- 
pired with  great  calmness,  in  the  seventy- fifth  year  of  his 
age.  On  examination,  the  thigh-bone  was  found  to  be 
carious  about  four  inches  in  length,  and  at  nearly  the  same 
distance  from  its  head.  He  was  buried,  pursuant  to  his 
own  directions,  in  a  covered  passage,  leading  from  a  pri- 
vate door  of  the  palace  to  the  north  door  of  Lambeth 
church  :  and  he  forbade  any  monument  or  epitaph  to  be 
placed  over  him. 

In  person,  Dr.  Seeker  was  tall  and  comely  :  in  the  early 
part  of  his  life  slender,  and  rathei;  consumptive  :  but  as  he 
advanced  in  years,  his  size  increased,  yet  never  to  a  degree 
of  corpulency  that  was  disproportionate  or  troublesome. 
'His  countenance  was  open,  ingenuous,  and  expressive. 

By  his  will,  he  appointed  D^.  Daniel  Burton,  and  Mrs. 
'Catherine  Talbot  (daughter  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Edward  Tal- 
bot), his  ex'ecntors ;  arid  left  thirteen  thousand  pounds  in 
the  three  per  cent,  annuities  to  Dr.  Portens  and  Dr.  Stinton 
his  chaplains,  in  trust,  to  pay  the  interest  thereof  to  Mrs. 
'Talbot  and  her  daughter  during  their  joint  lives,  or  the  life 
of  the  survivor;  and,  after  the  decease  of  both  those 
ladies,  eleven  thousand  to  be  transferred  to  the  following 
charitable  purposes:  ^      ■    • 

SEC  K  E  R.  aod. 

•  •  • 

To  the  society  for  propagation  of  the  gospel  in  foreigpn- 
parts,  for  the  general  uses  of  the  society,  lOOO/. ;  to  the 
same  society,  towards  the  establishment  of  a  bishop  or 
bishops  in  the  king^s  dominions  in  America,  1000/.;  to  the 
society  for  promoting  Christian  knowledge,  600/. ;  to  the 
Irish  protestant  working  schools,  500/. ;  to  the  corporation 
af  the  widows  and  children  of  the  poor  clergy,  500/.;  to 
the  society  of  the  stewards  of  the  said  charity,  200/. ; 
to  Bromley  college  in  Kent,  500/. ;  to  the  hospitals  of  the 
archbishop  of  Canterbury,  at  Croydon,  St.  John  at  Canter- 
bury, and  St.  Nicholas  Harbledown^  500/.  each;  to  St. 
George's  and  London  hospitals,  and  the  lying-iti-hospital 
in  Brownlow-street;,  500/.  each;  to  the  Asylum  in  the 
parish  of  Lambeth,  400/. ;  to  the  Magdalen-hospital,  the 
Lock-hospital,  the  ScpalUpo^  and  Inocnlation-Ji  )spital,  to 
each  of  which  bis  grace  was  a  subscriber,  300/.  each ; 
to. the  incurabi^es  at  St.  Luke^s  hospital,  500/. ;  t.owards  tlie 
repairing  or  rebuilding  of  houses  belonging  to  poor  livings 
in  the  diocese  of  Canterbury,  2^000,/. 

Besides  these  donations,  he  left  1000/.  to  be  distributed 
amongst  his  senvi)nts  ;  200/.  to  such  poor  persons  as  he 
assisted  in  bis  life-time;  5000/.  to  the  two  daughters 
of  his  nephew  Mr.  Frost ;  500/.  to  Mrs.  Seeker,  the 
widow  of  his  nephew  Dr.  George  Seeker,  and  200/.  to  Dr. 
Daniel  Burton.  After  the  payment  of  those  and  some  other 
smaller  legacies,  he  left  his  real  and  the  residue  of  his 
personal  estate  to  Mr.  Thomas  Frost  of  Nottinj^ham.  The. 
greatest  part  of  his  very  noble  collection  of  books  he  be- 
queathed to  the  Archiepiscopal  library  at  Lambeth,  the 
i;est  betwixt  his  two  chaplains  and  two  other  friends.  To 
the  manuscript  library  in  the  same  palace,  he  left  a  large 
i;iuml>er  of  very  learned  and  valuable  MSS.  written  by  him- 
self on  a  great  variety  of  subjects,  critical  and  theological. 
His  well-known  catechetical  lectures,  and  his  MS  sermons 
he  left  to  be  revised  by  his  two  chaplains,  Dr.  Stinton  and. 
Dr.  Porteus,  by' whom  they  were  published  in  1770.  His. 
options  he  gave  to  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  the 
bishop  of  London,  and  the  bishop  of  Winchester  for  the 
time  being,  in  trust,  to  be  disposed  of  by  them  (as  they 
became  vacant)  to  such  persons  as  they  should  in  their, 
consciences  think  it  would  have  been  most  reasonable  for, 
him  to  have  given  them,  had  he  been  living. 

The  life  prefixed  to  his  works  was  written  by  Dr.  Por- 
teiis/  the  late  very  amiable  and  much  admired  bishop  of 

gia  8  E  C  K  E  R. 

London,  and  reprinted  separately  by  his  lordship  in  1797, 
in  consequence  of  bishop  Hurd's  having,  in  his  life  of 
Warburton,  **  judged  it  expedient  to  introduce  into  his  Kfe 
of  bishop  Watburton,  such  observations  on  the  talents^ 
learning,  and  writings  of  archbishop  Seeker,  as  appeared, 
both  to  Dr.  Porteus  and  to  many  other  of  bis  grace'ar 
friends  extremely  injurious  to  his  literary  character,  and 
the  credit  of  his  numerous  and  useful  publications;  and 
therefore  highly  deserving  of  some  notice  from  those  wbor 
loved  him  in  life,  and  revered  him  after  death."  These 
observations  are  indeed  fully  refuted  in  this  excellent  piece' 
of  biography,  as  well  as  the  other  slanders  which  the  steady 
and  upright  conduct  of  archbishop  Seeker  drew  upon  him. 
from  persons  notoriously  disaffected  to  religion  and  the 
church  ;  and  time,  which  never  fails  to  do  ample  justice  to 
such  characters  as  his,  has  almost  effaced  the  remembrance 
of  them.  Yet,  as  some  have  lately  attempted  to  revive  the 
dalumny,  and  suppress  the  refutation,  we  have  given  some 
references  in  the  note  on  this  subject,  not  without  confi-^ 
dence  that  archbishop  Secker*s  character  will  suffer  little 
while  he  has  a  Porteus  for  his  defender^  and  a  Hollis,  a 
Walpole,  a  Blackburn,  and  a  Wakefield  for  his  accusers.  ^ 

SECOUSSE  (Denis  Francis),  a  French  historian,  waa 
liorn  January  8,  1691,  at  Paris.  He  began  to  study  the 
law  in  obedience  to  his  father's  desire,  who  was  an  able  ad- 
vocate ;  but  losing  both  his  parents  shortly  after^  hie  quitted 
the  bar,  for  which  he  had  not  the  least  taste,  and  devoted 
himself  wholly  to  the  belles  lettres,  and  French  history. 
His  unwearied  application  to  books,  which  no  other  passion 
interrupted,  soon  made  him  known  among  the  learned ;  and 
he  was'  admitted  into  the  academy  of  inscriptions  in  1723^ 
and  chosen  by  chancellor  d'Aguesseau  five  years  after,  tcy 
continue  the  great  collection  of  statutes,  made  by  the 
French  kings,  which  M.  de  Laurier  had  begun.  As  Se- 
cousse  possessed  every  talent  necessary  for  such  an  impor- 
tant undertaking,  the  volumes  which  he  published  were 
received  with  universal  approbation.  He  died  at  Paris, 
March  15,  1754,  aged  sixty-three,  leaving  a  librarj^  the 
largest  and  most  curious,  in  French  history,  that  any  pri- 
vate person  had  hitherto  possessed.  His  works  are,  the 
continuation  of  the  collection  of  statutes  before  mentioned, 

1  Life  by  PorteuL—Gent.  Meg.  volt;  LVIII.  LXVIII.— See  alio  Index.—. 
Many  of  bit  LeUert  are  in  Kippit*!  Life  of  Lardner,  Batler'i  life  of 
HUdeiley,  Doddridge's  LeCCera,  Ibe.  ftc. 

$  £  c  o  0  s  s  e.  zn 

|0  the  ninth  volume  inclusively,  wbieh  was  printed  iMidet 
the  inspection  of  M.  de  Villevault,  counsellor  to  the  court 
of  aids^  who  succeeded  M.  Secousse,  and  published  a  table', 
ferining  a  tenth  volume,  and  since,  an  eleventh  svpd  twelfth. 
Secousse  also  wrote  many  dissertations  in  the  inemoii^  of 
the  academy  of  inscriptions ;  edition*  of  several  works,  and 
of  several  curious  pieces ;  '^  Memoirs  for  the  History  of 
Charles  the  Bad,*'  2  vols.  4to.* 

'  SEDAINE  (M^OHAEL  John),  a  French  dramatic  writer, 
was  born  at  Paris,  June  4,  1719.  Abandoned  by  his  friends, 
he  was^  at  the  age  of  thirteen,  obliged  to  quit  his  studies^ 
in  which  he  was  little  advanced,  and  to  practise  a  trade  for 
bis  subsistence.  He  was  first  a  journeyoian,  and  then  a 
master  mason,  and  architect ;  which  businesses  he  con- 
du<tted  with  nncdmmon  probity.  Natural  inclination  led 
bfm  to  cultivate  literature,  and  particularly  the  dniiiia,  for 
which  he  wrote  various  small  pieces  and  comic  operas,  the 
most  popular  of  which  were,  '*  LeD^erteur ;''  and  '*  Richard 
CcBur  de  Lion.''  All  of  them  met  with  great  success,  add 
still  continue  to  he  performed,  but  the  French  critics  think 
that  his  poetry  is  not  written  in  the  purest  and  most  eorroct 
style,  and  that  his  pieces  appear  to,  more  advantage  on  th^ 
atage  than  in  the  closet.  He  possessed,  however,  a  quality 
of  greater  consequence  to  a  dramatic  writer-— ^the  talent  of 
producing  stage  eiiect.  He  was  elected  into  the  French 
academy,  in  consequence  of  the  success  of  his  **  Richard 
Codur  de  Lion,^  and  was  intimately  connected  with  all  the 
men  of  letters,  and  all  the  artists  of  his  time.  He  died  in 
May  1797,  aged  seventy-eight.' 

SEDGWICK  (Obadiah),  a  nonconformist  divine,  was 
born  at  Marlborough  in  Wiltshire,  in  1600,  and  educated 
Urst  aC  Queen's  college,  and  then  at  Magdalen-ball,  Ox- 
(otd.  After  taking  his  degrees  in  arts,  he  was  ordained, 
and  became  chaplain  to  lord  Horatio  Vere,  whom  he  ac« 
<ioaipanied  into  the  Netherlands.  After  bis  return,  he 
went  again  to  Oxford,  and  was  admitted  to  the  reading  of 
the  sentences  in  16:29:  Going  then  to  Londoii  he  preached 
at  St.  Mildred's,  Bread-'Street,  until  interrupted  by  the 
bishop,'  and  in  1639  became  vicar  of  Goggeshall  in  Essex, 
where  he  continued  three  or  four  years.  The  commence* 
ment  of  the  rebellion  allowing  men  of  his  sentiments  un- 

^  Diet.  Hist. 

fin  S  E  D  G  W  I  e  K. 



ponstrained  liberty,  he  returned  to  London,  ^d  preadlie4 
jre<}uently  before  the  parliament,  inveighing  with  extreme 
violeiice  against  the  church  and  state  :  to  the  overthrow  of 
both,  bis  biographers  cannot  deny  that  he  contributed  his 
full  share,  in  the  various  characters  of  one  of  the  assembly 
of  divines,  a  chaplain  in  the  army,  one  of  the  triers,,  and 
pne  of  the  ejectors  of  those  who  were  called  *' ignorant  and 
scandalous  ministers/' — In  1^46  be  became  preacher  at 
St.  Paul's,  Coventrgarden,  where  he  appears  to  have  con- 
tinued until  the  decay  of.  his  health,  when  he  retired  to 
Marlborough,  and  died  there  in  January  1658.  As  a  dir 
vine,  he  was  much  admired  in  his  day,  and  his  printed 
)vorks  bad  considerable  popularity.  The  principal  of  tbeai 
are>  *^  The  Fountain  opened,'-  1657;  ^*  An  exposition  of 
Psalm  xxiii."  1658,  4to  ;  "The  Anatomy  of  Secret  Sins," 
1660  ;  "  The  Parable  of  the  Prodigal,"  166Q  ;  "  Synopsis 
of  Christianity,'?  &c.  &c. — He  had  a  brother,  John,  an  ad-r 
herent  to  the  parliamentary  cause,  and  a  preacher,  but  of 
less  note;  and  another  brother  Joseph,  who  became  batler 
in  Magdalen  college  in  1634,  and  B.A.  in  1637,  and  then 
went  to  Cambridge,  where  he  took  his  master's- degree,  and 
was  elected  fellow  of  Christ's  college.  After  the  restora-; 
tion  he  conformed,  and  was  beneficed  in  the  church ;  in 
1675  he  was  made  prebendary  of  Lincoln,  and  was  also 
rector  of  Fisherton,  where  he  died  Sept,  22,  1702,  in  the 
^  year  of  his  age,  leaving  a  son  John  Sedg- 
wick,  who  succeeded  him  in  the  prebend,  and  was  vicar  of 
Burton  Pedwardine  in  Lincolnshire,  where  he  died  in  1717.* 
SEDLEY,  or  SIDLEY  (SiR  Charles),  a  dramatic  and 
miscellaneous  writer,  was  the  son  of  sir  John  Sedley,  of 
Aylesford  in  Kent,  by  a  d?iughter  of  sir  Henry  Savile,  and 
was  born  about  1639.  At  seventeen,  he  became  a/fellow- 
commoner  of  Wadham  college  in  Oxford;  but,  taking  no 
4iegree,  retired  to  his  own  country,  withoiit  either  travell- 
ing, or. going  to  the  inns  of  court. .  At  the  restoration  he 
came  to  London,  and  commenced  wit,  courtier,  poet,  and 
man  of  gallantry.  As  a  critic,  he  was  so  much  admired, 
that  he  became  a'  kind  of  oracle  among  the  poets  ;  and  no- 
performance  was  approved  or  condemned,  till  sir  Charles. 
Sedley  had  given  judgment.  This  made  ki«g  Charles  jest*- 
ingiy  say  to  him,  that  Nature  had  given  him  a  pateot  to  be 

}  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  II. — Brooks's  Puritans,— Wood's  MS  papers  in  Bibl.  Ashmol.' 
—Willis's  Catbtdrals. 

:    S  E  D  L  E  Y.  SIS 

ApoIlo^s  viceroy;  and  lord  Rochester  placed  him  in.tbc^ 
j[irst  rank  of  poetical  critics.  With  these  accomplishments, 
be  impaired  his  estate  by  profligate  pleasures,  and  was  one 
pf  that  party  of  debauchees  whom  we  have  already  men- 
tioned in  our  account  of  Sackville  lord  Buckhurst,  who 
having  insulted  public  decency,  were  indicted  for  a  riot^ 
and  all  severely  fined  ;  sir  Charles  in  500/.  The  day  foe 
payment  being  appointed,  sir  Charles  desired  Mr.  Henry 
JCilligrew  and  another  gentleman,  both  his/riends,  to  apply, 
to  the  king  to  get  it  remitted  ;  which  they  undertook  to  do; 
but  at  the  same  time  varied  the  application  so  far  as  to  beg 
it  for  themselves,  and  they  made  Sedley  pay  the  full  sum. 

After  this  affair,  his  mind  took  a  more  serious  turn  ;  and 
)ie  began  to  apply  himself  to  politics.    He  bad  been  chosen 
to  serve  for  Romney  in  Kent,  in  the  parliament  which  be* 
gun  May  8,  }661,  and  continued  to  sit  for  several  parlia* 
ments  after.     He  was  extremely  active  for  the  revoljution, 
ivhich  was  at  first  thought  extiraordinary,  as  he  had  receiv- 
ed favours  from  James  II.  but  those  were  cancelled  by  that 
prince's  having  taken  his  daughter  into  keeping,  whom  be 
i:reated   countess    of    Dorchester.      This  ^honour  by  nov 
means    satisfied    sir  Charles,    who^  libertine  as  he  had 
been,  considered  his  daughter's  disgrace  as  being  thereby 
made  more  conspicuous.     Still  his  wit  prevailed  over  his 
resentment,  at  least  in  speaking  on  the  subject;  for,  being 
asked,  why  he  appeared  so  warm  for  the  revolution,  he  is. 
$aid  to  have  answered,  '^  From  a  principle  of  gratitude;, 
for,  since  his  majesty  has  made  my  daughter,  a  countess,^ 
it  is  fit  I  should  do  all  I  can  to  make  his  daughter  a  queen." 
He  died  Aug.  20,  1701. 

His  works  were  printed  in  1719,  2  vols.  8vo  ;  and  consist, 
of  plays,  translations,  songs,  prologues,  epilogues,  and  smaU. 
occasional  pieces.  His  poems  are  generally  of  the  licen- 
tious kind,  and  do  not  afford  great  marks  of  genius,  and. 
his  dramas  are  quite  forgotten.  Pope,  according  to  Spence, 
thought  him  very  insipid,  except  in  some  of  his  little  love- 
verses.  Malone  thinks 'he  was  the  Lisideius  of  Dryden's 
^^  Essay  on  dramatic  poetry,"  and  Dryden  certainly  shewed 
his  respect  for  him  by  dedicating  to  him  his  "Assignation."* 

SEDULIUS  (Cifiuus,  or  C«cilius)j  a  priest  and  poet,, 
either  Irish  or  Scotch,  of  the  fifth  century,,  is  recorded  as 

1  Atb.  Ox.  vol.  II. — Biog.  Brit.'-^alone's.DrydeOj  roL  I.  p.  64;  II.  p.  34» 
p*}!. — Spenoe's  Anecdtftea,  MS. 

514  S  E  D  U  L  I  U  S. 

the  writer  of  an  heroic  poem,  called  "Carmen  Paschale,* 
divided  into  five  books.     The  first  begins  with  the  creatiort 

-  of  the  world,  and  comprehend?  the  more  remarkable  pas- 
sages of  the  Old  Testament.  The  next  three  describe  th^ 
Mfe  of  Jesus  Christ.  This  performance  has  been  highly 
eommended  by  Cassiodorus,  Gregorius  Turrinensis,  and 
Others.  Sedulius  afterwards  wrote  a  piece  on  the  same 
subjects  in  prose.  The  poem  was  printed  by  Aldus  in  th(i 
collection  of  sacred  poets,  in  1502.  It  is  also  in  Maittaire's 
^  Corp.  Poet."  and  has  since  been  published  by  itself,  with 
teamed  notes,  by  Arntzenius,  1761,  8vo,  and  by  Arevale 
at  Rome,  1794,  4to'.* 

SEED  (jEREivirAH),  an  English  divine,  who  was  borh  a^ 
Clifton,  near  Penrith,  in  Cumberland,  of  which  place  hi^ 
father  was  rector,  had  his  school- education  at  Lowther,  and 
his  academical  at  Queen's  college,  in  Oxford.  Of  this  so- 
ciety he  was  chosen  fellow  in  1732.  The  greatest  part  of 
bis  life  was  spent  at  Twickenham,  where  he  was  assistant  or 
curate  to  Dr.  Wateriand.  In  1741,  he  was  presented  by 
his  college  to  the  living  of  Enham  in  Hampshire,  at  which 
j5lace  he  died  in  1747,  without  ever  having  obtained  any 
higher  preferment,  which  he  amply  deserved.  He  was 
exemplary  in  his  morals,  orthodox  in  his  opinions,  had  an 
afble  head,  and  a  most  amiable  heart.  A  late  romantic 
writer  against  the  Athanasian  doctrines,  whose  testipiony 
we  choose  to  give,  as  it  is  truth  extorted  fi'om  an  adversary, 
speaks  of  him  in  the  following  terms:  <<  Notwithstanding 
this  gentleman's  being  a  contender  for  the  Trinity,  yet  he 
was  a  benevolent  man,  an  upright  Christian,  and  a  beauti- 
ful writer ;  exclusive  of  his  zesd  for  the  Trinity,  he  was  in 
every  thing  else  an  excellent  clergyman,  and  an  admirable 
^holar.  1  knew  him  well,  and  on  account  of  his  aftiiable 
qualities  very  highly  honour  his  memory ;  though  no  two 

'  ever  diflfered  more  in  religious  sentiments.^'  He  published 
in  his  lifb-time,  *^  Discourses  on  several  important  Sub- 
jects,'* 2  vols.  8vo ;  and  his  **  Posthumous  Works,  consist* 
itig  of  sermons,  letters,  essays,  &c.'*  in  2  vols.  8vo,  were 
published  from  bis  original  manuscripts  by  Jos.  Hall,  M.  A. 

^fellow  of  Queen's  college,  Oxford,  1750.  They  are  all 
very  ingenious,  and  filll  of  good  matter,  but  abound  too 
much  in  antithesis  and  point.*  ' 

1  Voiilus  de  Poet.  Lat.<^CaTe,  vol.  I.-««Mackeiizie'8  Sc6tbh  writerf«  tol.  I^ 
•  SuppUnitiit  to  tht  first  edition  of  tbii  Diet  published  iH  ltS7. 

S  E  G  £  R  d«  M 

'  9EGERS,  or  SE6HERS  (G^rAr^),  m  eminfent  pgin* 
€er,  was  born  at  Antwerp  rn  1*589.  Under  the  infllrttCtioMi 
of  Henry  van  Balen,  and  Abrabsm  Jsnssens,  he  had  naNihe 
considerable  progress  in  the  art  before  bef  went  to  Icaiy^  On 
bts  arrival  at  Rome,  he  became  th«  discipte  of  Battoiomaieo 
Manfred!  ;  and  from  him  adopted  n  taste  for  the  vigorooa 
style  of  Michael  AngeK>  Caravagg^o,  to  which  bfe  added 
somewhat  of  the  tone  and  colour  he  had  brought  with  hini 
from  his  native  country ;  producing  the  p^werfal  effect  of 
candle-light,  though  often  faisety  applied  in  subjecta  whick 
appertain  to  the  milder  illumination  of  the  day.  He  at 
length  accepted  tbe  invitatiofn  of  cardinal  Zapara,  tlM 
Spanish  ambassador  at  Rom^,  to  accompany  hii»  to  Ma- 
drid, wlrere  he  wa[s  presented  to^the  king,  and  was  engaged 
in  his  service,  with  a  considerable  pension^  After  some 
jrears  he  retbrned  to  Flanders,  and  his  fellow-citfzens  weM 
impatient  to  possess  some  of  bis  productions  ;  but  they  who 
had  been  accustomed  to  the  style  of  Rubens  and  Vandyke^ 
were  tinabie  to  yield  him  that  praise  to  which  be  had  been 
accustomed,  and  he  was  obliged  to  change  bis  manner^ 
^bich  he  appears  to  have  done  with  facility  and  advantage, 
as  many  of  his  latter  pictures  bear  evident  testimony,  Hisr 
fnost  esteemed  productions  are,  the  principal  altar-piece  \x» 
the  church  of  the  Carmelites  at  Antwerp,  the  subject  of 
which  is  the  marriage  of  the  virgin ;  and  the  adoration  of 
the  magi,  the  altar-piece  in  the  cathedral  of  Bruges.  Th^ 
former  is  much  after  the  manner  of  Rubens.  Vandyke 
painted  his  portrait  among  the  eminent  artists  of  his  coun** 
try,  which  is  engraved  by  Pontius.  He  died  in  1651,  aged 
aixty-two. — Ris  son  Daniel,  who  was  born  at  Antwerp^in* 
1590,  was  a  painter  of  fruit  and  flowers,  which  he,  being 
a  Jesuit,  executed  at  his  convent  at  Rome.  He  appearsi 
indeed,  to  have  painted  more  for  the  benefit  of  the  society 
to  which  he  had  attached  himself,  than  for  his  private  ad- 
vantage :  and  when  he  had  produced  bis  most  celebrated 
picture,  at  the  command  of  the  prince  of  Orange,  it  was 
presented  to  that  monarch  in  the  name  of  the  society, 
which  was  munificently  recompensed  in  return.  He  fre^ 
quently  painted  garlands  of  flowers,  as  borders  for  pictures, 
which  were  filled  up  with  historical  subjects  by  the  fiiTst 
painters.     He  died  at  Antwerp  in  1660,  aged  seventy.^ 

t  ArgeiiTiUe»  vol.  IIL— PilkiDgtoii.-^r  J.  Reyotlds't  Worki.^Recs'f  Cy. 

Sl$  8  £  G  N  I. 

.  SEGNI  (Bernard),,  an  early  Italian  writer,  was  born 
at  .Florence  about  the  close  of  the  fifteenth  century.  He 
was  educated  at  Padua,  where  he  became  an  accomplished 
classical  scholar,  but  appears  afterwards  to  have  gone  into 
public  life,. and  was  employed  in  various  embassies  and 
negociations  by  duke  Cosmo,  of  Florence.  He  wrote  an 
excellent  history  of  Florence  from  1527  to  1555,  which, 
however,  remained. in  MS.  until  1723,  wben  it  appeared, 
together  with  a  life  of  Niccolo  Capponi,  gonfalonier  of 
Florence,  Segni*s  uncle.  He  likewise  translated  Aristotle^s 
JXhics.  "  L'Etica  d*Aristotele,  tradotta  in  volga  Fioren- 
tioo,"  Florence,  1550,  4to,  a  very  elegant  book ;  and 
^^  Deir  Anima  d'Aristotele,"  1583,  also  the  Rhetoric  and 
Poetics  6f  the  same  author,  &c.     He  died  in  1559.' 

SEGRAIS  (JoijN  Renaud  de),  a  French  poet,  was  born 
at  Caen  in  1624,  and  first  studied  in  the  college  of  the 
Jesuits  there.  As  he  grew  up,  be  applied  himself  to 
French  poetry,  and  was  so  successful  as  to  be  enabled  to 
rescue  himself,  four  brothers,  and  two  sisters,  from  the 
unhappy  circumstances  in  which  the  extravagance  of  a 
father  bad  left  them.  In  his  twentieth  year  he  met  with  a 
patron  who  introduced  him  to  Mad.  de  Montpensier,  and 
this  lady  appointed  him  her  gentleman  in  ordinary,  in 
which  station  he  remained  many  years,  until  obliged  to 
quit  her  service,  for  opposing  her  marriage  with  count  de 
Lauzun.  He. immediately  found  a  new  patroness  in  Mad. 
de  la  Fayette,  who  admitted  him  into  her  house,  and  as- 
signed him  apartments.  Her  he  assisted  in  her  two  ro- 
mances, "  The  princess  of  Cleves"  and  "  Zaida."  After 
seyen  years,  he  retired  to  his  own  country,  with  a  resolur 
lion  to  spend  the  rest  of  his  days  in  solitude ;  and  there 
married  his  cousin,  a  rich  heiress,  aboiit  16711. 
Maintenon  invited  him  to  court,  as  tutor  to  the  duke  of 
Maine:  buthedid  not  choose  to  exchange  theindependenceof 
a  retired  life  for  the  precarious  favours  of  a  court,  and  there- 
fore continued  where  he  was.  He  was  admitted  of  the 
French  academy  in  1662;  and  was  the  means  of  re>esta- 
blishing.tbat  of  Caen.  He  died  at  this  place,  of  a  dropsy, 
in  1701.  Me  was  very  deaf  in  the  last  years  of  his  Ufe,  bu( 
was  much  courted  for  the  sake  of  his  conversation,  which 
was  replete  with  such  anecdotes  as  the  polite  world  had 
furnished  him  with.     A  great  number  of  these  are  to  be 

i  Tiraboscbi.— Haym  Bibl.  d'Ua!. 

S  E  G  R  A  I  S.  Sl'f 

found  in  the  ''  Segraisiana  ;*'  which  was  published  many 
years  after  his  deaib^  with  a  preface  by  Mr.  de  la  Mon- 
noye;  the  best  edition  of  it  is  tliat  of  Amstefdam,  1723, 

The  prose  writings  of  Segrais,  though  for  the  most  part 
frivolous  enough,  yet  have  great  merit  as  to  their  style, 
which  may  be  considered  as  a  standard.  Of  this  kind  are 
bis  "  Nouvelles  Francoises  ;"  but  he  was  chiefly  admired 
for  his  poems,  which  consist  of  "  Diverses  Poesies,"  printed 
at  Paris  in  1658,  4to;  '^  Athis,"  a  pastoral ;  and  a  transla- 
tion of  Virgil's  Georgics  and  iEneid.  Of  his  eclogues, 
and  particularly  of  his  translation  of  Virgil,  Boileau  and 
D'Alembert  speak  very  highly,  but  his  Virgil  is  no  longer 
read . ' 


SELDEN  (John),  one  of  the  most  learned  men  of  th« 
seventeenth  century,  was  the  son  of  John  Selden,  a  yeo- 
man, by  Margaret  his  wife,  only  daughter  of  Mr.  Thomas 
Baker  of  Rusbington,  descended  from  the  family  of  the 
Bakers  in  Kent.  He  was  born  Dec.  16,  1584,  at  a  house 
called  the  Lacies  at  Salvinton,  near  Terring  in  Sussex,  and 
educated  at  the  free-school  at  Chichester,  where  he  made  a 
very  early  progress  in  learning.  In  1598,  at  fourteen  years 
of  age,  as  some  say,  but  according  to  Wood,  jn  1600,  he 
was  enter^ed  of  Hart-hall,  Oxford,  where  under  the  tuition 
of  Mr.  Anthony  Barker  (brother  to  his  schoolmaster  at  Chi-« 
Chester)  and  Mr,  John  Young,  both  of  that  hall,  he  studied 
about  three  years,  and  then  removed  to  CliflFord's  Inn, 
London,  for  the  study  of  the  law,  and  about  two  yearg 
afterwards  exchanged  that  situation  for  the  Inner  Temple. 
Here  he  soon  attained  a  great  reputation  for  learning,  and 
acquired  the  friendship  of  sir  Robert  Cotto»,  sir  Henry 
Spelman,  Camden,  and  Usher.  In  1606,  when  only  twenty- 
two  years  of  age,  he  wrote  a  treatise  on  the  civil  govern- 
ment of  Britain,  before  the  coming  in  of  the  Normans, 
which  was  esteemed  a  very  extraordinary  performance  for 
bi^  years.  It  was  not  printed,  however,  until  1615,  and 
then  very  incorrectly,  at  Francfort,  under  the  title  **  Ana- 
lecttuy  Anglo-Britaniiictfv  libri  duo,  de  civile  administratione 
Britanniss  Magnae  usque  ad  Normanni  adventum,'*  4ta, 
Micolson  is  of  opinion  that  these  ^*  Analecta^*  do  not  so 

1  Nic^ron,  ▼ol.  XVL—Segraisiftna.— D'Alcmbart's  Hiit.  pf  iht  Members,  af 
Jtkt  Fi-eoch  Aca<leiDj« 

^S  5  E  L  D  £  N. 

cjearly  actoant  for  the  religiao,  government,  and  revotu* 
tioiis  of  state  among  our  Saxoo  aacestors,  as  th^j^re  re- 
ported to  do.  It  was  ao  eX;CeIlent  spec^inen,  however^  of 
what  might  be  expected  from  a  youth  of  such  talents  and 

In  1610  he  printed  at  London,  his  ^' Jani  Anglorum  fa- 
cies  altera,'*  8vo,  reprinted  in  16S1,  and  likewise  trans* 
)ated  into  English  by  Dr.  Adam  Littleton,  under  his  family 
name  of  Redman  Westcot,  1683,  fol.  It  consists  of  all  - 
that  is  met  with  in  history  concerning  the  common  and 
statute  law  of  English  Britany  to  the  death  of  Henry  IL 
Selden  had  laid  the  foundation  in  a  discourse  which  he 
published  the  same  year  and  in  the  same  form,  entitled 
^^  England's  Epinomis ;"  and  this  is  also  in  Dr.  Littfetoa's 
volume,  along  with  two  other  tracts^  "The  Original  of  Ec- 
clesiastical Jurisdiction  of  Testaments,''  and  "  The  Dispo- 
sition or  ad^ministration  of  Intestate  goods^"  both  afterwards 
the  production  of  Selden's  pen.  In  the  same  year,  1610, 
be  published  his  "Duello,  or  single  combat;^'  and  in  1612^ 
notes  and  illustrations  on  Drayton's  "  Poly-Olbiop,"  folio. 
He  seems  to  have  been  esteemed  for  his  learning  by  the 
poets  of  that  time ;  and  although  he  had  no  great  poetical 
t4jrn  himself,  yet  in  1613  he  wrote  Greek,  Latin,  and  Eur 
glish  verses  on  Browne's  "  Britannia's  Pastorals,"  and  con- 
tributed other  efforts  of  the  kind  to  the  works  of  several 
authors,  which  appear  to  have  induced  Suckling  to  intro- 
duce him  in  his  ^^  Sessioh  of  the  Poets,"  as  sitting  "  close 
|>y  the  chair  of  Apollo." 

In  1^14  he  published  a  work  which  has  always  been 
pi;aised  for  utility,  his  "  Titles  of  Honour,"  Lond.  4tOj  with 
an  encomiastic  poem  by  his  friend  Ben  Jonson.  It  was  re- 
printed with,  additions  in  1631,  fol.  and  again  in  1671,  and 
trasH^lated  into  Latin  by  Simon  John  Arnold,  Francfort, 
1.696.  Nicolson  remarks  that  "  as  to  what  concerns  our 
nobility  and  gentry,  all  that  come  within  either  of  those 
lists  will  allow,  that  Mr.  Selden's  Titles  of  Honour  ought 
first  to  be  perused,  for  the  gaining  of  a  general  notion  of 
the  distinction  of  a  ^legree  from  an  emperor  down  to  a 
country  ^lentleman."  In  1616  appe^ired  his  notes  on  si^ 
John  Fortescue's  work  "  De  laudibus  legum  Angliae,"  and 
w  Ralph's  Hengbam's  "  Sums,"  Lond.  8vo.  In  1617  he 
drew  up  a  dissertation  upon  the  state  of  the  Jews  formerly 
liWng  in  England,  f<yt  the  use  of  Purchas,  wlio  printed  it, 
although,  as  Selden  complained,  very  defectively,  in  fail 

S  £  L  D  E  N.  2iP 

^*  Pilgrimage.**  In  the  same  year  be  published  bis  Ttery 
learned  work,  "  De  Diis  Syriis  syntagmata  duo/*  This  is 
not  only  a  treatise  on  the  idolatry  of  the  ancient  Syrians, 
but  affords  a  commentary  on  all  the  passages  in  the  Old 
Testament,  wh6re  mention  is  made  of  any  of  the  heathen 
deities^  This  first  edition  (Lond.  8vo.)  being  out  of  print, 
Ludovicus  de  Dieu  printed  an  edition  at  Leydeo  in  1629^ 
which  was  revised  and  enlarged  by  Selden.  Andrew  Beyer 
afterwards  publisbed  two  editions  at  Leipsic,  in  1668  and 
1672,  with  some  additions,  but,  according  to  Le  Clerc,  4>f 
little  importance.  Le  Clerc  ofiTers  aisp  some  objections  io 
the  work  itself,  which,  if  just,  imply  that  Selden  had  not 
always  been  judicious  |n  bis  chdice  of  his  authorities,  nor 
in  the  mode  of  treating  the  subject.  It  contributed,  how«- 
/ever,  to  enlaige  the  reputation  which  he  already  enjoyed 
both  at  home  and  abroad. 

In  bis  next,  and  one  of  his  most  memorable  perforon- 
»nces,  he  did  not  earn  the  fame  of  it  without  some  dan^ 
jger.     This  was  his  "  Treatise  of  Tythes,"  the  object  of 
which  was  to  pi:ove  that  tithes  were  not  due  by  divine 
right  under  Christianity,  although  the  clergy  are  entitled 
to  them  by  the  laws  of  the  land.  ^This  book  was  attacked 
^y  sir  James  Sempili  in  the  Appendix  to  his  treatise  en« 
.titled  '*  Sacrilege  sacredly  handled/'  London,  1619,  and 
by  Dr.  Richard  Tillesley,  archdeacon  of  Rochester,  in  his 
"Animadversions  upon  Mr.  Selden's  History,  of  Tithes/' 
London,  1621,  4to.     Selden  wrote  an  ajiswer  to  Dr.  Til- 
lesley, which  being  dispersed  in  manuscript,  the  doctor 
publL^ed  it  with  remarks  in  the  second  edition  of  his 
*^  Animadversions,**  London,  1621,  4to,  under  this  title, 
<^  Animadversions  upon  Mr.  Selden'^  History  of  Tithes,  jand 
his  Review  thereof.     Before  which  (in  lieu  of  the  two  first 
chaptiers  purposely  prs&termitted)  is  premised  a  catalogue  of 
72  authors' before  the  yeare  1215,  maintaining  the  Jus  di- 
vinum  of  Ty thes,  or  more,  to  be  paid  to  the  Priesthood 
^noder  the  Gospell.'*     Selden's  book  was  likewise  answered 
by   Dr.  Richard  Montague  in   his   ^^  Diatribe,'*  London, 
1621,  4to;  by  Stephen  Nettles,  B.  D.  in  bis  '^Answer  to 
^he  Jewish  Part  of  Mr.  Selden's  History  of  Tythes,"  Ox- 
ford,'1625;  and  by  William  Sclater  in  bis  ^^  Arguments 
about  Tithes,"  London,  1623,  in  4to.    Selden's  work  hav- 
ing been  reprinted  in  1680,  4to,  with  the  eld  date  put  to 
it.  Dr.  Thomas  Comber  answered  it  in  a  treatise  entitled^ 
<^  An  Historical  Vindication  of  the  Divine  Right  {&  Tith^^ 
&c."  London,  1681,  in  4to* 

820  S  E  L  D  E  I^. 

This  work  also  excited  the  displeasure  of  the  coiirt,  and 
the  author  was  called  before  some  of  the  lords  of  the  high 
commission,  Jan.  28,  1618,  and  obliged  to  make  a  public 
submission,  which  he  did  in  these  words :  "  My  good  Lord^, 
I  most  humbly  acknowledge  my  errour,  which  1  have  com^ 
mittedin  publishing  the  *  History  of  Tithes,'  and  especially 
in  that  I  have  at  all,  by  shewing  any  interpretation  of  Holy 
Scriptures,  by  meddling  with  Councils,  Fathers,  (ir  Canons, 
or  by  what  else  soever  occures  in  it,  offered  any  occasion 
of  argument  against  any  right  of  maintenance  *  Jure  divino' 
of  the  Ministers  of  the  Gospell ;  beseeching  ygur  Lord- 
ships to^eceive  this  ingenuous  and  humble  acknowledg- 
ment, together  with  the  unfeined  protestation  of  my  griefe, 
for  that  through  it  I  have  so  incurred  both  his  M^jestie^s 
a!nd  your  Lordships'  displeasure  conceived  against  mee  in 
behalfe  of  the  Church  of  England."  We  give  this  literally^ 
because  some  of  Mr.  Selden's  admirers  have  asserted  that 
he  never  recanted  any  thing  in  his  book.  The  above  is  at 
least  the  language  of  recantation;  yet  he  says  himself  in 
his  answer  to  Dr.  Tillesley,  "  I  confesse,  that  I  did  most 
willingly  acknowledge,  not  only  before  some  Lords  of  the 
High  Commission  (not  in  the  High  Commission  Court)  but 
also  to  the  Lords  of  his  Majesty's  Privy  Council,  that  I 
was  most  sorry  for  the  publishing  of  that  History,  because 
it  had  offended.  And  his  Majesty's  most  gracious  favour 
towards  me  received  that  satisfaction  of  the  fault  in  so  un- 
timely printing  it;  and  L profess  still  to  all  the  world,  that 
I  am  sorry  for  it.  And  so  should  I  have  been,  if  I  had 
published  a  most  orthodox  Catechisnfi,  that  had  offended. 
But  what  is  that  to  the  doctrinal  consequences  of  it,  which 
the  Doctor  talks  of?  Is  there  a  syllable  of  it  of  less  truth, 
because  I  was  sorry  for  the  JDublishing  of  it?  Indeed, 
perhaps  by  the  Doctor's  logic  there  is;  and  just  so  might 
lie  prove,  that  there  is  the  more  truth  in  his  animadversions, 
because  he  was  so  glad  of  the  printing  them.  And  be- 
cause he  hopes,  as  he  says,  that  my  submission  hath  cleared 

•my  judgment  touching  the  right  of  tithes:  what  dream 
made  him  hope  so?  There  is  not  a  word  of  tithes  in  that 
submission  more  than  in  mentioning  the  title;  neither  was 
my  judgment  at  all  in  question,  but  my  publishing  it;  and 
this  the  Doctor  knows  too,  as  I   am   assured."     Seiden, 

'  therefore,  if  this  means  any  thing,  was  not  sorry  for  what 
he  had  written,  but  because  he  had  published  it,  and  be 
wa,s  sorry  he  had  published  it^  because  it  gave  offence  to 
the  court  and  to  the  clergy.     > 

S  E  L  D  E  N. 


I  td  1621)  kiog  James  having,  in  bis  speech  to  the  par-^ 
^iaoient,  asserted  that  their  privileges